[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antivector immunity has been recognized as a potential caveat of using virus-based vaccines. In the present study, an alphavirus-based replicon particle vaccine platform, which has demonstrated robust immunogenicity in animal models, was tested for effects of antivector immunity on immunogenicity against hemagglutinin of influenza virus as a target antigen and efficacy for protection against lethal challenge with the virus. Chimeric alphavirus-based replicon particles, comprising Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nonstructural and Sindbis virus structural components, induced efficient protective antibody responses, which were not adversely influenced after multiple immunizations with the same vector expressing various antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: During the past century, vaccinologists have attempted to mimic pathogens in their immune-enhancing capacity. This led to the development of life-saving vaccines based on live attenuated viruses, bacteria and toxoids. Hence, intense research in vaccine adjuvant discovery has focused on toll like receptors, mutant toxins and viral and bacterial vectors. Nutritive components such as vitamins and select polyphenols also possess immunomodulating properties without the potential toxic and adverse side effects of agents that mimic danger signals. AREAS COVERED: This review pertains to immunomodulatory properties of nutritive components, that is vitamins A, C, D, E, flavonoids and plant oils, as potential vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems, covering Pubmed publication searches from 1980 through 2011. EXPERT OPINION: This relatively unexplored field of the potential of nutritive components as vaccine adjuvants holds great promise to promote the development of effective and above all safe vaccines. Hence the future focus should be placed on enhancing their efficacy, mainly through novel approaches in designing structural derivatives, formulations, delivery systems and routes of administration. As safety has been the major issue in development of novel vaccines, this new approach will probably result in new discoveries in designing safe and effective vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally coadministered with a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antigen to pigs. Detoxified Escherichia coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity, demonstrating their efficacy as adjuvants for nonreplicating antigens upon intranasal immunization in swine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-replicating protein- or DNA-based antigens generally require immune-enhancing adjuvants and delivery systems. It has been particularly difficult to raise antibodies against gp120 of HIV-1, which constitutes an important approach in HIV vaccine design. While almost all effort in adjuvant research has focused on mimicking the pathogens and the danger signals they engender in the host, relatively little effort has been spent on nutritive approaches. In this study, a new nutritive immune-enhancing delivery system (NIDS) composed of vitamin A, a polyphenol-flavonoid, catechin hydrate, and mustard oil was tested for its adjuvant effect in immune responses against the gp120 protein of HIV-1(CN54). Following a combination of two mucosal and two systemic vaccinations of mice, we found significant enhancement of both local and systemic antibodies as well as cytokine responses. These data have important implications for vaccine and adjuvant design against HIV-1 and other pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether long-term immunological B cell memory following mucosal vaccinations is maintained by terminally differentiated Ig-CD45R- plasma cells or Ig+CD45R+ B cells, we immunized mice orally with the non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) as a carrier protein haptenated with FITC (CTB-FITC) plus CT adjuvant. We found that the adoptive transfer of Ig+CD45R+ but not the Ig-CD45R- cells, resulted in higher numbers of FITC-specific IgA-secreting cells in the intestine as well as higher anti-FITC serum IgA titers, suggesting that long term B cell immunological memory following oral vaccinations preferentially resided within the Ig+CD45R+ B cell population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are currently over thirty million people infected with HIV and there are no vaccines available to prevent HIV infections or disease. The genitourinary, rectal and oral mucosa are the mucosal HIV transmission routes. An effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and local mucosal immunity is generally accepted as a major means of protection against mucosal HIV transmission and AIDS.
Structure and cells that comprise the oral, vaginal and rectal mucosa pertaining to HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through each mucosal route to prevent mucosal and systemic infection will be discussed.
Covering publications from 1980s through 2010, mucosal transmission of HIV and current and previous approaches to vaccinations are discussed.
Although oral transmission of HIV is far less common than vaginal and rectal transmissions, infections through this route do occur through oral sex as well as vertically from mother to child. Mucosal vaccination strategies against oral and other mucosal HIV transmissions are under intensive research but the lack of consensus on immune correlates of protection and lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems hamper progress towards a licensed vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that rhesus macaques were partially protected against high-dose intravenous challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162P4) following sequential immunization with alphavirus replicon particles (VRP) of a chimeric recombinant VEE/SIN alphavirus (derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEE] and the Sindbis virus [SIN]) encoding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1(SF162) gp140DeltaV2 envelope (Env) and trimeric Env protein in MF59 adjuvant (R. Xu, I. K. Srivastava, C. E. Greer, I. Zarkikh, Z. Kraft, L. Kuller, J. M. Polo, S. W. Barnett, and L. Stamatatos, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 22:1022-1030, 2006). The protection did not require T-cell immune responses directed toward simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag. We extend those findings here to demonstrate antibody-mediated protection against mucosal challenge in macaques using prime-boost regimens incorporating both intramuscular and mucosal routes of delivery. The macaques in the vaccination groups were primed with VRP and then boosted with Env protein in MF59 adjuvant, or they were given VRP intramuscular immunizations alone and then challenged with SHIV(SF162P4) (intrarectal challenge). The results demonstrated that these vaccines were able to effectively protect the macaques to different degrees against subsequent mucosal SHIV challenge, but most noteworthy, all macaques that received the intramuscular VRP prime plus Env protein boost were completely protected. A statistically significant association was observed between the titer of virus neutralizing and binding antibodies as well as the avidity of anti-Env antibodies measured prechallenge and protection from infection. These results highlight the merit of the alphavirus replicon vector prime plus Env protein boost vaccine approach for the induction of protective antibody responses and are of particular relevance to advancing our understanding of the potential correlates of immune protection against HIV infection at a relevant mucosal portal of entry.
Journal of Virology 06/2010; 84(12):5975-85. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02533-09 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seasonal influenza virus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, and there is a serious threat of a pandemic influenza with the potential to cause millions of deaths. Therefore, practical influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies that can confer protection against intranasal infection with influenza viruses are needed. In this study, we demonstrate that using LTK63, a nontoxic mutant of the heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli, as an adjuvant for both mucosal and systemic immunizations, systemic (intramuscular) immunization or combinations of mucosal (intranasal) and intramuscular immunizations protected mice against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of live influenza virus at 3.5 months after the second immunization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broad, multispecific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as virus-cross-neutralizing antibodies, are associated with recovery
from acute infection and may also be associated in chronic HCV patients with a favorable response to antiviral treatment.
In order to recapitulate all of these responses in an ideal vaccine regimen, we have explored the use of recombinant HCV polypeptides
combined with various Th1-type adjuvants and replication-defective alphaviral particles encoding HCV proteins in various prime/boost
modalities in BALB/c mice. Defective chimeric alphaviral particles derived from the Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
viruses encoding either the HCV envelope glycoprotein gpE1/gpE2 heterodimer (E1E2) or nonstructural proteins 3, 4, and 5 (NS345)
elicited strong CD8+ T-cell responses but low CD4+ T helper responses to these HCV gene products. In contrast, recombinant E1E2 glycoproteins adjuvanted with MF59 containing
a CpG oligonucleotide elicited strong CD4+ T helper responses but no CD8+ T-cell responses. A recombinant NS345 polyprotein also stimulated strong CD4+ T helper responses but no CD8+ T-cell responses when adjuvanted with Iscomatrix containing CpG. Optimal elicitation of broad CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to E1E2 and NS345 was obtained by first priming with Th1-adjuvanted proteins and then boosting with chimeric,
defective alphaviruses expressing these HCV genes. In addition, this prime/boost regimen resulted in the induction of anti-E1E2
antibodies capable of cross-neutralizing heterologous HCV isolates in vitro. This vaccine formulation and regimen may therefore
be optimal in humans for protection against this highly heterogeneous global pathogen.
Journal of Virology 09/2008; 82(15):7492-503. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02743-07 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, immunizations at 2 weeks vs. 6 weeks intervals, with an HIV-1 envelope protein in adjuvants, through intra-nasal (IN), intra-muscular (IM), IN followed by IM (IN/IM) and IM/IN, were compared for induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses. IN/IM immunizations at 2, but not at 6, week intervals induced the highest mucosal and systemic immune responses compared to other immunization routes. Following a resting memory phase, IN boosting of IN/IM-immunized mice, compared to IM-boosting of IM-immunized mice, induced increased IgA responses. Thus, depending on the immunization intervals, IN/IM may be more effective than IM immunizations for short- and long-term immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination strategies that can block or limit heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions to local and systemic tissues are the goal of much research effort. Herein, in a mouse model, we aimed to determine whether the enhancement of antibody responses through mucosal and systemic immunizations, previously observed with protein-based vaccines, applies to immunizations with DNA- or RNA-based vectors. Intranasal (i.n.) followed by intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations (i.n./i.m.) with polylactide-coglycolide (PLG)-DNA microparticles encoding HIV-gag (PLG-DNA-gag) significantly enhanced serum antibody responses, compared with i.m., i.n. or i.m. followed by i.n. (i.m./i.n.) immunizations. Moreover, while i.n./i.m., i.n. or i.m./i.n. immunizations with PLG-DNA-gag resulted in genital tract antibody responses, i.m. immunizations alone failed to do so. Importantly, beta7-deficient mice developed local and systemic antibody responses following i.n./i.m. immunization, or immunization via any other route, similar to those of wild-type mice. To compare the DNA with an RNA delivery system, immunizations were performed with VEE/SIN-gag replicon particles, composed of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon RNA and Sindbis surface structure (SIN). i.n./i.m., compared with any other immunizations, i.n./i.m. immunization with VEE/SIN-gag resulted in enhanced genital tract but not serum antibody responses. These data show for the first time that mucosal followed by systemic immunizations with gene delivery systems enhance B-cell responses independent of the mucosal homing receptors alpha4beta7 and alphaEbeta7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles that T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) Helicobacter pylori-specific immune responses play in protection from H. pylori challenge are poorly understood. It is expected that Th2 immune responses are required for protection against extracellular bacteria, such as H. pylori. However, recent studies have suggested that Th1 immunity is required for protection. The mechanisms by which this might occur are unknown. Our goal in this study was to more clearly define the effects of a Th1- versus a Th2-promoting H. pylori vaccine on immunity and protection. Therefore, we tested a Th1 vaccine consisting of an H. pylori sonicate and CpG oligonucleotides (CpG) and a Th2 vaccine consisting of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-depleted H. pylori sonicate combined with cholera toxin (CT). We demonstrate that although the Th2-promoting vaccine induced stronger systemic and local immune responses, only the Th1-promoting vaccine was protective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, the majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur by heterosexual transmission. Thus, the development of a vaccine that can prevent intravaginal HIV infection is an important goal of AIDS vaccine research.
To determine which single or combination of systemic and mucosal routes of immunizations of female rhesus macaques with an HIV-1 SF162 envelope protein vaccine induced protection against intravaginal challenge with SHIV.
Female rhesus macaques were immunized with an HIV-1 SF162 envelope protein vaccine administered systemically (intramuscularly), or mucosally (intranasally), or as a sequential combination of both routes. The macaques were then challenged intravaginally with SHIV SF162P4, expressing an envelope that is closely matched (homologous) to the vaccine.
Macaques receiving intramuscular immunizations, alone or in combination with intranasal immunizations, were protected from infection, with no detectable plasma viral RNA, provirus, or seroconversion to nonvaccine viral proteins, and better preservation of intestinal CD4+ T cells. Serum neutralizing antibodies against the challenge virus appeared to correlate with protection.
The results of this study demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate model, it is possible for vaccine-elicited immune responses to prevent infection after intravaginal administration of virus.
AIDS (London, England) 02/2008; 22(3):339-48. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f3ca57 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to conduct an in vivo comparison of nanoparticles and microparticles as vaccine delivery systems. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymers were used to create nanoparticles size 110 nm and microparticles of size 800-900 nm. Protein antigens were then adsorbed to these particles. The efficacy of these delivery systems was tested with two protein antigens. A recombinant antigen from Neisseria meningitides type B (MenB) was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitonealy (i.p.). An antigen from HIV-1, env glycoprotein gp140 was administered intranasally (i.n.) followed by an i.m. boost. From three studies, there were no differences between the nanoparticles and micro-particles formulations. Both particles led to comparable immune responses in mice. The immune responses for MenB (serum bactericidal activity and antibody titers) were equivalent to the control of aluminum hydroxide. For the gp140, the LTK63 was necessary for high titers. Both nanoparticles and microparticles are promising delivery systems.
Human vaccines 01/2008; 4(1):44-9. DOI:10.4161/hv.4.1.4886 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No licensed vaccines are available to protect against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a significant health risk for infants. In search of a safe vaccine, we used an alphavirus-based chimeric vector, consisting of Sindbis virus (SIN) structural proteins and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon RNA, expressing the PIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein (VEE/SIN-HN). We compared different routes of intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.), or combined i.n. and i.m. immunizations with VEE/SIN-HN in hamsters. Six months after the final immunization, all hamsters were protected against live PIV3 i.n. challenge in nasal turbinates and lungs. This protection appeared to correlate with antibodies in serum, nasal turbinates and lungs. This is the first report demonstrating mucosal protection against PIV3 for an extended time following immunizations with an RNA replicon delivery system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bell's palsy has been reported as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI). Review of the published literature reveals that several characteristics have been used to describe Bell's palsy, which differ significantly from author to author. Evidently, the definition of "Bell's palsy" remains controversial, and consensus between different medical subspecialties is urgently needed. The Brighton Collaboration has formed an international working group with representatives of neurology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, electrophysiology, pharmacology, pharmaceutical and biotech industry as well as regulatory agencies to create a case definition of Bell's palsy as an AEFI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The respiratory and genitourinary tracts comprise two major mucosal tissues. There are some similarities between the structure
and cells of these sites, and there are also important differences. The respiratory tract is arguably more exposed to the
outside environment than the genitourinary tract, as it is essential for continuously acquiring oxygen. Therefore, it is also
more accessible, and socially acceptable, as a vaccination route. The genitourinary tract, together with the rectal mucosa,
is a major site of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases, and as such they comprise the most important mucosal routes
for transmission of HIV and many other pathogens. In this chapter, a description of the structure and cells of the upper and
lower respiratory tract as well as the genitourinary and rectal mucosa is given.
Immunity Against Mucosal Pathogens, 12/2007: pages 23-29;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections with seasonally prevalent strains of influenza cause a substantial healthcare burden worldwide. Influenza gains
access to the host through the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, but exerts most of its pathologic effects in the lower
respiratory tract. The threat of avian influenza strains to cause bird to human and then human to human transmission and hence
pandemic influenza, is serious. Thus, while improved vaccines for seasonal influenza, particularly for infants and the elderly,
are sought for, new vaccines that are effective against pandemic influenza strains are urgently needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to induce long-term immunity to Helicobacter pylori is necessary for an effective vaccine. This study was designed to establish the most efficient route(s) (systemic, mucosal,
or a combination) of immunization for induction of long-term immunity and to define correlates of protection. Mice were immunized
orally alone (oral group), intramuscularly (i.m.) alone (i.m. group), orally followed by i.m. (oral/i.m. group), or i.m. followed
by orally (i.m./oral group). Long-term protective immunity to oral H. pylori challenge was observed 3 months after immunization through the i.m. or oral/i.m. route. Protection correlated with an increase
in H. pylori-specific interleukin-12 and both immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a serum titers following challenge. Mice that were not
protected (oral or i.m./oral) had increased levels of IgA in both sera and Peyer's patches. This study demonstrates the ability
to induce long-term immunity against H. pylori, provides correlates of protection, and illustrates the crucial role of the immunization route(s).
Infection and Immunity 08/2007; 75(7):3462-9. DOI:10.1128/IAI.01470-06 · 3.73 Impact Factor