Steven R Brant

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (147)1602.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has familial aggregation in African Americans (AAs), but little is known about the molecular genetic susceptibility. Mapping studies using the Immunochip genotyping array expand the number of susceptibility loci for IBD in Caucasians to 163, but the contribution of the 163 loci and European admixture to IBD risk in AAs is unclear. We performed a genetic mapping study using the Immunochip to determine whether IBD susceptibility loci in Caucasians also affect risk in AAs and identify new associated loci. We recruited AAs with IBD and without IBD (controls) from 34 IBD centers in the US; additional controls were collected from 4 other immunochip studies. Association and admixture loci were mapped for 1088 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 361 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 62 with IBD type-unknown (IBDU), and 1797 controls; 130,241 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed. The strongest associations were observed between UC and HLA rs9271366 (P=7.5e-6), CD and 5p13.1 rs254855 (P=3.0e-6), and IBD and KAT2A rs730086 (P=2.3e-6). Additional suggestive associations (P<4.2e-5) were observed between CD and IBD and African-specific SNPs in STAT5A and STAT3; between IBD and SNPs in IL23R, IL12B, and C2 open reading frame 43; and between UC and SNPs near HDAC11 and near LINC00994. The latter 3 loci have not been previously associated with IBD, but require replication. Established Caucasian associations were replicated in AAs (P<3.1e-4) at NOD2, IL23R, 5p15.3, and IKZF3. Significant admixture (P<3.9e-4) was observed for 17q12-17q21.31 (IZKF3 through STAT3), 10q11.23-10q21.2, 15q22.2-15q23, and 16p12.2-16p12.1. Network analyses showed significant enrichment (false discovery rate <1e-5) in genes that encode members of the JAK-STAT, cytokine, and chemokine signaling pathways, as well those involved in pathogenesis of measles. In a genetic analysis of 1511 AAs with IBD, we found that many variants associated with IBD in Caucasians also showed association evidence with these diseases in AAs; we found evidence for loci and variants not previously associated with IBD. The complex genetic factors that determine risk for or protection from IBD in different populations require further study. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Gastroenterology 08/2015; DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.07.065 · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defects in intestinal innate defense systems predispose patients to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases in the mucosal barrier maintain gut homeostasis and defend against pathogenic attack. We hypothesized that molecular genetic defects in intestinal NADPH oxidases might be present in children with IBD. After targeted exome sequencing of epithelial NADPH oxidases NOX1 and DUOX2 on 209 children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD), the identified mutations were validated using Sanger Sequencing. A structural analysis of NOX1 and DUOX2 variants was performed by homology in silico modeling. The functional characterization included ROS generation in model cell lines and in in vivo transduced murine crypts, protein expression, intracellular localization, and cell-based infection studies with the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. We identified missense mutations in NOX1 (c.988G>A, p.Pro330Ser; c.967G>A, p.Asp360Asn) and DUOX2 (c.4474G>A, p.Arg1211Cys; c.3631C>T, p.Arg1492Cys) in 5 of 209 VEOIBD patients. The NOX1 p.Asp360Asn variant was replicated in a male Ashkenazi Jewish ulcerative colitis cohort. All NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed reduced ROS production compared with wild-type enzymes. Despite appropriate cellular localization and comparable pathogen-stimulated translocation of altered oxidases, cells harboring NOX1 or DUOX2 variants had defective host resistance to infection with C. jejuni. This study identifies the first inactivating missense variants in NOX1 and DUOX2 associated with VEOIBD. Defective ROS production from intestinal epithelial cells constitutes a risk factor for developing VEOIBD.
    06/2015; 1(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2015.06.005
  • S. Hutfless · E.S. Al Kazzi · S.R. Brant · P. Matos
    Value in Health 05/2015; 18(3):A223. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2015.03.1295 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-4. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30009-3 · 16.72 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-80. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30281-X · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) mediate intestinal immune tolerance. Despite striking differences between the colon and the ileum both in function and bacterial load, few studies distinguish between properties of immune cells in these compartments. Furthermore, information of gut DC in humans is scarce. We aimed to characterise human colonic versus ileal DC. Human DC from paired colonic and ileal samples were characterised by flow cytometry, electron microscopy or used to stimulate T cell responses in a mixed leucocyte reaction. A lower proportion of colonic DC produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β) compared with their ileal counterparts and exhibited an enhanced ability to generate CD4(+)FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) (regulatory) T cells. There were enhanced proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(-) DC in the colon, with increased proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC in the ileum. A greater proportion of colonic DC subsets analysed expressed the lymph-node-homing marker CCR7, alongside enhanced endocytic capacity, which was most striking in CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. Expression of the inhibitory receptor ILT3 was enhanced on colonic DC. Interestingly, endocytic capacity was associated with CD103(+) DC, in particular CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. However, expression of ILT3 was associated with CD103(-) DC. Colonic and ileal DC differentially expressed skin-homing marker CCR4 and small-bowel-homing marker CCR9, respectively, and this corresponded to their ability to imprint these homing markers on T cells. The regulatory properties of colonic DC may represent an evolutionary adaptation to the greater bacterial load in the colon. The colon and the ileum should be regarded as separate entities, each comprising DC with distinct roles in mucosal immunity and imprinting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Gut 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307916 · 14.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This region encodes a large number of immunological candidates, including the antigen-presenting classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Studies in IBD have indicated that multiple independent associations exist at HLA and non-HLA genes, but they have lacked the statistical power to define the architecture of association and causal alleles. To address this, we performed high-density SNP typing of the MHC in >32,000 individuals with IBD, implicating multiple HLA alleles, with a primary role for HLA-DRB1∗01:03 in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Noteworthy differences were observed between these diseases, including a predominant role for class II HLA variants and heterozygous advantage observed in ulcerative colitis, suggesting an important role of the adaptive immune response in the colonic environment in the pathogenesis of IBD.
    Nature Genetics 01/2015; 47(2):172-179. DOI:10.1038/ng.3176 · 29.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer.
    Frontiers in Oncology 11/2014; 4:323. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00323
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the northern hemisphere, the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has a north-south gradient, suggesting a link between ultraviolet (UV) exposure or vitamin D status and the pathogenesis of IBD. Aim To test the association of UV exposure with the rates and severity of IBD hospitalisation. Methods We conducted a retrospective nationwide analysis of 649 932 Crohn's disease (CD), 384 267 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 288 894 297 non-IBD hospitalisations in the US between 1998 and 2010. Mean UV exposure was assigned to each hospitalisation using surface measures from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Relative rates across UV exposures were estimated for IBD hospitalisations, prolonged hospitalisations, bowel surgeries and deaths. Results Among IBD patients, lower UV exposures had increased hospitalisation rates for CD (217.8 vs. 182.5 per 100 000 overall hospitalisations with low and very high UV, respectively; P trend <0.001) and UC (123.2 vs. 113.8 per 100 000; P trend = 0.033). Low UV groups had greater relative rates of prolonged hospitalisations [CD: 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19; UC: 1.21, 95% CI 1.13-1.30], bowel surgeries (CD: 1.24, 95% CI 1.16-1.32; UC: 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.33), and CD deaths (CD: 1.76, 95% CI 1.14-2.71; UC: 1.24, 95% CI 0.92-1.67). Among non-IBD patients, low UV was associated with prolonged hospitalisations (1.09; 95% CI 1.07-1.11) and deaths (1.13; 95% CI 1.09-1.17), but not bowel surgeries (1.01; 95% CI 0.99-1.03). Conclusions Lower ultraviolet exposure is associated with greater rates of hospitalisation, prolonged hospitalisation and the need for bowel surgery in IBD. This trend for bowel surgery was not seen with non-IBD encounters.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 06/2014; 40(5). DOI:10.1111/apt.12845 · 5.73 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-35. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)60119-0 · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ashkenazi Jewish population has a several-fold higher prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) compared with non-Jewish European ancestry populations and has a unique genetic history. Haplotype association is critical to CD etiology in this population, most notably at NOD2, in which three causal, uncommon and conditionally independent NOD2 variants reside on a shared background haplotype. We present an analysis of extended haplotypes that showed significantly greater association to CD in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared with a non-Jewish population (145 haplotypes and no haplotypes with P-value <10(-3), respectively). Two haplotype regions, one each on chromosomes 16 and 21, conferred increased disease risk within established CD loci. We performed exome sequencing of 55 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals and follow-up genotyping focused on variants in these two regions. We observed Ashkenazi Jewish-specific nominal association at R755C in TRPM2 on chromosome 21. Within the chromosome 16 region, R642S of HEATR3 and rs9922362 of BRD7 showed genome-wide significance. Expression studies of HEATR3 demonstrated a positive role in NOD2-mediated NF-κB signaling. The BRD7 signal showed conditional dependence with only the downstream rare CD-causal variants in NOD2, but not with the background haplotype; this elaborates NOD2 as a key illustration of synthetic association.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 25 April 2013; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.19.
    Genes and immunity 04/2013; 14(5). DOI:10.1038/gene.2013.19 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 02/2013; 7(5):S286-S287. DOI:10.1016/S1873-9946(13)60708-4 · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In classifying Crohn's disease (CD) location, proximal (L4) disease includes esophagogastroduodenal (EGD) and jejunal disease. Our aim was to determine the influence of proximal disease on outcomes of behavior and need for surgery and to determine if there was significant clinical heterogeneity between EGD and jejunal disease. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional query of the NIDDK (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium (IBDGC) database of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CD and phenotyped per the IBDGC manual. Presence of any L4, L4-EGD, L4-jejunal, and non-L4 disease (L1-ileal, L2-colonic, and L3-ileocolonic) was compared with demographic features including age, race, ethnicity, smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) family history, diagnosis age, disease duration, clinical outcomes of inflammatory, stricturing or penetrating behavior, and CD abdominal surgeries. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed with R. Results: Among 2,105 patients with complete disease location data, 346 had L4 disease (175 L4-EGD, 115 L4-jejunal, and 56 EGD and jejunal) with 321 having concurrent L1-L3 disease. In all, 1,759 had only L1-L3 disease. L4 vs. non-L4 patients were more likely (P<0.001) to be younger at diagnosis, non-smokers, have coexisting ileal involvement, and have stricturing disease. L4-jejunal vs. L4-EGD patients were at least twice as likely (P<0.001) to have had ileal disease, stricturing behavior, and any or multiple abdominal surgeries. Remarkably, L4-jejunal patients had more (P<0.001) stricturing behavior and multiple abdominal surgeries than non-L4 ileal disease patients. Logistic regression showed stricturing risks were ileal (without proximal) site (odds ratio (OR) 3.18; 95% confidence interval 2.23-4.64), longer disease duration (OR 1.33/decade; 1.19-1.49), jejunal site (OR 2.90; 1.89-4.45), and older age at diagnosis (OR 1.21/decade; 1.10-1.34). Multiple surgery risks were disease duration (OR 3.74/decade; 3.05-4.64), penetrating disease (OR 2.60; 1.64-4.21), and jejunal site (OR 2.39; 1.36-4.20), with short duration from diagnosis to first surgery protective (OR 0.87/decade to first surgery; 0.84-0.90). Conclusions: Jejunal disease is a significantly greater risk factor for stricturing disease and multiple abdominal surgeries than either EGD or ileal (without proximal) disease. The Montreal site classification should be revised to include separate designations for jejunal and EGD disease.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 108(1). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2012.389 · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) are an admixed population of West African (WA) and European ancestry (EA). Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility genes have not been established. We therefore evaluated the contribution of European admixture and major established risk genes to AA CD. METHODS: Ninety-seven admixture informative markers were genotyped for ancestry estimates using STRUCTURE. Overall, 354 AA CD cases and 354 ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for total 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATG16L1, NOD2, IBD5, IL23R and IRGM by TaqMan or direct sequencing. Association was evaluated by logistic regression, adjusted for ancestry. RESULTS: Mean EA was similar among the CD cases and controls (20.9% and 20.4%, respectively, P = 0.58). No significant admixture differences were observed among 211 to 227 cases stratified by phenotypic subclassifications including onset, surgery, site, and behavior. CD was associated with NOD2 carrier (6.93% CD, 2.15% Controls, P = 0.007), ATG16L1 Thr300Ala (36.1% CD, 29.3% Controls, P = 0.003), SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 (IBD5 locus) functional SNPs (Leu503Phe [10.5% CD, 7.6% Controls, P = 0.05] and g-207c [41.3% CD, 35.7% Controls, P = 0.03], respectively), and IL23R rs2201841 (18.2% CD, 13.8% Controls, P = 0.03), but not IRGM variants, nor three African ancestral NOD2 nonsynonymous variants. IBD5 risk was recessive. An all-minor allele IBD5 haplotype from EA was associated (P = 0.05), whereas a more common haplotype isolating g-207c was not. CONCLUSIONS: Specific functional gene variations contribute significantly to AA CD risk. Established NOD2, SLC22A4-A5, and ATG16L1 variants show increased CD risk, with IBD5 recessive. Although CD is more common in whites, European admixture is similar among AA cases and controls. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;).
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 12/2012; 18(12). DOI:10.1002/ibd.22931 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Steven R Brant
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, investigators have used whole genome linkage and genome-wide association studies, including the “Immunochip” study, to identify a surprising number (over 163) of genetic loci containing susceptibility genes for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its 2 major phenotypes, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These loci, although nearly all low-risk, have provided important lessons regarding the nature of IBD etiopathogenesis, including that most loci cause both CD and UC risk; one-third of loci have risk for other common autoimmune diseases; numerous loci contain genes that regulate immunity to microbes; Th17 cells are disproportionately influenced by genes within IBD loci; and the HLA region influences UC far greater than CD. Interleukin-10 receptor subunit (IL10RA and IL10RB) and IL10 cytokine gene mutations cause a rare, severe, infantile-onset, autosomal recessive CD, and this knowledge has allowed curative treatment by bone marrow transplant. Key tasks for broader clinical translation include discovery of risk variants for non-white populations; discovery of the less frequent but higher penetrance and familial risk variants by next-generation sequencing; and determining which of numerous associated variations within loci result in specific gene dysfunction causing IBD risk—as only a small number of genes within IBD loci, including NOD2, IL23R, ATG16L1, IRGM, and PTPN22 have specific functional variations characterized. Studying the effect of IBD susceptiblity gene dysfunctions in tissue cultures and animal models will allow the ultimate translational benefits of developing novel treatments for and potentially preventing IBD in those having specific genetic risk factors.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 11/2012; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2012.11.001 · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.
    Nature 11/2012; 491(7422):119-24. DOI:10.1038/nature11582 · 41.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IBD5, IL23R, and ATG16L1 genetic variations are established Crohn's disease (CD) risks alleles. We evaluated these in a population-based case-control study within a cohort to determine their penetrance, population attributable risk, independence, and relationship to other established CD risk factors, including NOD2. DNA from 213 CD, 118 [corrected] ulcerative colitis, and 315 [corrected] healthy control subjects from the population based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry were genotyped for IBD5 and IL23R single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),and for the Thr 300Ala ATG16L1 SNP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for these and nongenetic risk factors.We introduce multidimensionality reduction (MDR) to explore gene– gene interactions. ATG16L1, IBD5, and IL23R SNPs were significantly associated with CD. Multivariate analysis showed independent CD association for carriers of ATG16L1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.24), IBD5-IGR2230 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.30-3.59), and IL23R-rs10889677 (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.39-3.28) while retaining association for NOD2 mutation carriers (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 2.68-7.38), IBD family history (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.42-5.31), tobacco (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.14), and Jewish ethnicity (OR = 20.1, 95% CI 2.16-186.8). IL23R minor variants for Arg381Gln and Intron 6 rs7517848 showed independent, CD protection and 3' untranslated variant rs108896778 showed risk. MDR analysis suggested an interaction between IBD5, ATG16L1, and IL23R risk alleles. Penetrance values for ATG16L1 and IBD5 were 0.27% for heterozygotes, and 0.35% and 0.44%, respectively, for homozygotes. IL23R rs108896778 penetrance was 0.37%. A population-based analysis of CD risk factors is useful for characterizing the epidemiology of multiple CD genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Gene-gene interactions are likely, but require further evaluation in large population-based cohorts.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 08/2012; 14(11):1528-41. DOI:10.1002/ibd.20512 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation at discrete loci is a prevalent cancer-promoting abnormality in sporadic colorectal carcinomas (S-CRCs). We investigated genome-wide CGI methylation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated CRCs (IBD-CRCs). Methylation microarray analyses were conducted on seven IBD-CRCs, 17 S-CRCs, and eight normal control colonic tissues from patients without CRC or IBD. CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP), a surrogate marker for widespread cancer-specific CGI hypermethylation, was examined in 30 IBD-CRCs and 43 S-CRCs. The genome-wide CGI methylation pattern of IBD-CRCs was CIMP status-dependent. Based on methylation array data profiling of all autosomal loci, CIMP(+) IBD-CRCs grouped together with S-CRCs, while CIMP(-) IBD-CRCs grouped together with control tissues. CIMP(-) IBD-CRCs demonstrated less methylation than did age-matched CIMP(-) S-CRCs at autosomal CGIs (z-score -0.17 vs. 0.09, P = 3 × 10(-3)) and CRC-associated hypermethylation target CGIs (z-score -0.43 vs. 0.68, P = 1 × 10(-4)). Age-associated hypermethylation target CGIs were significantly overrepresented in CGIs that were hypermethylated in S-CRCs (P = 1 × 10(-192)), but not in CGIs that were hypermethylated in IBD-CRCs (P = 0.11). In contrast, KRAS mutation prevalence was similar between IBD-CRCs and S-CRCs. Notably, CIMP(+) prevalence was significantly higher in older than in younger IBD-CRC cases (50.0 vs. 4.2, P = 0.02), but not in S-CRC cases (9.7 vs. 16.7, P = 0.92). Cancer-specific CGI hypermethylation and age-associated CGI hypermethylation are diminished in IBD-CRCs relative to S-CRCs, while the KRAS mutation rate is comparable between these cancers. CGI hypermethylation appears to play only a minor role in IBD-associated carcinogenesis. We speculate that aging, rather than inflammation per se, promotes CIMP(+) CRCs in IBD patients.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 04/2012; 18(4):641-8. DOI:10.1002/ibd.21826 · 4.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,602.72 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Gastroenterology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Oxford
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Pathobiological Sciences
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2006
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States