G Bruce Mann

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (47)191.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is a common cause of cancer mortality. There are well-documented prognostic factors for GC but these have not been rigorously examined in an Australian context. This study examines the clinical, surgical and histopathological variables associated with survival in a GC cohort from a predominantly Caucasian-based population.
    ANZ Journal of Surgery 11/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decision support tools for the assessment and management of breast cancer risk may improve uptake of prevention strategies. End-user input in the design of such tools is critical to increase clinical use. Before developing such a computerized tool, we examined clinicians' practice and future needs. Twelve breast surgeons, 12 primary care physicians and 5 practice nurses participated in 4 focus groups. These were recorded, coded, and analyzed to identify key themes. Participants identified difficulties assessing risk, including a lack of available tools to standardize practice. Most expressed confidence identifying women at potentially high risk, but not moderate risk. Participants felt a tool could especially reassure young women at average risk. Desirable features included: evidence-based, accessible (e.g. web-based), and displaying absolute (not relative) risks in multiple formats. The potential to create anxiety was a concern. Development of future tools should address these issues to optimize translation of knowledge into clinical practice.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 07/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) was popularized by Walz and colleagues as an alternative approach to minimally invasive adrenalectomy, offering less postoperative pain and faster return to normal activity compared with laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LA). The authors have recently changed from LA to PRA in suitable patients and audited their outcomes. Data were prospectively collected for 10 patients who underwent PRA, and a chart review and telephone interviews were conducted with 13 consecutive patients who underwent LA by the same surgeon. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, analgesia use, operative and anesthetic time, length of stay, and complications were recorded. Data were collected for 13 LAs and 10 PRAs. Patients' baseline characteristics, including age, BMI, and tumor size, were similar between the 2 groups. There were no conversions to open surgery, transfusions, or deaths. Operative time was similar between the 2 groups. PRA patients required less, inpatient postoperative opioid analgesia compared with LA patients (median 1.25 vs. 23 mg of intravenous morphine equivalent, P=0.003), and had a shorter length of stay (median 1 vs. 2 d, P<0.001). The median total days on opioids were lower for PRA patients compared with LA patients (0.5 vs. 9 d, P<0.001). Our initial results supports previously published findings that PRA is a safe procedure, with a relatively short learning curve, resulting in reduced postoperative analgesia use, and reduced length of hospital stay when compared with the laparoscopic transperitoneal approach.
    Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques 02/2014; 24(1):62-6. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is an alternative approach to minimally invasive adrenalectomy, potentially offering less pain and faster recovery compared with laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LA). The authors have recently changed from LA to PRA in suitable patients and audited their first 50 cases. Data were prospectively collected for 50 consecutive PRAs performed by the same surgeon. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics, analgesia use, operative and preparation time, length of stay, and complications were recorded. Fifty adrenalectomies were performed in 49 patients. The median (range) age was 58.5 years (30-83) and the majority of patients were female (n = 33, 66.0%). The median (interquartile range (IQR)) preparation time was 35.5 (28.5-50.0) and median operation time was 70.5 (54-85) min, which decreased during the study period. After a learning curve of 15 cases, median operative time reached 61 min. PRA patients required minimal post-operative analgesia, with a median (IQR) of 0 (0-5) mg of intravenous morphine equivalent used. The median (IQR) length of stay was 1 (1-1) day, with 8 (16.0%) same-day discharges. There were four complications: one blood pressure lability from a phaeochromocytoma, one reintubation, one self-limited bleed and one temporary subcostal neuropraxia. There were no conversions to open surgery or deaths. Our results support previously published findings that PRA is a safe procedure, with a relatively short learning curve, resulting in minimal post-operative analgesia use and short length of hospital stay.
    ANZ Journal of Surgery 01/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer and its treatment have complex ramifications for women of reproductive age, including reduced fertility. With the aim of increasing understanding of what it means to women to manage fertility and motherhood in the years after a diagnosis of breast cancer, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women aged 26-45 years, living in Victoria, Australia, who had been diagnosed with breast cancer aged 25-41. Transcripts were analysed thematically and interpreted within narrative theory. Six themes linking breast cancer to fertility and motherhood were identified: diagnosis as a pivotal life event, robbed of time and choice, significance of fertility, being a mother, narrative justification, and life after breast cancer treatment. Women without children described a preoccupying sorrow about lost fertility. Women's accounts yielded evidence of narrative meaning-making, including justifying their decisions and actions in relation to survival, treatment and fertility, and coping with adversity by developing consoling plots. Breast cancer, fertility and reproductive health are inter-linked in diverse ways which have immediate and long-term consequences. Even if women are receiving optimum fertility management, it is evident that some women of reproductive age will need continuing post-cancer care to manage and ameliorate ramifications of diminished or lost fertility.
    European Journal of Cancer Care 01/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • G Bruce Mann
    The Surgeon. 01/2014;
  • Mohammad Omair, Dhafir Al-Azawi, Gregory Bruce Mann
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    ABSTRACT: The axilla has long been a focus of clinicians' attention in the management of breast cancer. The approach to the axilla has undergone dramatic changes over the last century, from radical and extended radical excisions, through the introduction of sentinel node biopsy for node negative patients to the current situation where selective management of those with nodal involvement is being introduced. The introduction of lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the 1990's has been key to the major changes that have occurred. In less than 20 years it has moved from a hypothesis to a situation where it is the default approach to almost all clinically node negative patients and is being considered in other situations where axillary clearance was previously considered standard. This article reviews the development and introduction of sentinel node biopsy, its current uncertainties and limitations, and possible future developments.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 01/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is common in cancer patients but frequently undetected. Consensus regarding validity and optimal thresholds of screening measures is lacking. We investigated the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) relative to a referent diagnostic standard in women with breast or gynecologic cancer. Participants were 100 patients who completed the CES-D and HADS-D within a larger study. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was the criterion standard. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios for various thresholds were calculated using receiver operating characteristics. Participants were assigned to two diagnostic groups: 'major depressive disorder' or 'any depressive disorder'. Separate analyses were conducted whereby participants found to be receiving depression/anxiety treatment at the time of validation (n=28) were excluded. Both measures had good internal consistency and criterion validity. There were no statistical differences in global accuracy between the measures for detecting either group. For optimal sensitivity and specificity in both groups, generally recommended thresholds were lowered for the HADS-D. For the CES-D, the threshold was lowered for 'any depressive disorder' and raised for 'major depressive disorder'. Negative predictive values associated with our recommended cutoffs were excellent, but positive predictive values were poor. The HADS-D and CES-D have acceptable properties and are equivalent for detecting depression in this population. Depending on the purpose of screening, the CES-D may be more suitable for identifying major depression. Threshold choice may have serious implications for screening program effectiveness, and the use of generally recommended thresholds should be cautious.
    General hospital psychiatry 11/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess how the recurrence score of the Oncotype DX breast cancer assay influences adjuvant systemic treatment decisions in the multidisciplinary meeting (MDM) for patients with early breast cancer (EBC) in Australia. A before-and-after study at three academic medical centres in Melbourne with patients and physicians serving as their own controls. Paired systemic adjuvant treatment recommendations were made in multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs) before and after Oncotype DX testing. Medical oncologists and surgeons, treating patients with unifocal, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, node-negative or node-positive early breast cancer. Changes in physician treatment recommendations. This study enrolled 151 eligible patients between 1 November 2010 and 30 September 2011. Of these, 101 patients (67%) had node-negative and 50 (33%) had node-positive tumours. Recurrence score information resulted in treatment recommendation changes for 24 patients with node-negative tumours (24%) and for 13 patients with node-positive tumours (26%). The proportional change from chemo-hormonal therapy (CHT) to hormonal therapy (HT) was significantly greater than from HT to CHT for patients with node-negative tumours (23% difference in proportions; P= 0.02), and of similar magnitude for patients with node-positive tumours (25% difference in proportions; P = 0.14). The Oncotype DX recurrence score has a major impact on adjuvant treatment decision making in the MDM setting.
    The Medical journal of Australia 08/2013; 199(3):205-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women at very high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undertake enhanced surveillance with annual MRI in addition to mammography. We aimed to review the performance of breast MRI as a screening modality over its first 5 years at our institution. The study used a retrospective review using prospectively collected data from a consecutive series of women at high risk of developing breast cancer undergoing surveillance MRI. Two hundred twenty-three women had at least one screening MRI. The median age was 42 years old. Sixty-nine (30.9%) were confirmed genetic mutation carriers. The remaining 154 (69.1%) women were classified as high risk based on family history, without a confirmed genetic mutation. Three hundred forty screening MRI studies were performed. Of these, 69 patients (20.3%) were recalled for further assessment. There was a significant reduction in the recall rate throughout the study for prevalent screens, from 50% (17/34) in 2008 to 14% (9/54) in 2011 (P = 0.004). The overall biopsy rate was 39 in 340 screens (11.5%). Four cancers were identified. Three were in confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers, and one was found to be a carrier after the cancer was diagnosed. All four were identified as suspicious on MRI, with two having normal mammography. The cancer detection rate of MRI was 1.2% (4/340 screens). The overall positive predictive value was 7.0%, 6.7% for prevalent screens and 7.1% for subsequent screens. Breast MRI as a screening modality for malignant lesions in women with high hereditary risk is valuable. The recall rate, especially in the prevalent round, improved with radiologist experience.
    Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology 08/2013; 57(4):400-6. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prosurvival protein BCL-2 is frequently overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We have generated ER-positive primary breast tumor xenografts that recapitulate the primary tumors and demonstrate that the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 markedly improves tumor response to the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Despite abundant BCL-XL expression, similar efficacy was observed with the BCL-2 selective inhibitor ABT-199, revealing that BCL-2 is a crucial target. Unexpectedly, BH3 mimetics were found to counteract the side effect of tamoxifen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, BH3 mimetics synergized with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in eliciting apoptosis. Importantly, these two classes of inhibitor further enhanced tumor response in combination therapy with tamoxifen. Collectively, our findings provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of BH3 mimetics in therapy for breast cancer.
    Cancer cell 07/2013; 24(1):120-129. · 25.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A sound understanding of the benefits of different treatment options and their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impacts is required for optimal breast cancer care. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of persistent functional decrements and symptoms and identify demographic, clinical and treatment variables associated with poorer outcomes. Four hundred English-speaking women treated for ductal carcinoma-in-situ or stage I to III breast cancer between 1999 and 2009, at least 12 months after surgery and currently disease free, were randomly selected and invited to complete (1) the Breast Cancer Treatment Outcome Scale and (2) the EORTC core Quality of Life Questionnaire, version 3. RESULTS: The response rate was 85.60 %. Many participants reported moderate to severe decrements in a number of HRQoL domains, including functional well-being (15 %), cosmetic status (32 %) and overall quality of life (21 %). There were significant associations (p < .05) between younger age and poorer HRQoL but none between time since surgery and morbidity (p > .05). Different treatments were associated with different HRQoL impacts. Poorer functional status was predicted by axillary dissection (p = .011), and adjuvant radiotherapy was a significant predictor of breast-specific pain (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Many breast cancer survivors report long-term morbidity that is unaffected by time since surgery. The significant associations between the extent of locoregional therapies and poorer HRQoL outcomes emphasize the importance of the safe tailoring of these treatments.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Anita R Skandarajah, G Bruce Mann
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy following breast conservation is routine in the treatment of invasive breast cancer and is commonly used in ductal carcinoma in situ to decrease local recurrence. However, adjuvant breast radiotherapy has significant short and longer-term side effects and consumes substantial health care resources. We aimed to review the randomised controlled trials and attempted to identify clinico-pathological factors and molecular markers associated with the risk of local recurrence. METHODS: A literature search using the Medline and Ovid databases between 1965 and 2011 was conducted using the terms 'breast conservation' and radiotherapy, and radiotherapy and DCIS. Only papers with randomised clinical trials published in English in adult were included. Only Level 2 evidence and above was included. RESULTS: Three meta-analyses and 17 randomised controlled trials have been published in invasive disease and one meta-analysis and four randomised controlled trials for DCIS. Overall, adjuvant radiotherapy provides a 15.7% decrease in local recurrence and 3.8% decrease in 15-year risk of breast cancer death. The key clinico-pathological factors, which enable stratification into high, intermediate or low risk groups include age, oestrogen receptor positivity, use of tamoxifen and extent of surgery. Absolute reductions in 15-year risk of breast cancer death in these three prediction categories are 7.8%, 1·1%, and 0·1% respectively Adjuvant radiotherapy provides a 60% risk reduction in local recurrence in DCIS with no impact on distal metastases or overall survival. Size, pathological subtype and margins are major risk factors for local recurrence in DCIS. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant radiotherapy consistently decreases local recurrence across all subtypes of invasive and in-situ disease. While it has a survival advantage in those with invasive disease, this is not seen with DCIS and is minimal in invasive disease where the risk of local recurrence is low. This group includes women over 70 with node negative, ER positive tumours<2 cm.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 04/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Educational programmes are frequently developed to improve the knowledge of medical trainees. The impact of a programme may be limited if there is no follow-up to reinforce the message. Online Spaced Education (SE) has been developed to address this limitation. This study was performed to assess whether an SE programme would improve the impact of a didactic seminar. METHOD: A randomized trial of an online SE programme occurred as part of the 2010 Clinical Oncology Society of Australia Breast Cancer Trainee Workshop. Consenting participants were randomized to undertake SE or not and were then invited to undertake a 22-question knowledge test. A questionnaire was administered relating to the perceived value of the SE programme. Participants consisted largely of surgical and medical oncology trainees. RESULTS: Two hundred people attended the workshop and 97 consented to randomization. Thirty-eight of 49 randomized to the SE group commenced the SE course. Seventy-one percent of participants answered each question at least once and 55% of participants completed the entire programme. Fifty-nine participants completed the post-test. The SE participants performed significantly better than the control group (P < 0.05). The questionnaire was completed by 26 of the SE group. Ninety-two percent strongly agreed or agreed that SE would improve their practice and 96% agreed that SE effectively reinforced key aspects of workshop. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the utility of SE to increase knowledge retention following a face-to-face workshop. The programme was very well received by the participants and may be an appropriate reinforcing methodology for other similar seminars.
    ANZ Journal of Surgery 04/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is an important and early event in many tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), VEGF-D and their receptor VEGFR-3, play a role in tumor spread via the lymphatics, although the timing of their involvement is not understood. In contrast, VEGFR-2, activated by VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, is a mediator of angiogenesis and drives primary tumor growth. We demonstrate the critical role for VEGFR-3, but not VEGFR-2, in the early events of metastasis. In a tumor model exhibiting both VEGF-D-dependent angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, an antibody to VEGFR-2 (DC101) was capable of inhibiting angiogenesis (79 % reduction in PECAM + blood vessels) and growth (93 % reduction in tumor volume). However, unlike an anti-VEGFR-3 Mab (mF4-31C1), DC101 was not capable of eliminating either tumor lymphangiogenesis or lymphogenous metastasis (60 % reduction of lymph node metastasis by DC101 vs 95 % by mF4-31C1). Early excision of the primary tumors demonstrated that VEGF-D-mediated tumor spread precedes angiogenesis-induced growth. Small but highly metastatic primary human breast cancers had significantly higher lymphatic vessel density (23.1 vessels/mm(2)) than size-matched (11.7) or larger non-metastatic tumors (12.4) thus supporting the importance of lymphatic vessels, as opposed to angiogenesis-mediated primary tumor growth, for nodal metastasis. These results suggest that lymphangiogenesis via VEGF-D is more critical than angiogenesis for nodal metastasis.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 04/2013; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the course and prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms over 56 weeks in women with newly diagnosed breast and gynaecologic cancer and determine the acceptability and efficiency of incorporating routine screening into practice. METHODS: Participants completed the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at diagnosis and again every 8 weeks for 56 weeks. Changes over time were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA adjusted for post hoc comparisons. Thresholds for caseness/referral to mental health were ≥11 and ≥16 on the HADS-A and CES-D, respectively. RESULTS: Participants were 167 women (101 breast, 66 gynaecologic). Mean ± SD age was 57.63 ± 22.66 years. Rates of anxiety (17.7%), depression (32.5%) and combined anxiety and depression (35%) symptoms were highest at diagnosis. Mean ± SD scores of anxiety (6.43 ± 3.83) and depression symptoms (12.68 ± 9.47) were highest at diagnosis with significant improvements observed by 8 and 24 weeks, respectively, and maintained thereafter. Overall rates of anxiety, depression and combined symptoms were 7.5%, 23.4% and 24.1%, respectively. Patients with breast and gynaecologic cancer did not differ. Referral was offered at least once to 94 women (56.3%), of whom 45 (47.9%) declined, 23 (24.5%) accepted and 26 (27.7%) were already receiving treatment. Patient evaluation was favourable. CONCLUSIONS: Women are most vulnerable to psychological morbidity at diagnosis. Symptoms improve significantly over time. Reported rates are lower than those in the literature. Regular screening by self-report is acceptable to patients but may not be the most efficient method of improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 02/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer and its treatment in reproductive-age women can reduce fertility and compromise family formation. To learn about women's experiences of fertility-related cancer care we interviewed 10 women (aged 26-45), at least one year postdiagnosis. Thematic analysis revealed that all women, including one who chose to be child-free, valued fertility and motherhood. They reported experiencing varied fertility-related care, from support for fertility preservation to apparent disregard of their fertility concerns. Women's needs were heterogeneous, but all wanted health care providers to communicate fertility options and avoid assumptions about women's fertility desires while working to extend each woman's life.
    Health Care For Women International 01/2013; 34(1):50-67. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) provides psychological benefit to many early breast cancer patients however concerns persist regarding its potential impact on chemotherapy delivery. We investigated the association between IBR, complications and adjuvant chemotherapy delivery. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of patients in an academic breast service, who underwent mastectomy, with or without reconstruction, and received adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: Comparisons were made between 107 patients who received IBR and 113 who received mastectomy alone. Those receiving IBR were on average younger, with lower body mass index (BMI) and better prognoses. Overall complication rates were comparable (mastectomy alone: 45.1% versus IBR: 35.5%, p = 0.2). There was more return to surgery in the IBR group with 11.5% of tissue expanders requiring removal, whilst more seromas occurred in the mastectomy group. There was no significant difference in the median time to chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that IBR compromised the delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy, although there was a significant incidence of implant infection.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 11/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes is a key indicator of patient survival, and is enhanced by the neo-lymphatics induced by tumor-secreted VEGF-C or VEGF-D, acting via VEGFR-3 signalling. These targets constitute important avenues for anti-metastatic treatment. Despite this new understanding, clinical observations linking metastasis with tumor depth or location suggest that lymphangiogenic growth factors are not the sole determinants of metastasis. Here we explored the influence of tumor proximity to lymphatics capable of responding to growth factors on nodal metastasis in a murine VEGF-D over-expression tumor model. We found that primary tumor location profoundly influenced VEGF-D-mediated lymph node metastasis: 89 % of tumors associated with the flank skin metastasised, in contrast with only 19 % of tumors located more deeply on the body wall (p < 0.01). Lymphatics in metastatic tumors arose from small lymphatics, and displayed distinct molecular and morphological profiles compared with those found in normal lymphatics. Smaller lymphatic subtypes were more abundant in skin (2.5-fold, p < 0.01) than in body wall, providing a richer source of lymphatics for VEGF-D(+) skin tumors, a phenomenon also confirmed in human samples. This study shows that the proximity of a VEGF-D(+) primary tumor to small lymphatics is an important determinant of metastasis. These observations may explain why tumor location relative to the lymphatic network is prognostically important for some human cancers.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 11/2012; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) is a key diagnostic technique used to assess thyroid nodules. This procedure has been the domain of radiologists, but it is increasingly performed by endocrine surgeons. In the present study we aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficiency of US-FNAC performed by endocrine surgeons. This study was a retrospective review of consecutive patients in a 3-year period who underwent US-FNAC performed by endocrine surgeons and radiologists. Medical records, cytology results, and surgical pathology results were collected and analyzed. A total of 576 US-FNAC were performed on 402 patients during the study period. The endocrine surgeons and radiologists performed 299 and 277 US-FNAC, respectively. The FNAC inadequacy rate was 5.3 % for the endocrine surgeons and 9.3 % for the radiologists (p = 0.05). For thyroid cancer, the sensitivity, specificity, and false negatives of the US-FNAC for the endocrine surgeons was 87 %, 98 %, and 3 %, respectively while that for the radiologists was 88 %, 95 %, and 3.5 %, respectively. Patients with thyroid cancer had a shorter time to surgery in the endocrine surgeons' group (mean 15.3 days) compared to the radiologists' group (mean: 53.3 days; p = 0.01). US-FNAC performed by an experienced endocrine surgeon is accurate and allows efficient surgical management for patients with thyroid cancer.
    World Journal of Surgery 04/2012; 36(8):1947-52. · 2.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

536 Citations
191.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Surgery
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000–2014
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2013
    • Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009–2013
    • Royal Women's Hospital in Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2004
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia