Angèle Viola

Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France

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Publications (40)98.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K(+) channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K(+) channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak(-/-) mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak(-/-) mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak(+/+) mice. Upon ischemia, Traak(-/-) mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak(+/+) mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak(-/-) mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e53266. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral malaria is the most severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, accounting for 1 million deaths per year. We characterized the murine disease using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4.7 T, proving that ischemic edema is responsible for fatality. The aim of the present study was to identify early markers of experimental cerebral malaria using very high field conventional MRI (11.75 T). CBA/J mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA were observed at an early stage of the disease, before the onset of detectable brain swelling and at the most acute stage of cerebral malaria. Herein, we report the first detection of damage to the optic and trigeminal nerves on T(2)-weighted MRI. The trigeminal nerves appeared hypointense, with significantly reduced diameter and cross-sectional area. The optic nerves were hypointense and often not visible. In addition, the internerve distance between the optic nerves was significantly and progressively reduced between the early and severest stages. Cranial nerve injury was the earliest anatomic hallmark of the disease, visible before brain edema became detectable. Thus, cranial nerve damage may manifest in neurologic signs, which may assist in the early recognition of cerebral malaria.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2011; 179(3):1104-9. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improved knowledge of brain maturation in fetuses and premature neonates is crucial for the early detection of pathologies and would help determine whether MR data from the premature brain might be used to evaluate fetal maturation. Using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and (1)H-MR spectroscopy, we compared cerebral microstructure and metabolism in normal in utero fetuses imaged near term and premature neonates imaged at term equivalent. Forty-eight subjects were investigated: 24 in utero fetuses (mean gestational age, 37 ± 1 weeks) and 24 premature neonates (mean postconceptional age, 37 ± 1 weeks). ADC values were measured in cerebellum, pons, white matter, brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. MR spectroscopy was performed in deep white matter. Mean ADC values from fetuses and premature neonates were comparable except for the pons and the parietal white matter. ADC values were lower in the pons of premature neonates, whereas greater values were found in their parietal white matter compared with fetuses. Proton MR spectroscopy showed higher levels of NAA/H(2)O, Glx/H(2)O, tCr/H(2)O, and mIns/H(2)O in premature neonates compared with fetuses. Our study provides evidence of subtle anomalies in the parietal white matter of healthy premature neonates. In addition, the reduced ADC values in the pons together with the increased levels of NAA/H(2)O, tCr/H(2)O, and Glx/H(2)O in the centrum semiovale suggest a more advanced maturation in some white matter regions. Our results indicate that MR data from the premature brain are not appropriate for the assessment of the fetal brain maturation.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2011; 32(8):1451-8. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral malaria is the most severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, accounting for 1 million deaths per year. We characterized the murine disease using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4.7 T, proving that ischemic edema is respon-sible for fatality. The aim of the present study was to identify early markers of experimental cerebral ma-laria using very high field conventional MRI (11.75 T). CBA/J mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA were observed at an early stage of the disease, before the onset of detectable brain swelling and at the most acute stage of cerebral malaria. Herein, we report the first detection of damage to the optic and trigeminal nerves on T 2 -weighted MRI. The trigeminal nerves appeared hypointense, with significantly reduced di-ameter and cross-sectional area. The optic nerves were hypointense and often not visible. In addition, the in-ternerve distance between the optic nerves was signifi-cantly and progressively reduced between the early and severest stages. Cranial nerve injury was the earliest anatomic hallmark of the disease, visible before brain edema became detectable. Thus, cranial nerve damage may manifest in neurologic signs, which may assist in the early recognition of cerebral malaria. (Am J Pathol 2011, 179:xxx; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.05.044) Malaria is a major disease of the developing world, and cerebral malaria (CM) is the most lethal complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum, with an estimated death toll of approximately 1 million in 2008. 1 In sub-Saharan Africa, children younger than 5 years account for more than 80% of malaria-related deaths, and 10% to 20% of those surviving an episode of CM develop long-term cognitive impairment. 2,3 Magnetic resonance imag-ing (MRI) is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and fol-low-up of central nervous system disease but also for the understanding of pathophysiologic processes. However, CM radiologic reports are sparse, and findings are incon-sistent among patients. The small number of experimen-tal CM (ECM) imaging studies 4 –7 conducted have iden-tified hallmarks of the disease at its most acute stage and at an earlier stage already characterized by significant brain swelling. 4 However, the field lacks a thorough and extensive account of early MRI-detectable markers of CM visible before the onset of cerebral edema. It is essential, therefore, that early sensitive indices of disease be iden-tified. The use of MRI in a clinically relevant animal model is an approach that allows investigation of the acute effects of parasitic infection and host immune response on the brain. Previously, we performed the first in vivo MRI studies of ECM-susceptible or ECM-resistant mice in-fected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) at 4.7 T. 4,8 We showed that ECM is characterized by blood-brain barrier breakdown, hemorrhages, reduced brain perfu-sion, ischemia, hemodynamic dysfunction, and brain edema. We identified that a potential cause of death in CM was compression of the cerebral arteries by a swol-len cerebrum, resulting in a severe reduction in cerebral blood flow. Herein, we present an anatomic imaging study of PbA-induced ECM lesions. We show that at higher field (11.75 T), using conventional MRI, it is pos-sible to detect pathologic changes at the level of the cranial nerves, and we present a comprehensive MRI-visible characterization of the ECM model, identifying potentially clinically relevant markers of human CM.
    American Journal Of Pathology 01/2011; 179:1104-1109. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    BMC Proceedings - BMC Proc. 01/2008; 2.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the combined value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in differentiating medulloblastoma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and infiltrating glioma in a pediatric population. A total of 17 children with untreated posterior fossa tumors (seven medulloblastoma, four infiltrating glioma, two ependymoma, and four pilocytic astrocytoma), were investigated with conventional MRI, DWI, and MRS using a single-voxel technique. Within the nonnecrotic tumor core, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values using a standardized region of interest (ROI) were retrieved. Quantification of water signal and analysis of metabolite signals from MRS measurements in the same tumorous area were reviewed using multivariant linear discriminant analysis. Combination of ADC values and metabolites, which were normalized using water as an internal standard, allowed discrimination between the four tumor groups with a likelihood below 1 x 10(-9). Positive predictive value was 1 in all cases. Tumors could not be discriminated when using metabolite ratios or ADC values alone, nor could they be differentiated using creatine (Cr) as an internal reference even in combination with ADC values. Linear discriminant analysis using DWI and MRS using water as internal reference, fully discriminates the four most frequent posterior fossa tumors in children.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 01/2008; 26(6):1390-8. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging tool of choice to evaluate brain maturation and especially brain myelination. Magnetic resonance imaging also provides functional insight through diffusion images and proton spectroscopy. In this review the MRI techniques are analyzed for both pre- and postnatal periods. The origin of MR signal changes is also detailed in order to understand normal myelination evolution and the consequences on brain maturation of the different pathologies encountered prior and after birth. Because MRI is "blind" in terms of signal on conventional sequences after 2 years of age, a particular attention is given to diffusion images and proton spectroscopy of the developing brain.
    Journal of Neuroradiology 01/2008; 34(5):290-310. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal brain disorders consist of a wide chapter including brain malformations, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), intracranial infections, perinatal trauma and metabolic encephalopathy. We will focus here on HIE, intracranial infections (especially materno-fetal infection with or without prolonged and/or premature rupture of membranes) and metabolic encephalopathy, those three conditions being the most frequent so far in our experience. Neonatal stroke is also analyzed. Moreover minor perinatal events might be superimposed on an already damaged (infective, edematous, metabolically abnormal or maldeveloped) brain, highlighting the main role and potential benefits of neuroimaging during the neonatal period. The different methods of brain imaging are thus reported with their advantages and disadvantages.
    Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2007; 34(3):167-82. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with an annual death toll exceeding one million. Severe malaria is a complex multisystem disorder, including one or more of the following complications: cerebral malaria, anemia, acidosis, jaundice, respiratory distress, renal insufficiency, coagulation anomalies, and hyperparasitemia. Using a combined in vivo/in vitro metabolic-based approach, we investigated the putative pathogenic effects of Plasmodium berghei ANKA on brain, in a mouse strain developing malaria but resistant to cerebral malaria. The purpose was to determine whether the infection could cause a brain dysfunction distinct from the classic cerebral syndrome. Mice resistant to cerebral malaria were infected with P. berghei ANKA and explored during both the symptomless and the severe stage of the disease by using in vivo brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The infected mice did not present the lesional and metabolic hallmarks of cerebral malaria. However, brain dysfunction caused by anemia, parasite burden, and hepatic damage was evidenced. We report an increase in cerebral blood flow, a process allowing temporary maintenance of oxygen supply to brain despite anemia. Besides, we document metabolic anomalies affecting choline-derived compounds, myo-inositol, glutamine, glycine, and alanine. The choline decrease appears related to parasite proliferation. Glutamine, myo-inositol, glycine, and alanine variations together indicate a hepatic encephalopathy, a finding in agreement with the liver damage detected in mice, which is also a feature of the human disease. These results reveal the vulnerability of brain to malaria infection at the severe stage of the disease even in the absence of cerebral malaria.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2007; 282(19):14505-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is being increasingly performed alongside the more conventional MRI sequences in the exploration of neurological disorders. It is however important to clearly differentiate its clinical applications aiming at improving the differential diagnosis or the prognostic evaluation of the patient, from the research protocols, when MRS can contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease or to the evaluation of new treatments. The most important applications in clinical practice are intracranial space occupying lesions (especially the positive diagnosis of intracranial abscesses and gliomatosis cerebri and the differential diagnosis between edema and tumor infiltration), alcoholic, hepatic, and HIV-related encephalopathies and the exploration of metabolic diseases. Among the research applications, MRS is widely used in multiple sclerosis, ischemia and brain injury, epilepsy and neuro degenerative diseases.
    Revue Neurologique 04/2007; 163(3):287-303. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1)H NMR spectroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is currently being used to study metabolic profiles characteristic of distinct multiple sclerosis (MS) manifestations. For select MS patient groups, we have previously detected significantly increased concentrations of several identified metabolites and one unidentified compound. We now present, for the first time, the identification of the latter molecule, beta-hydroxyisobutyrate (BHIB). A combination of dedicated 1D and 2D (1)H NMR experiments was employed for signal assignment. To our knowledge, BHIB has not previously been identified in (1)H NMR spectra of biofluids or biological tissues. Our assignment suggests new biochemical pathways involved in specific MS pathologies.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 354(1):160-4. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The correct assessment of the four most frequent infratentorial brain tumors in children (medulloblastoma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and infiltrating glioma) has always been problematic. They are known to often resemble one another on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We tested the hypothesis whether the combined strength of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) could help differentiate these tumors. Seventeen children with untreated posterior fossa tumors were investigated between January 2005 and January 2006 with conventional MR imaging and combined DWI and MR spectroscopy using a single-voxel technique at short and long echo time (TE) of 30 ms and 135 ms respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were retrieved after regions of interest were manually positioned within non necrotic tumor core. Water signal was quantified and metabolite signals were compared and analyzed using linear discriminant analysis. When a combination of ADC values and normalized metabolites was used, all tumors could be discriminated against one other. This could only be achieved when metabolites were normalized using water as an internal standard. They could not be discriminated when using metabolite ratios or ADC values alone, nor could they be differentiated using creatine (Cr) as an internal reference even in combination with ADC values. In conclusion, linear discriminant analysis and multiparametric combination of DWI and MRS, although not replacing histology, fully discriminates the four most frequent posterior fossa tumors in children, but metabolites have to be normalized using water and not Cr signal as an internal reference.
    Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2007; 34(1):49-58. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RS) is the leading cause of profound mental retardation of genetic origin in girls. Since RS is mostly caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, transgenic animal models such as the Mecp2-deleted ("Mecp2-null") mouse have been employed to study neurological symptoms and brain function. However, an interdisciplinary approach drawing from chemistry, biology and neuroscience is needed to elucidate the mechanistic links between the genotype and phenotype of this genetic disorder. We performed, for the first time, a metabolomic study of brain extracts from Mecp2-null mice by using high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A large number of individual water-soluble metabolites and phospholipids were quantified without prior selection for specific metabolic pathways. Results were interpreted in terms of Mecp2 gene deletion, brain cell function and brain morphology. This approach provided a "metabolic window" to brain characteristics in Mecp2-null mice (n = 4), revealing (i) the first metabolic evidence of astrocyte involvement in RS (decreased levels of the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, vs. wild-type mice; p = 0.034); (ii) reduced choline phospholipid turnover in Mecp2-null vs. wild-type mice, implying a diminished potential of cells to grow, paralleled by globally reduced brain size and perturbed osmoregulation; (iii) alterations of the platelet activating factor (PAF) cycle in Mecp2-null mouse brains, where PAF is a bioactive lipid acting on neuronal growth, glutamate exocytosis and other processes; and (iv) changes in glutamine/glutamate ratios (p = 0.034) in Mecp2-null mouse brains potentially indicating altered neurotransmitter recycling. This study establishes, for the first time, detailed metabolic fingerprints of perturbed brain growth, osmoregulation and neurotransmission in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Combined with morphological and neurological findings, these results are crucial elements in providing mechanistic links between genotype and phenotype of Rett syndrome. Ultimately, this information can be used to identify novel molecular targets for pharmacological RS treatment.
    PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(1):e157. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is being increasingly performed alongside the more conventional MRI sequences in the exploration of neurological disorders. It is however important to clearly differentiate its clinical applications aiming at improving the differential diagnosis or the prognostic evaluation of the patient, from the research protocols, when MRS can contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease or to the evaluation of new treatments. The most important applications in clinical practice are intracranial space occupying lesions (especially the positive diagnosis of intracranial abscesses and gliomatosis cerebri and the differential diagnosis between edema and tumor infiltration), alcoholic, hepatic, and HIV-related encephalopathies and the exploration of metabolic diseases. Among the research applications, MRS is widely used in multiple sclerosis, ischemia and brain injury, epilepsy and neuro degenerative diseases.
    Revue Neurologique - REV NEUROL. 01/2007; 163(3):287-303.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, manifests itself in numerous forms and stages. A number of brain metabolic alterations have been reported for MS patients vs. control subjects. However, metabolite profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not consistent among the published MS studies, most probably due to variations in the patient cohorts studied. We undertook the first investigation of highly homogeneous MS patient cohorts to determine characteristic effects of inflammatory MS plaques on the CSF metabolome, including only patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) with or without inflammatory brain plaques, and controls. CSF obtained by lumbar puncture was analyzed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 27 metabolites were quantified. Differences between groups of control subjects (n = 10), CIS patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 12) inflammatory plaques were evaluated by univariate statistics and principal component analysis (PCA). Seven metabolites showed statistically significant inter-group differences (p<0.05). Interestingly, a significant increase in beta-hydroxyisobutyrate (BHIB) was detected in CIS with vs. without active plaques, but not when comparing either CIS group with control subjects. Moreover, a significant correlation was found, for the first time, between CSF lactate concentration and the number of inflammatory MS brain plaques. In contrast, fructose concentrations were equally enhanced in CIS with or without active plaques. PCA based on all 27 metabolites yielded group-specific clusters. CSF metabolic profiles suggest a close link between MS plaque activity in CIS patients on the one hand and organic-acid metabolism on the other. Our detection of increased BHIB levels points to a hitherto unsuspected role for this compound in MS with active plaques, and serves as a basis for further investigation. The metabolic effects described in our study are crucial elements in the explanation of biochemical mechanisms involved in specific MS manifestations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2007; 2(7):e595. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Revue Neurologique - REV NEUROL. 01/2007; 163(6):720-720.
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    ABSTRACT: We asked whether blockade of voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.1, whose altered axonal localization during myelin insult and remyelination may disturb nerve conduction, treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Electrophysiological, cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, immunohistochemical, clinical, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and spectroscopy studies assessed the effects of a selective blocker of Kv1.1, BgK-F6A, on neurons and immune cells in vitro and on EAE-induced neurological deficits and brain lesions in Lewis rats. BgK-F6A increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in neurons and did not affect T-cell activation. EAE was characterized by ventriculomegaly, decreased apparent diffusion coefficient, and decreased (phosphocreatine + beta-adenosine triphosphate)/inorganic phosphate ratio. Reduced apparent diffusion coefficient and impaired energy metabolism indicate astrocytic edema. Intracerebroventricularly BgK-F6A-treated rats showed attenuated clinical EAE with unexpectedly reduced ventriculomegaly and preserved apparent diffusion coefficient values and (phosphocreatine + beta-adenosine triphosphate)/inorganic phosphate ratio. Thus, under BgK-F6A treatment, brain damage was dramatically reduced and energy metabolism maintained. Kv1.1 blockade may target neurons and astrocytes, and modulate neuronal activity and neural cell volume, which may partly account for the attenuation of the neurological deficits. We propose that Kv1.1 blockade has a broad therapeutic potential in neuroinflammatory diseases (multiple sclerosis, stroke, and trauma).
    Annals of Neurology 12/2006; 60(5):586-96. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral maturation in the normal human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Fifty-eight subjects at 22-39 weeks of gestational age (GA) were explored. A combination of anterior body phased-array coils (four elements) and posterior spinal coils (two to three elements) was used. Four sequences were performed (point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with short and long TEs (30 and 135 ms), with and without water saturation). A significant reduction in myo-inositol (myo-Ins) and choline (Cho) levels, and an increase in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr) content were observed with progressing age. A new finding is the detection of NAA as early as 22 weeks of GA. This result is probably related to the fact that oligodendrocytes (whether mature or not) express NAA, as demonstrated by in vitro studies. Cho and myo-inositol were the predominant resonances from 22 to 30 weeks and decreased gradually, probably reflecting the variations in substrate needed for membrane synthesis and myelination. The normal MRS data for the second trimester of gestation (when fetal MRI is usually performed) reported here can help determine whether brain metabolism is altered or not, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 11/2006; 56(4):768-75. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C57BL6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice are commonly used as background strains to engineer genetic models of brain pathologies and psychiatric disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy provide alternative approaches to neuroanatomy, histology and neurohistochemistry for investigating the correlation between genes and brain neuroanatomy and neurometabolism in vivo. We used these techniques to non-invasively characterize the cerebral morphologic and metabolic endophenotypes of inbred mouse strains commonly used in neurological and behavioral research. We observed a great variability in the volume of ventricles and of structures involved in cognitive function (cerebellum and hippocampus) among these strains. In addition, distinct metabolic profiles were evidenced with variable levels of N-acetylaspartate, a neuronal marker, and of choline, a compound found in membranes and myelin. Besides, significant differences in high-energy phosphates and phospholipids were detected. Our findings demonstrate the great morphologic and metabolic heterogeneity among C57BL/ 6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice. They emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate genetic background for over-expressing or silencing a gene and provide some directions for modeling symptoms that characterize psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and depression.
    Behavior Genetics 10/2006; 36(5):732-44. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging is playing an increasingly prominent role in depicting brain maturation, especially gyral formation that follows a temporospatial pattern, and in detecting developmental abnormalities of the cortex and other brain sectors. Knowledge of the technical advantages and limitations of in-utero magnetic resonance imaging techniques, relative to those of the postnatal period, is essential to optimize magnetic resonance sequences for early diagnosis. This includes an understanding of the changes in both brain anatomy and magnetic resonance signals that occur with an increase in gestational age. Magnetic resonance imaging has evolved has an important adjunct in the diagnosis of brain malformations, particularly in the late-second or third trimester. Noxious conditions elicit more of a chronic rather than acute response in the fetal brain, which differs from that observed postnatally. Clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may help elucidate fetal brain maturation and its abnormalities from a metabolic point of view. Indications for fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging have increased because of improvements in magnetic resonance techniques and the ability to detect subtle changes within the cerebral parenchyma, especially in fetuses at increased risk of brain damage.
    Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology 05/2006; 18(2):164-76. · 2.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

483 Citations
98.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • • Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (UMR 7339 CRMBM)
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2005–2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2006–2008
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      • Service de neurologie
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France