[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of Salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. A total of 309 Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and for the presence of virulence factors (invA, pagC, spvC) by PCR and for aerobactin and colicin production by bioassays. A subset of these isolates (n = 218) displaying resistance to either sulfisoxazole and/or ceftiofur [S. Typhimurium (n = 66) and S. Kentucky (n = 152)] were further tested for the presence of associated antibiotic resistance elements (class-I integrons and blaCMY genes) by PCR. All 145 ceftiofur resistant S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium isolates possessed blaCMY genes. Class-I integrons were only detected in 6.1% (n = 4/66) of sulfisoxazole resistant S. Typhimurium isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed the presence of genetically diverse populations within the recovered isolates but clusters were generally concordant with serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles. At a 100% pattern similarity index, thirty-six percent of the undistinguishable S. Typhimurium and 22% of the undistinguishable S. Kentucky isolates were recovered from the same chilling step. All isolates possessed the invA and pagC genes, but only 1.4%possessed spvC. Irrespective of the chilling step, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the production of aerobactin and colicin between S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky isolates. Taken together, these results indicate that chilling impacted the recovery of particular Salmonella clonal groups but had no effect on the presence of class-I integrons, blaCMY genes, and tested virulence factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive surveillance, food-borne Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health systems worldwide. As the S. enterica species comprises sublineages that differ greatly in antigenic representation, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, a better understanding of the species' evolution is critical for the prediction and prevention of future outbreaks. The roles that virulence and resistance phenotype acquisition, exchange, and loss play in the evolution of S. enterica sublineages, which to a certain extent are represented by serotypes, remains mostly uncharacterized. Here, we compare 17 newly sequenced and phenotypically characterized nontyphoidal S. enterica strains to 11 previously sequenced S. enterica genomes to carry out the most comprehensive comparative analysis of this species so far. These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. CRISPR analysis could therefore be critical in assessing the evolutionary potential of S. enterica sublineages and aid in the prediction and prevention of future S. enterica outbreaks.
Journal of bacteriology 05/2011; 193(14):3556-68. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although multidrug-resistant (MDR) non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) strains are a concern in food production, determining resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents at slaughter or processing may be impractical. Single antimicrobial resistance results for predicting multidrug resistance are desirable. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were used to determine each antimicrobial agent's ability to predict MDR phenotypes of human health significance: ACSSuT (resistance to at least ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline) in NTS isolates, and MDR-AmpC-SN (resistance to ACSSuT, additional resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and to ceftiofur, and decreased susceptibility [MIC >= 2 microg/ml] to ceftriaxone) in NTS serotype Newport. The U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System determined MICs to 15 or more antimicrobial agents for 9,955 NTS isolates from humans from 1999 to 2004 and 689 NTS isolates from retail meat from 2002 to 2004. A total of 847 (8.5%) human and 26 (3.8%) retail NTS isolates were ACSSuT; 995 (10.0%) human and 16 (2.3%) retail isolates were serotype Newport. Among Salmonella Newport, 204 (20.5%) human and 9 (56.3%) retail isolates were MDR-AmpC-SN. Chloramphenicol resistance provided the highest PPVs for ACSSuT among human (90.5%; 95% confidence interval, 88.4 to 92.3) and retail NTS isolates (96.3%; 95% confidence interval, 81.0 to 99.9). Resistance to ceftiofur and to amoxicillin-clavulanate and decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone provided the highest PPVs (97.1, 98.1, and 98.6%, respectively) for MDR-AmpC-SN from humans. High PPVs for these agents applied to retail meat MDR-AmpC-SN, but isolate numbers were lower. Variations in MIC results may complicate ceftriaxone's predictive utility. Selecting specific antimicrobial resistance offers practical alternatives for predicting MDR phenotypes. Chloramphenicol resistance works best for ACSSuT-NTS, and resistance to ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanate, or chloramphenicol works best for MDR-AmpC-SN.
Journal of food protection 03/2010; 73(3):445-51. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 360 spatially and temporally related Campylobacter isolates, including 168 from clinical human cases (Campylobacter jejuni n = 148; Campylobacter coli n = 20) and 192 from retail meats (C. jejuni n = 114; C. coli n = 78), were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibilities, virulence, and genotypic profiles. Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni was observed in 13.5% and 19% of the isolates from humans and retail chicken breasts, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin was detected in C. coli isolates recovered from 29% and 16.6% of retail meats and 15% and 5% humans, respectively. Overall, virulence determinants were more prevalent in Campylobacter isolates recovered from retail meats than from humans. C. jejuni isolates from humans were significantly associated with the rakR, dnaJ, and pld genes, whereas C. coli isolates from retail meats were associated with the dnaJ, pld, and virB11 virulence genes. Genotyping of 262 C. jejuni isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a total of 186 unique SmaI patterns, with 14% of patterns composed of isolates recovered from retail meats and ill humans. All unique groups with indistinguishable SmaI patterns were further analyzed by a second restriction enzyme (KpnI), which revealed limited overlap between isolates from different sources. Significant association between doxycycline-resistant C. jejuni strains recovered from humans and different virulence genes (e.g., cdtB) was identified at the statistical level but not at the genotypic level. In conclusion, significant differences observed in the distribution of antimicrobial resistance profiles, virulence determinants, and genotypic diversity among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates indicate that there are sources other than retail meats that may also contribute to human Campylobacter infections.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 03/2010; 7(7):835-44. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%), Typhimurium (15.0%) and Heidelberg (1.7%). We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15524. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella continues to cause significant foodborne outbreaks, best illustrated with recent outbreaks associated with peanut butter, raw tomatoes, and serrano peppers. To ascertain the likely source of the outbreak, bacterial typing is essential to this process. While PCR has become an important detection tool for pathogens in foods, PCR can also identify strain differences by targeting gene(s) or sequences exhibiting polymorphisms or variability in its distribution within the bacterial population. Over 2,500 Salmonella enterica serovars identified based on antigenic differences in lipopolysaccharide and flagellin have been identified to date. We developed an allelotyping PCR scheme that identifies the O and H alleles associated with S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and others, with the same antigen alleles but in different O- and H-allele combinations (e.g., S. enterica Kentucky), and validated it as a screen to identify samples contaminated with these Salmonella serovars. We correctly identified poultry samples containing S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Kentucky, and Typhimurium from our multiplex screen of primary enrichments of environmental drag swabs. PCR agreed well (kappa values = 0.81 to 1.0) with conventional serotyping methods used to type salmonellae isolated from primary enrichment. Coupled with Salmonella-specific PCR, such as invA, this allelotyping PCR could prove useful in the identification of Salmonella and specific S. enterica serovars present in foods or the environment and could decrease the time and cost associated with conventional serotyping methods.
Journal of food protection 10/2009; 72(10):2198-201. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, is less commonly isolated from ill humans. The multidrug-resistant isolate S. Kentucky CVM29188, isolated from a chicken breast sample in 2003, contains three plasmids (146,811 bp, 101,461 bp, and 46,121 bp), two of which carry resistance determinants (pCVM29188_146 [strAB and tetRA] and pCVM29188_101 [bla(CMY-2) and sugE]). Both resistance plasmids were transferable by conjugation, alone or in combination, to S. Kentucky, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, and Escherichia coli recipients. pCVM29188_146 shares a highly conserved plasmid backbone of 106 kb (>90% nucleotide identity) with two virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (pAPEC-O1-ColBM and pAPEC-O2-ColV). Shared avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) virulence factors include iutA iucABCD, sitABCD, etsABC, iss, and iroBCDEN. PCR analyses of recent (1997 to 2005) S. Kentucky isolates from food animal, retail meat, and human sources revealed that 172 (60%) contained similar APEC-like plasmid backbones. Notably, though rare in human- and cattle-derived isolates, this plasmid backbone was found at a high frequency (50 to 100%) among S. Kentucky isolates from chickens within the same time span. Ninety-four percent of the APEC-positive isolates showed resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Together, our findings of a resistance-conferring APEC virulence plasmid in a poultry-derived S. Kentucky isolate and of similar resistance/virulence plasmids in most recent S. Kentucky isolates from chickens and, to lesser degree, from humans and cattle highlight the need for additional research in order to examine the prevalence and spread of combined virulence and resistance plasmids in bacteria in agricultural, environmental, and clinical settings.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2009; 75(18):5963-71. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The origins and virulence potential of meat product-associated Escherichia coli are undefined.
Two hundred eighty-seven E. coli isolates (145 resistant and 142 susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and/or ceftiofur), recovered by the United States National Antimicrobial Monitoring System from retail beef, pork, chicken, and turkey products (from Oregon, Tennessee, Georgia, and Maryland, 2002-2004) underwent polymerase chain reaction testing for phylogenetic groupings and 59 virulence-associated genes.
However analyzed, resistant and susceptible isolates differed minimally according to the assessed characteristics. In contrast, the 4 meat types differed greatly for multiple individual traits and aggregate virulence scores. Poultry isolates exhibited virulence genes associated with avian pathogenic E. coli; beef isolates exhibited traits associated with E. coli from diseased cattle. Overall, 20% of isolates qualified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, with poultry isolates exhibiting significantly higher virulence scores than beef and pork isolates (P < .001).
Within this systematically collected, geographically distributed sample of recent retail meat isolates, the carriage of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli virulence genes in antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli appeared similar, whereas isolates from different types of meat differed, consistent with on-farm acquisition of resistance within host species-specific E. coli populations. A substantial minority of meat-source E. coli (whether susceptible or resistant) may represent potential human pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic IncA/C plasmid pRAx (49,763 bp), isolated from Escherichia coli transconjugant D7-3, which was obtained through pRA1 transfer in 1980. Using comparative sequence analysis of pRA1 and pRAx with recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family, we show that both plasmids provide novel insights into the evolution of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family and the minimal machinery necessary for stable IncA/C plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family evolved from a common ancestor, similar in composition to pRA1, through stepwise integration of horizontally acquired resistance gene arrays into a conserved plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons predict type IV secretion-like conjugative transfer operons encoded on the shared plasmid backbones to be closely related to a group of integrating conjugative elements, which use conjugative transfer for horizontal propagation but stably integrate into the host chromosome during vegetative growth. A hipAB toxin-antitoxin gene cluster found on pRA1, which in Escherichia coli is involved in the formation of persister cell subpopulations, suggests persistence as an early broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the evolution of IncA/C resistance plasmids.
Journal of bacteriology 06/2009; 191(15):4750-7. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty-eight Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates isolated from food animals were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities and further characterized for select antimicrobial resistance genes, plasmid carriage, class 1 integrons, and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seventy-two percent of isolates displayed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, while 24% exhibited resistance to eight or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance was most commonly observed to tetracycline (71%), streptomycin (62%), and kanamycin (52%). Isolates obtained from cattle and swine displayed the highest rates of resistance while isolates from chickens more often displayed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials. When resistance was detected, a corresponding resistance gene was detected in 97.3% of the isolates. Thirteen percent of the isolates contained class 1 integrons containing at least one resistance gene, most often either the aadA or dhfrA genes, which are often associated with resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, respectively. Twenty isolates contained plasmids estimated to be at least 75 kb in size, 17 of which exhibited resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Thirty PFGE patterns were generated among the 58 isolates tested using XbaI, indicating extensive heterogeneity among this serotype across different animal origins. Results confirm the presence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotypes among food animal isolates of serovar Heidelberg, especially those obtained from mammalian species. The observed MDR was typically associated with the presence of large plasmids.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 01/2009; 6(2):207-15. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are major players in human urinary tract infections, neonatal bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. Recently, it has been suggested that there might be a zoonotic component to these infections. To determine whether the E. coli contaminating retail poultry are possible extraintestinal pathogens, and to ascertain the source of these contaminants, they were assessed for their genetic similarities to E. coli incriminated in colibacillosis (avian pathogenic E. coli [APEC]), E. coli isolated from multiple locations of apparently healthy birds at slaughter, and human ExPEC. It was anticipated that the retail poultry isolates would most closely resemble avian fecal E. coli since only apparently healthy birds are slaughtered, and fecal contamination of carcasses is the presumed source of meat contamination. Surprisingly, this supposition proved incorrect, as the retail poultry isolates exhibited gene profiles more similar to APEC than to fecal isolates. These isolates contained a number of ExPEC-associated genes, including those associated with ColV virulence plasmids, and many belonged to the B2 phylogenetic group, known to be virulent in human hosts. Additionally, E. coli isolated from the crops and gizzards of apparently healthy birds at slaughter also contained a higher proportion of ExPEC-associated genes than did the avian fecal isolates examined. Such similarities suggest that the widely held beliefs about the sources of poultry contamination may need to be reassessed. Also, the presence of ExPEC-like clones on retail poultry meat means that we cannot yet rule out poultry as a source of ExPEC human disease.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 01/2009; 6(6):657-67. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Florfenicol (FFC) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of several bacterial diseases of cultured fish species in the United States (US), including the treatment of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri. ...
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2008; 53(2):845-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical Salmonella serotyping is an expensive and time consuming process that requires implementing a battery of O and H antisera to detect 2,541 different Salmonella enterica serovars. For these reasons, we developed a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing scheme to screen for the prevalent S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium.
By analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the genes for O-antigen biosynthesis including wba operon and the central variable regions of the H1 and H2 flagellin genes in Salmonella, designated PCR primers for four multiplex PCR reactions were used to detect and differentiate Salmonella serogroups A/D1, B, C1, C2, or E1; H1 antigen types i, g, m, r or z10; and H2 antigen complexes, I: 1,2; 1,5; 1,6; 1,7 or II: e,n,x; e,n,z15. Through the detection of these antigen gene allele combinations, we were able to distinguish among S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. The assays were useful in identifying Salmonella with O and H antigen gene alleles representing 43 distinct serovars. While the H2 multiplex could discriminate between unrelated H2 antigens, the PCR could not discern differences within the antigen complexes, 1,2; 1,5; 1,6; 1,7 or e,n,x; e,n,z15, requiring a final confirmatory PCR test in the final serovar reporting of S. enterica.
Multiplex PCR assays for detecting specific O and H antigen gene alleles can be a rapid and cost-effective alternative approach to classical serotyping for presumptive identification of S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant enterococci and staphylococci from the poultry production environment are sparse in the United States. This information is needed for science-based risk assessments of antimicrobial use in animal husbandry and potential public-health consequences. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of staphylococci and enterococci isolated from poultry litter, recovered from 24 farms across Georgia, to several antimicrobials of veterinary and human health importance. Among the 90 Enterococcus isolates recovered, E. hirae (46%) was the most frequently encountered species, followed by E. faecium (27%), E. gallinarum (12%), and E. faecalis (10%). Antimicrobial resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (96%), followed by clindamycin (90%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (62%), penicillin (53%), erythromycin (50%), nitrofurantoin (49%), and clarithromycin (48%). Among the 110 staphylococci isolates recovered, only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified with the predominant Staphylococcus species being S. sciuri (38%), S. lentus (21%), S. xylosus (14%) and S. simulans (12%). Resistance was less-frequently observed among the Staphylococcus isolates for the majority of antimicrobials tested, as compared with Enterococcus isolates, and was primarily limited to clarithromycin (71%), erythromycin (71%), clindamycin (48%), and tetracycline (38%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes were prevalent in both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus; however, Enterococcus exhibited a statistically significant difference in the median number of antimicrobials to which resistance was observed (median = 5.0) compared with Staphylococcus species (median = 3.0). Because resistance to several of these antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria may be attributed to the shuttling of common drug-resistance genes, we also determined which common antimicrobial-resistance genes were present in both enterococci and staphylococci. The antimicrobial resistance genes vat(D) and erm(B) were present in enterococci, vgaB in staphylococci, and mobile genetic elements Tn916 and pheromone-inducible plasmids were only identified in enterococci. These data suggest that the disparity in antimicrobial-resistance phenotypes and genotypes between enterococci and staphylococci isolated from the same environment is, in part, because of barriers preventing exchange of mobile DNA elements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from processed poultry. Four hundred eighty pre- and postchill whole broiler chicken carcasses were collected from a poultry processing plant between July 2004 and June 2005. Water samples also were collected at the entrance and exit of the chiller. After preenrichment, carcass and water samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using the automated BAX system followed by traditional culture methods. The proportions of pre- and postchill carcasses that were positive for Salmonella were 88.4 and 84.1%, respectively. Ninety-two percent of water samples collected at the entrance of the chiller were positive for Salmonella, but all exit samples were negative. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella between pre- and postchill carcasses (P > 0.05). Salmonella isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials. Thirteen serotypes were identified; the most common were Salmonella Kentucky (59.5%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (17.8%). Three hundred thirty-nine (79.8%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 53.4% were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (73.4% of isolates), ampicillin (52.9%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (52%), ceftiofur (51.7%), streptomycin (35.2%), and sulfisoxazole (21.8%). These results indicate the high prevalence of Salmonella contamination in whole broiler carcasses, and a large number of these Salmonella isolates were resistant to commonly used antimicrobials.
Journal of food protection 12/2007; 70(11):2466-72. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of antimicrobial agents in food animals can select for resistant bacterial pathogens that may be transmitted to humans via the commercial meat supply. In the USA, the FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine regulatory duties require a determination that antimicrobial drugs are safe and effective for use in food animals. In addition, a qualitative assessment of risks to human health from antimicrobial resistance requires development. This risk assessment process is supported by data generated by the FDA's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for enteric bacteria. NARMS data on antimicrobial susceptibility among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus is collected. Research activities defining the genetic bases of resistance helps to understand the potential public health risks posed by the spread of antimicrobial resistance from food animal antimicrobial use. These activities help insure that antimicrobials are used judiciously to promote human and animal health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared 581 Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund isolates from persons, food, and food animals in Denmark, Thailand, and the United States by antimicrobial drug susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Resistance, including resistance to nalidixic acid, was frequent among isolates from persons and chickens in Thailand, persons in the United States, and food imported from Thailand to Denmark and the United States. A total of 183 PFGE patterns were observed, and 136 (23.4%) isolates had the 3 most common patterns. Seven of 14 isolates from persons in Denmark had patterns found in persons and chicken meat in Thailand; 22 of 390 human isolates from the United States had patterns found in Denmark and Thailand. This study suggests spread of multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund from chickens to persons in Thailand, and from imported Thai food products to persons in Denmark and the United States.