Andreas Ströhle

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (220)1029.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the dimensional structure of panic attack symptoms have mostly identified a respiratory and a vestibular/mixed somatic dimension. Evidence for additional dimensions such as a cardiac dimension and the allocation of several of the panic attack symptom criteria is less consistent. Clarifying the dimensional structure of the panic attack symptoms should help to specify the relationship of potential risk factors like anxiety sensitivity and fear of suffocation to the experience of panic attacks and the development of panic disorder. Method. In an outpatient multicentre study 350 panic patients with agoraphobia rated the intensity of each of the ten DSM-IV bodily symptoms during a typical panic attack. The factor structure of these data was investigated with nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The identified bodily symptom dimensions were related to panic cognitions, anxiety sensitivity and fear of suffocation by means of nonlinear structural equation modelling (SEM). Results. CFA indicated a respiratory, a vestibular/mixed somatic and a cardiac dimension of the bodily symptom criteria. These three factors were differentially associated with specific panic cognitions, different anxiety sensitivity facets and suffocation fear. Conclusions. Taking into account the dimensional structure of panic attack symptoms may help to increase the specificity of the associations between the experience of panic attack symptoms and various panic related constructs.
    Psychological Medicine 12/2015; 45(8):1675-1685. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714002803 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been previously associated with alterations in structural gray matter and changes in functional brain activity in healthy middle-aged individuals and older non-demented subjects. In order to determine the neural mechanism by which APOE polymorphisms affect white matter (WM) structure, we investigated the diffusion characteristics of WM tracts in carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles using an unbiased whole brain analysis technique (Tract Based Spatial Statistics) in a healthy young adolescent (14 years) cohort. A large sample of healthy young adolescents (n = 575) were selected from the European neuroimaging-genetics IMAGEN study with available APOE status and accompanying diffusion imaging data. MR Diffusion data was acquired on 3T systems using 32 diffusion-weighted (DW) directions and 4 non-DW volumes (b-value = 1,300 s/mm2 and isotropic resolution of 2.4×2.4×2.4 mm). No significant differences in WM structure were found in diffusion indices between carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles, and dose-dependent effects of these variants were not established, suggesting that differences in WM structure are not modulated by the APOE polymorphism. In conclusion, our results suggest that microstructural properties of WM structure are not associated with the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles in young adolescence, suggesting that the neural effects of these variants are not evident in 14-year-olds and may only develop later in life.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 47(4-4):977-984. DOI:10.3233/JAD-140519 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Demographic changes are increasing the pressure to improve therapeutic strategies against cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Besides drug treatment, physical activity seems to be a promising intervention target as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition. Using comparable inclusion and exclusion criteria we analyzed the efficacy of drug therapy (cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and Ginkgo biloba) and exercise interventions for improving cognition in AD and MCI populations.
  • Jens Plag · Andreas Ströhle
    PiD - Psychotherapie im Dialog 06/2015; 16(02):48-51. DOI:10.1055/s-0041-101054
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Method: Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Results: Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Discussion: Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128271. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128271 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science 06/2015; 348(6240-6240):1241-1244. DOI:10.1126/science.1255905 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is frequent in panic disorder (PD); yet, little is known about its influence on the neural substrates of PD. Difficulties in fear inhibition during safety signal processing have been reported as a pathophysiological feature of PD that is attenuated by depression. We investigated the impact of comorbid depression in PD with agoraphobia (AG) on the neural correlates of fear conditioning and the potential of machine learning to predict comorbidity status on the individual patient level based on neural characteristics. Fifty-nine PD/AG patients including 26 (44%) with a comorbid depressive disorder (PD/AG+DEP) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Comorbidity status was predicted using a random undersampling tree ensemble in a leave-one-out cross-validation framework. PD/AG-DEP patients showed altered neural activation during safety signal processing, while +DEP patients exhibited generally decreased dorsolateral prefrontal and insular activation. Comorbidity status was correctly predicted in 79% of patients (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 85%) based on brain activation during fear conditioning (corrected for potential confounders: accuracy: 73%; sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 70%). No primary depressed patients were available; only medication-free patients were included. Major depression and dysthymia were collapsed (power considerations). Neurofunctional activation during safety signal processing differed between patients with or without comorbid depression, a finding which may explain heterogeneous results across previous studies. These findings demonstrate the relevance of comorbidity when investigating neurofunctional substrates of anxiety disorders. Predicting individual comorbidity status may translate neurofunctional data into clinically relevant information which might aid in planning individualized treatment. The study was registered with the ISRCTN: ISRCTN80046034. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.052 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a common time for initiation of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Importantly, the neuro-anatomical foundation for later alcohol-related problems may already manifest pre-natally, particularly due to smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In this context, cortical gyrification is an interesting marker of neuronal development but has not been investigated as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of 595 14-year-old adolescents from the IMAGEN sample, we computed whole-brain mean curvature indices to predict change in alcohol-related problems over the following 2 years. Change of alcohol use-related problems was significantly predicted from mean curvature in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Less gyrification of OFC was associated with an increase in alcohol use-related problems over the next 2 years. Moreover, lower gyrification in left OFC was related to pre-natal alcohol exposure, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect. Current alcohol use-related problems of the biological mother had no effect on offsprings' OFC gyrification or drinking behaviour. The data support the idea that alcohol consumption during pregnancy mediates the development of neuro-anatomical phenotypes, which in turn constitute a risk factor for increasing problems due to alcohol consumption in a vulnerable stage of life. Maternal smoking during pregnancy or current maternal alcohol/nicotine consumption had no significant effect. The OFC mediates behaviours known to be disturbed in addiction, namely impulse control and reward processing. The results stress the importance of pre-natal alcohol exposure for later increases in alcohol use-related problems, mediated by structural brain characteristics. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
    Addiction Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/adb.12240 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulator of G-protein Signaling 2 (RGS2) is a key regulator of G-protein-coupled signaling pathways involved in fear and anxiety. Data from rodent models and genetic analysis of anxiety-related traits and disorders in humans suggest down-regulation of RGS2 expression to be a risk factor for anxiety. Here we investigated, whether genetic variation in microRNAs mediating posttranscriptional down-regulation of RGS2 may be a risk factor for anxiety as well. 75 microRNAs predicted to regulate RGS2 were identified by four bioinformatic algorithms and validated experimentally by luciferase reporter gene assays. Specificity was confirmed for six microRNAs (hsa-miR-1271-5p, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-3591-3p, hsa-miR-377-3p, hsa-miR-4717-5p, hsa-miR-96-5p) by disrupting their seed sequence at the 3' untranslated region of RGS2. Hsa-miR-4717-5p showed the most robust effect on RGS2 and regulated two other candidate genes of anxiety disorders (CNR1 and IKBKE) as well. Two SNPs (rs150925, rs161427) within and 1,000 bp upstream of the hostgene of hsa-miR-4717-5p (MIR4717) show a minor allele frequency greater than 0.05. Both were in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1, D' = 1) and both major (G) alleles showed a trend for association with panic disorder with comorbid agoraphobia in one of two patient/control samples (combined npatients = 497). Dimensional anxiety traits, as described by Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) were significantly higher among carriers of both major (G) alleles in a combined patient/control sample (ncombined = 831). Taken together, data indicate that MIR4717 regulates human RGS2 and contributes to the genetic risk towards anxiety-related traits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 04/2015; 168(4). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32312 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Therapie und Prävention durch Sport, Band 2, Zweite Ausgabe edited by Carl Detlev Reimers, Iris Reuter, Barbara Tettenborn, Andreas Broocks, Norbert Thürauf, Guido Knapp, 03/2015: chapter 23: pages 419-443; Elsevier., ISBN: 978-3-437-24265-6
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence from mouse models points to the G protein-coupled receptor RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) as a promising candidate gene for anxiety in humans. Recently, RGS2 polymorphisms were found to be associated with various anxiety disorders, e.g., rs4606 with panic disorder (PD), but other findings have been negative or inconsistent concerning the respective risk allele. To further examine the role of RGS2 polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of PD, we genotyped rs4606 and five additional RGS2 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs16834831, rs10801153, rs16829458, rs1342809, rs1890397) in two independent PD samples, comprising 531 matched case/control pairs. The functional SNP rs4606 was nominally associated with PD when both samples were combined. The upstream SNP rs10801153 displayed a Bonferroni-resistant significant association with PD in the second and the combined sample (P = 0.006 and P = 0.017). We furthermore investigated the effect of rs10801153 on dimensional anxiety traits, a behavioral avoidance test (BAT), and an index for emotional processing in the respective subsets of the total sample. In line with categorical results, homozygous risk (G) allele carriers displayed higher scores on the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ; P = 0.015) and showed significantly more defensive behavior during fear provoking situations (P = 0.001). Furthermore, significant effects on brain activation in response to angry (P = 0.013), happy (P = 0.042) and neutral faces (P = 0.032) were detected. Taken together, these findings provide further evidence for the potential role of RGS2 as a candidate gene for PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32299 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Katharina Gaudlitz · Jens Plag · Fernando Dimeo · Andreas Ströhle
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity has been discussed as a therapeutic alternative or add-on for the treatment of anxiety disorders. We studied whether aerobic exercise compared to physical activity with low impact can improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia. Forty-seven patients received group CBT treatment over 1 month, which was augmented with an 8-week protocol of either aerobic exercise (three times/week, 30 min, 70% VO2 max; n = 24) or a training program including exercises with very low intensity (n = 23) in a randomized controlled double-blind design. The primary outcome measure was the total score on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A). A 2 × 3 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline value as a covariate was conducted for data analysis. Time × group interaction for the Ham-A revealed a significant effect (P = .047, η(2) p = .072), which represented the significant group difference at a 7-month follow-up. For the other clinical outcome measures no statistical significance emerged, although improvement was more sustained in the exercise group. For patients with PD, regular aerobic exercise adds an additional benefit to CBT. This supports previous results and provides evidence about the intensity of exercise that needs to be performed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2015; 32(3). DOI:10.1002/da.22337 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • Jens Plag · Sarah Schumacher · Andreas Stroehle
    Sport- und Bewegungstherapie bei seelischen Erkrankungen, Edited by Markser, Bär, 02/2015: chapter 8: pages 96-112; Schattauer., ISBN: 978-3-7945-2993-3
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Nonresponsiveness to therapy is generally acknowledged, but only a few studies have tested switching to psychotherapy. This study is one of the first to examine the malleability of treatment-resistant patients using acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial that included 43 patients diagnosed with primary panic disorder and/or agoraphobia (PD/A) with prior unsuccessful state-of-the-art treatment (mean number of previous sessions = 42.2). Patients were treated with an ACT manual administered by novice therapists and followed up for 6 months. They were randomized to immediate treatment (n = 33) or a 4-week waiting list (n = 10) with delayed treatment (n = 8). Treatment consisted of eight sessions, implemented twice weekly over 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were measured with the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and the Mobility Inventory (MI). Results: At post-treatment, patients who received ACT reported significantly more improvements on the PAS and CGI (d = 0.72 and 0.89, respectively) than those who were on the waiting list, while improvement on the MI (d = 0.50) was nearly significant. Secondary outcomes were consistent with ACT theory. Follow-up assessments indicated a stable and continued improvement after treatment. The dropout rate was low (9%). Conclusions: Despite a clinically challenging sample and brief treatment administered by novice therapists, patients who received ACT reported significantly greater changes in functioning and symptomatology than those on the waiting list, with medium-to-large effect sizes that were maintained for at least 6 months. These proof-of-principle data suggest that ACT is a viable treatment option for treatment-resistant PD/A patients. Further work on switching to psychotherapy for nonresponders is clearly needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 02/2015; 84(2):100-109. DOI:10.1159/000370162 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have pointed to high rates of substance use disorders among female prisoners. The present study aimed to assess comorbidities of substance use disorders with other mental disorders in female prisoners at admission to a penal justice system. A sample of 150 female prisoners, consecutively admitted to the penal justice system of Berlin, Germany, was interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The presence of borderline personality disorder was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV. Prevalence rates and comorbidities were calculated as percentage values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Ninety-three prisoners (62%; 95% CI: 54-70) had substance use disorders; n=49 (33%; 95% CI: 24-42) had alcohol abuse/dependence; n=76 (51%; 95% CI: 43-59) had illicit drug abuse/dependence; and n=53 (35%; 95% CI: 28-44) had opiate use disorders. In the group of inmates with substance use disorders, 84 (90%) had at least one other mental disorder; n=63 (68%) had comorbid affective disorders; n=45 (49%) had borderline or antisocial personality disorders; and n=41 (44%) had comorbid anxiety disorders. Female prisoners with addiction have high rates of comorbid mental disorders at admission to the penal justice system, ranging from affective to personality and anxiety disorders. Generic and robust interventions that can address different comorbid mental health problems in a flexible manner may be required to tackle widespread addiction and improve mental health of female prisoners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/2015; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.02.016 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaption to changing environments is evolutionarily advantageous. Studies that link genetic and phenotypic expression of flexible adjustment to one's context are largely lacking. In this study, we tested the importance of psychological flexibility, or goal-related context sensitivity, in an interaction between psychotherapy outcome for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) and a genetic polymorphism. Given the established role of the 5HTT-LPR polymorphism in behavioral flexibility, we tested whether this polymorphism (short group vs. long group) impacted therapy response as a function of various endophenotypes (i.e., psychological flexibility, panic, agoraphobic avoidance, and anxiety sensitivity). Patients with PD/AG were recruited from a large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial on cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pre- to post-treatment changes by 5HTT polymorphism were analyzed. 5HTT polymorphism status differentiated pre- to post-treatment changes in the endophenotype psychological flexibility (effect size difference d = 0.4, p < 0.05), but none of the specific symptom-related endophenotypes consistently for both the intent-to-treat sample (n = 228) and the treatment completers (n = 194). Based on the consistency of these findings with existing theory on behavioral flexibility, the specificity of the results across phenotypes, and the consistency of results across analyses (i.e., completer and intent to treat), we conclude that 5HTT polymorphism and the endophenotype psychological flexibility are important variables for the treatment of PD/AG. The endophenotype psychological flexibility may help bridge genetic and psychological literatures. Despite the limitation of the post hoc nature of these analyses, further study is clearly warranted.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 01/2015; 265(5). DOI:10.1007/s00406-015-0575-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: Although neuroimaging research has made substantial progress in identifying the large-scale neural substrate of anxiety disorders, its value for clinical application lags behind expectations. Machine-learning approaches have predictive potential for individual-patient prognostic purposes and might thus aid translational efforts in psychiatric research. Objective: To predict treatment response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on an individual-patient level based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Design, Setting, and Participants: We included 49 patients free of medication for at least 4 weeks and with a primary diagnosis of PD/AG in a longitudinal study performed at 8 clinical research institutes and outpatient centers across Germany. The functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted between July 2007 and March 2010. Interventions: Twelve CBT sessions conducted 2 times a week focusing on behavioral exposure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Treatment response was defined as exceeding a 50% reduction in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores. Blood oxygenation level-dependent signal was measured during a differential fear-conditioning task. Regional and whole-brain gaussian process classifiers using a nested leave-one-out cross-validation were used to predict the treatment response from data acquired before CBT. Results: Although no single brain region was predictive of treatment response, integrating regional classifiers based on data from the acquisition and the extinction phases of the fear-conditioning task for the whole brain yielded good predictive performance (accuracy, 82%; sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 72%; P < .001). Data from the acquisition phase enabled 73% correct individual-patient classifications (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 67%; P < .001), whereas data from the extinction phase led to an accuracy of 74% (sensitivity, 64%; specificity, 83%; P < .001). Conservative reanalyses under consideration of potential confounders yielded nominally lower but comparable accuracy rates (acquisition phase, 70%; extinction phase, 71%; combined, 79%). Conclusions and Relevance: Predicting treatment response to CBT based on functional neuroimaging data in PD/AG is possible with high accuracy on an individual-patient level. This novel machine-learning approach brings personalized medicine within reach, directly supporting clinical decisions for the selection of treatment options, thus helping to improve response rates.
    JAMA Psychiatry 11/2014; 72(1). DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1741 · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cognitive behavioural therapy of phobic anxiety, in vivo exposure is considered as an effective treatment strategy. Apparently, it involves the experience of stress and anxiety in patients. Given the therapist's role during exposure sessions, it is conceivable that the performance is also accompanied with the experience of stress in therapists, especially when unversed in conducting psychotherapy. Studies confirmed that cognitive behavioural therapists tend to avoid therapist-guided in vivo exposure. The objective of this study was the simultaneous investigation of therapist's and patient's stress response during in vivo exposure. Therefore, 23 agoraphobic patients and their 23 treating therapists in training provided five saliva samples during an in vivo exposure and five samples during an ordinary therapy session. Before and during exposure session, subjective evaluations of stress and anxiety were assessed. Results suggested that therapists reported similar levels of perceived stress as patients before exposure. Both groups displayed significantly elevated salivary cortisol (sC) levels during exposure compared to the control session and a trend for alterations in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity was found. Therapists reached peak concentrations of sC before start of the intervention followed by a decline during exposure, while patients displayed peak levels of cortisol secretion after 60 min of exposure. In vivo exposure seems to be a demanding intervention not only for the patient, but also for therapists in training. However, it was also demonstrated that physiological and subjective stress rather decrease during the intervention and that both groups rated exposure to be substantially successful. Based on the presented results, another potential factor contributing to the under-usage of exposure treatment is conceivable and needs to be addressed in future research.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 11/2014; 49(1):280–289. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.07.016 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current data point to an alteration of both the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-system and the peripheral transmission of catecholamines in anxiety disorders. There is also some evidence for the effect of several components of cognitive-behavioural interventions such as coping and control and for an effect of exercise training on the neuroendocrine stress response in healthy subjects as well as patients suffering from distinct (mental) disorders. This double-blind, controlled study investigated the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in combination with either high-level endurance training or low-level exercise on salivary cortisol (sC) and on levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in patients suffering from panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. In comparison to the low-level exercise condition, there were significantly lower sC-levels in the experimental group performing high-level endurance training at a 7-month follow-up. In contrast, there were no group differences in sAA levels during the study period. In this trial, we found evidence for a decelerated effect of endurance-training on HPA-system’s functioning in PD. Further studies addressing the alteration of sAA levels in this population might investigate physical exercise different in intensity and duration.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.008 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    European Neuropsychopharmacology; 10/2014

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,029.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2011–2014
    • Ghent University
      • • Department of Experimental Psychology
      • • Ghent Institute for Functional and Metabolic Imaging of the brain
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
    • Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Toronto
      • Rotman Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Department of Psychology
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2010–2012
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      • Klinik für Abhängiges Verhalten und Suchtmedizin
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1996–2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2003
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1998–2001
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany