[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although some types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been described to induce mesothelioma in rodents and genotoxic effects in various cell systems, there are few previous studies on the genotoxicity of CNTs in mesothelial cells. Here, we examined in vitro DNA damage induction by short multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; 10-30nm×1-2μm) and single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs;>50% SWCNTs, ∼40% other CNTs;<2nm×1-5μm) in human mesothelial (MeT-5A) cells and bronchial epithelial (BEAS 2B) cells, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the immunoslot blot assay for the detection of malondialdehyde (M(1)dG) DNA adducts. In BEAS 2B cells, we also studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) by the CNTs using the cytokinesis-block method. The cells were exposed to the CNTs (5-200μg/cm(2), corresponding to 19-760μg/ml) for 24 and 48h in the comet assay and for 48 and 72h in the MN and M(1)dG assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed more MWCNT fibres and SWCNT clusters in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells, but no significant differences were seen in intracellular dose expressed as area of SWCNT clusters between TEM sections of the cell lines. In MeT-5A cells, both CNTs caused a dose-dependent induction of DNA damage (% DNA in comet tail) in the 48-h treatment and SWCNTs additionally in the 24-h treatment, with a statistically significant increase at 40μg/cm(2) of SWCNTs and (after 48h) 80μg/cm(2) of both CNTs. SWCNTs also elevated the level of M(1)dG DNA adducts at 1, 5, 10 and 40μg/cm(2) after the 48-h treatment, but both CNTs decreased M(1)dG adduct level at several doses after the 72-h treatment. In BEAS 2B cells, SWCNTs induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 80 and 120μg/cm(2) after the 24-h treatment and in M(1)dG adduct level at 5μg/cm(2) after 48h and 10 and 40μg/cm(2) after 72h; MWCNTs did not affect the level of DNA damage but produced a decrease in M(1)dG adducts in the 72-h treatment. The CNTs did not affect the level of MN. In conclusion, MWCNTs and SWCNTs induced DNA damage in MeT-5A cells but showed a lower (SWCNTs) or no (MWCNTs) effect in BEAS 2B cells, suggesting that MeT-5A cells were more sensitive to the DNA-damaging effect of CNTs than BEAS 2B cells, despite the fact that more CNT fibres or clusters were seen in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells. M1dG DNA adducts were induced by SWCNTs but decreased after a 3-day exposure to MWCNTs and (in MeT-5A cells) SWCNTs, indicating that CNTs may lead to alterations in oxidative effects within the cells. Neither of the CNTs was able to produce chromosomal damage (MN).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely utilized in various consumer products and medical devices, especially due to their antimicrobial properties. However, several studies have associated these particles with toxic effects, such as inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in vitro. Here, we assessed the genotoxic effects of AgNPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (average diameter 42.5±14.5nm) on human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. AgNPs were dispersed in Bronchial Epithelial Growth Medium (BEGM) with 0.6mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA). The AgNP were partially well-dispersed in the medium and only limited amounts (ca. 0.02μg Ag(+)/L) could be dissolved after 24h. The zeta potential of the AgNPs was found to be highly negative in pure water but was at least partially neutralized in BEGM with 0.6mg BSA/ml. Cytotoxicity was measured by cell number count utilizing Trypan Blue exclusion and by an ATP-based luminescence cell viability assay. Genotoxicity was assessed by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay, and the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay. The cells were exposed to various doses (0.5-48μg/cm(2) corresponding to 2.5-240μg/ml) of AgNPs for 4 and 24h in the comet assay, for 48h in the MN assay, and for 24 and 48h in the CA assay. DNA damage measured by the percent of DNA in comet tail was induced in a dose-dependent manner after both the 4-h and 24-h exposures to AgNPs, with a statistically significant increase starting at 16μg/cm(2) (corresponding to 60.8μg/ml) and doubling of the percentage of DNA in tail at 48μg/cm(2). However, no induction of MN or CAs was observed at any of the doses or time points. The lack of induction of chromosome damage by the the PVP-coated AgNPs is possibly due to the coating which may protect the cells from direct interaction with the AgNPs, either by reducing ion leaching from the particles or by causing extensive agglomeration of the nanoparticles, with a possible reduction of the cellular uptake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than BAL cells in the earlier intratracheal study.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2011; 745(1-2):58-64. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We examined if three commercially available nanomaterials - short singlewall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), short multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanosized titanium dioxide anatase (TiO(2); primary particle size <25 nm) - can induce structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in cultures of isolated human lymphocytes. To find a suitable sampling time, the cells were treated with 6.25-300 μg/ml of the nanomaterials for 24, 48 and 72 h. The 48-h treatment was the most effective, inducing a dose-dependent increase in chromosome-type CAs (all materials) and chromatid-type CAs (SWCNTs and TiO(2) anatase). The 72-h treatment yielded a positive result with SWCNTs. None of the treatments significantly affected cell count or the mitotic index. Our results suggest that with nanomaterials a continuous treatment for about two cell cycles is needed for CA induction, possibly reflecting access of nanomaterials to the nucleus during the first mitosis or delayed secondary genotoxic effect associated with the inflammatory process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), used in the production of polyurethane foam, are well known for their irritating and sensitizing properties. Contradictory results have been obtained on their genotoxicity. We investigated the genotoxicity and protein binding of inhaled TDI and MDI in mice by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood and TDI- and MDI-derived adducts in hemoglobin. Male C57Bl/6J mice (8 per group) were exposed head-only to TDI vapour (mean concentrations 1.1, 1.5, and 2.4mg/m(3); the mixture of isomers contained, on the average, 63% 2,4-TDI and 37% 2,6-TDI) or MDI aerosol (mean concentrations 10.7, 20.9 and 23.3mg/m(3)), during 1h/day for 5 consecutive days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood were collected 24h after the last exposure. Inhalation of TDI caused sensory irritation (SI) in the upper respiratory tract, and cumulative effects were observed at the highest exposure level. Inhalation of MDI produced SI and airflow limitation, and influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs. Hemoglobin adducts detected in the exposed mice resulted from direct binding to globin of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI and MDI, and dose-dependent increases were observed especially for 2,4-TDI-derived adducts. Adducts originating from the diamines of TDI (toluene diamine) or MDI (methylene dianiline) were not observed. No significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated PCEs was detected in the bone marrow or peripheral blood of the mice exposed to TDI or MDI. The ratio of PCEs and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) was reduced at the highest concentration of MDI, and a slight reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio, dependent on cumulative inhaled dose, was also seen with TDI. Our results indicate that inhalation of TDI or MDI (1h/day for 5 days), at levels that induce toxic effects and formation of TDI- or MDI-specific adducts in hemoglobin, does not have detectable genotoxic effects in mice, as studied with the micronucleus assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex chemical mixtures are transported by train from Russia to Finland for further shipment. Here, we studied if exposure to genotoxic components among these substances could affect chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral lymphocytes of workers handling the tank cars. An initial survey among 48 railroad workers and 39 referents (male smokers and nonsmokers) showed an elevation of CAs. A campaign was started to reduce exposures through preventive measures. Five years later, 51 tank car workers and 40 age-matched referents (all nonsmoking men) were studied for CAs and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism (EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2), DNA repair (ERCC2, ERCC5, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC3), and folate metabolism (MTHFR, MTR). No increase in CAs was seen in the exposed group, suggesting that the preventive measures had been successful. However, a positive association existed between exposure duration and CA level among the exposed subjects. The level of chromosome-type breaks was actually lower in the exposed workers than the referents, particularly among MTHFR wild-type homozygotes or XRCC3 codon 241 variant allele carriers, suggesting modulation of CA frequency by folate metabolism and DNA repair. An interaction was observed between the occupational exposure and MTHFR, EPHX1, and MTR genotypes in determining CA level. The NAT2, ERCC2 exon 10, and XRCC1 codon 194 polymorphisms also affected CA frequency. Our findings suggest that handling of tank cars containing complex chemical mixtures poses a genotoxic risk, which may be reduced by preventive measures. Several genetic polymorphisms seem to modify the genotoxic effect or baseline CA level.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 02/2009; 50(4):304-16. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our results indicate that fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT contain direct-acting genotoxic components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronuclei (MN), used as a biomarker of effect in exposure to genotoxic carcinogens, derive from chromosomes and chromosomal fragments lagging behind in anaphase. The two types of MN are usually distinguished from each other by centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), centromere-positive (C(+)) MN representing entire chromosomes and centromere-negative (C(-)) MN chromosomal fragments. The incorporation of various types of chromosomal fragments and chromosomes and chromatids to MN is still poorly understood. We used directly labelled pancentromeric and pantelomeric DNA probes to examine the contents of MN in cultured binucleate lymphocytes of four unexposed, healthy subjects (two men and two women) 35-56 years of age. The presence and number of telomeric and centromeric signals was evaluated in 200 MN (50 MN per subject). These data were used to estimate the proportion of MN harbouring terminal/interstitial fragments, acentric/centric fragments, chromatid-type/chromosome-type fragments and entire chromatids/chromosomes. The majority of the C(+) MN (96% in men and 86% in women) found contained telomeric (T(+)) sequences. Most of the C(+) T(+) MN had one centromere and two or one telomere signals, suggesting that single chromatids were more frequently involved in MN than both sister chromatids. Among the C(-) MN, telomere signals were found in 91% (men) and 79% (women), showing that fragments in MN were mostly terminal. Most C(-) T(+) MN had one telomere signal, indicating higher prevalence for chromatid-type than chromosome-type terminal fragments. Combined centromeric and telomeric FISH is expected to increase the sensitivity of detecting exposure-related effects, when the exposure induces specific types of MN and its effect is low. This approach could particularly have use in discriminating between MN harbouring chromatid- and chromosome-type fragments in studies of human exposure to chemical clastogens and ionizing radiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronuclei are formed from chromosomes and chromosomal fragments that lag behind in anaphase and are left outside daughter nuclei in telophase. They may also be derived from broken anaphase bridges. Nuclear buds, micronucleus-like bodies attached to the nucleus by a thin nucleoplasmic connection, have been proposed to be generated similarly to micronuclei during nuclear division or in S-phase as a stage in the extrusion of extra DNA, possibly giving rise to micronuclei. To better understand these phenomena, we have characterized the contents of 894 nuclear buds and 1392 micronuclei in normal and folate-deprived 9-day cultures of human lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with pancentromeric and pantelomeric DNA probes. Such information has not earlier been available for human primary cells. Surprisingly, there appears to be no previous data on the occurrence of telomeres in micronuclei (or buds) of normal human cells in general. Our results suggest that nuclear buds and micronuclei have partly different mechanistic origin. Interstitial DNA without centromere or telomere label was clearly more prevalent in nuclear buds (43%) than in micronuclei (13%). DNA with only telomere label or with both centromere and telomere label was more frequent in micronuclei (62% and 22%, respectively) than in nuclear buds (44% and 10%, respectively). Folate deprivation especially increased the frequency of nuclear buds and micronuclei harboring telomeric DNA and nuclear buds harboring interstitial DNA but also buds and micronuclei with both centromeric and telomeric DNA. According to the model we propose, that micronuclei in binucleate lymphocytes primarily derive from lagging chromosomes and terminal acentric fragments during mitosis. Most nuclear buds, however, are suggested to originate from interstitial or terminal acentric fragments, possibly representing nuclear membrane entrapment of DNA that has been left in cytoplasm after nuclear division or excess DNA that is being extruded from the nucleus.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 05/2007; 617(1-2):33-45. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anaemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, methods were developed to biomonitor workers exposed to TNT. The workers were employed in a typical ammunition factory in China. The external dose (air levels and skin exposure), the internal dose (urinary metabolites), the biologically effective dose (haemoglobin adducts, urinary mutagenicity), biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects), and individual susceptibility (genotypes of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes) were determined. Haemoglobin-adducts of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the urinary metabolites of TNT, 4ADNT and 2ADNT, were found in all workers and in some controls. The levels of the haemoglobin-adducts or the urinary metabolites correlated weakly with the skin or air levels of TNT. The urinary mutagenicity determined in a subset of workers correlated strongly with the levels of 4ADNT and 2ADNT in urine. The haemoglobin-adducts correlated moderately with the urinary metabolites and with the urinary mutagenicity. The genotypes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2) were determined. In general, the genotypes did not significantly influence the haemoglobin-adduct levels and the urine metabolite levels. However, TNT-exposed workers who carried the NAT1 rapid acetylator genotype showed an increase in urinary mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations as compared with slow acetylators. The haemoglobin adduct 4ADNT was significantly associated with a risk of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and cataract; urine metabolites and genotypes were not associated with health effects. These results indicate that a set of well-selected biomarkers may be more informative regarding exposure and effect than routinely performed chemical measurements of pollutants in the air or on the skin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the biomonitoring of human genotoxic effects, micronuclei (MN) usually are scored in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated cultured lymphocytes. MN also can be examined in uncultured lymphocytes, which facilitates the analysis of genotoxic damage incurred in vivo. Characterization of MN in cultured lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has shown a clear over-representation of the X and Y chromosomes in the MN of males. However, it is not known if this phenomenon also occurs in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to assess the frequency and composition of MN formed in vivo from immunomagnetically isolated uncultured T-lymphocytes of men. To evaluate the possible effects of genotoxic exposure on in vivo MN, we examined 17 railroad workers occupationally exposed to complex chemical mixtures and 14 referents, all nonsmokers. The results showed similar total frequencies of micronucleated cells among the exposed workers and the referents. When the MN were characterized by FISH, there were no significant differences between the exposed and referents with regards to the frequency of centromere-positive or centromere-negative MN. Centromeric label was observed in 69% of all MN, indicating that most of the MN contained whole chromosomes (or chromatids). 80% of the centromere-positive MN harbored autosomes, 12% Y chromosomes, and 8% X chromosomes. The occurrence of the Y- and X-chromosomes in MN was, respectively, 5.5- and 3.8-times greater than would be expected assuming an equal contribution by all chromosomes. Thus, sex chromosomes appear to be over-represented in lymphocyte MN of men in vivo, confirming previous results obtained in vitro.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 07/2006; 47(5):345-51. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 26DNT, are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor people exposed to nitrotoluenes to prevent the potential harmful effects. For the present study, workers exposed to high levels of these chemicals were investigated. The external dose (air levels), the internal dose (urine metabolites), the biologically effective dose [hemoglobin (Hb) adducts and urine mutagenicity], and biological effects (chromosomal aberrations and health effects) were determined. Individual susceptibility was assessed by determining genetic polymorphisms of enzymes assumed to function in nitrotoluene metabolism, namely glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), N-acetyltransferases (NAT1, NAT2), and sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, SULT1A2). The levels of urinary metabolites did not correlate with the air levels. The urinary mutagenicity levels determined in a subset of workers correlated with the levels of a benzylalcohol metabolite of DNT. The Hb-adducts correlated with the urine metabolites but not with the air levels. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (gaps included) was increased (P < 0.05) in the exposed workers in comparison with a group of factory controls and correlated with the level of 24DNT Hb-adducts in young subjects (<31 years). The GSTM1-null genotype was significantly more prevalent in the controls than in the exposed group, which probably reflected an elevated susceptibility of the GSTM1-null genotype to adverse health effects of DNT exposure, such as nausea (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-32.2). A statistically significant effect was seen for SULT1A2 genotype on a 24DNT Hb-adduct; GSTP1 genotype on a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Hb-adduct; and SULT1A1, SULT1A2, NAT1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes on chromosomal aberrations in the exposed workers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study comprised a biomonitoring study in 95 workers occupationally exposed to styrene and 98 unexposed controls, employing an integrated approach involving biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility. Airborne styrene was evaluated at workplace, and urinary styrene metabolites, mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), vinylphenols (VPTs) and phenylhydroxyethylmercapturic acids (PHEMAs), were measured as biomarkers of internal dose. Cytogenetic alterations were evaluated by analysing the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The micronucleus assay was coupled with centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization to distinguish micronuclei (MN) arising from chromosomal breakage (C- MN) from those harboring whole chromosomes (C+ MN). The possible influence of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in styrene biotransformation (EPHX1, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1) and NAT2 on the cytogenetic endpoints was investigated. The exposed workers showed a significantly higher frequency of MNBN (13.8+/-0.5% versus 9.2+/-0.4%; P<0.001) compared to control subjects. The effect appeared to concern both C- and C+ MN. A positive correlation was seen between the frequency of C+ MN and urinary level of MA+PGA (P<0.05) and VPTs (P<0.001). Chromosome-type CAs positively correlated with airborne styrene level and VPTs (P<0.05), whereas chromatid-type CAs correlated with PHEMAs (P<0.05). Workers bearing GSTM1 null genotype showed lowered levels of PHEMAs (P<0.001). The GSTT1 null genotype was associated with increased MNBN frequencies in the exposed workers (P<0.05) and the fast activity EPHX genotype with a moderate decrease in both MNBN and CAs in the controls. Our results suggest that occupational exposure to styrene has genotoxic effects that are potentiated by the GSTT1 gene deletion. These observations may have relevance considering the risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic malignancies tentatively associated with styrene exposure.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 03/2006; 16(2):87-99. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, widely used as a cytogenetic biomarker of genotoxic effects, have been linked to cancer predisposition. However, tobacco smoking, occupational carcinogen exposure, or time since CA analysis do not appear to explain the cancer predictivity of CAs. Alternatively, the observed CA-cancer association could reflect unidentified exposures or individual susceptibility. We assessed the effects of genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair proteins and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) on the levels of CAs and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral lymphocytes of 145 (CAs) and 60 (SCEs) healthy Caucasians. Genotypes of DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementation group 1 (XRCC1 codons 194, 280, 399) and 3 (XRCC3 codon 241 [corrected]), and XME genes glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 and N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based methods. After Poisson regression adjustment for age, sex, smoking, country, and genotypes, a higher frequency of chromosome-type breaks was observed for NAT2 slow acetylators (in nonsmokers) and GSTT1 null subjects (in smokers). Individuals carrying variant alleles for XRCC1 codons 280 and 194 showed a decreased level of chromosome-type breaks. The effect of GSTM1 null and XRCC1 codon 399 genotypes on the frequency of CAs was modified by smoking. In linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and genotypes, none of the polymorphisms significantly affected SCE frequency, although GSTT1 null subjects had a slightly elevated SCE level. Our results are in line with earlier findings on the influence of NAT2, GSTT1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms on the level of lymphocyte chromosome damage and suggest that also XRCC1 polymorphism affects CA frequencies, thus apparently influencing DNA repair phenotype. It remains to be examined whether these or other genetic polymorphisms could explain the observed cancer risk predictivity of high CA frequency.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2004; 554(1-2):319-33. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of occupational exposure to styrene on frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and binucleated cells with micronuclei and on single-strand break levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied in 86 reinforced plastic workers and 42 control individuals (including 16 maintenance workers with intermittent, low-dose exposure). In these individuals, the irradiation-specific DNA repair rates and the repair rates of 8-oxoguanines were investigated. We assessed the exposure by measuring the concentrations of styrene in air and in blood and of mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, 4-vinyl phenol conjugates and regioisomeric phenyl hydroxyethyl mercapturic acids in urine. All these parameters correlated with one another. No clear relationship was found between the styrene exposure and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. Binucleated cells with micronuclei were moderately related to the parameters of styrene exposure. We found a negative correlation between all exposure parameters and single-strand breaks. The positive correlation between exposure parameters and DNA repair rates suggests that particular DNA repair pathways may be induced by styrene exposure.
Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2004; 112(8):867-71. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine whether workers in stainless steel production with low exposure to various forms of chromium show an increase in micronucleated nasal cells or an excess of nasal symptoms or disease. Altogether, 48 workers employed in a stainless steel production chain were studied, 29 of them in the steel melting shop with exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), 14 in the sintering and crushing departments of the ferrochromium plant with exposure to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) and five in the mine with exposure to chromite ore (Cr(3+)). Thirty-nine workers from the cold rolling mill, with very low exposure to chromium, served as referents. All the subjects were never smokers with a minimum of 14 years employment in the same department. There were no significant differences between the exposure groups and the referents regarding the mean frequency of centromere-negative or centromere-positive micronuclei (studied by pancentromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization), nasal diseases and symptoms or mucociliary clearance of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of cell atypia or inflammatory cells were detected between the exposed workers and the reference group, except for an increase in lymphocytes among the chromite ore workers. Anterior rhinoscopy indicated slight inflammatory changes in nasal mucosa and secretion more often in the Cr(6+) and Cr(3+) groups than in the referents, the Cr(6+)-exposed workers showing more livid or oedemic epithelium. In conclusion, the stainless steel production workers, with low exposure to dusts or fumes containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium, did not show clinical changes in the nasal mucosa or an increase in nasal cell micronuclei or symptoms of nasal diseases, except for slight changes in the nasal epithelium and secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) are polymorphically expressed in humans; about 47% and 13% of Finns lack the GSTM1 and GSTT1 activity due to homozygous deletion of the respective genes (null genotypes). We previously observed that GSTT1 null genotype was associated with increased induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by a metabolite of styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, in human lymphocyte cultures, while GSTM1 genotype had no effect. In the present study, we examined the potential effect of these genotypes on SCE induction by the parent compound styrene. Seventy-two hour whole-blood lymphocyte cultures from 24 healthy human donors, representing all different combinations of these genotypes, were examined. In agreement with our earlier findings, styrene was an efficient inducer of SCEs in cultures of all donors. In two separate experiments, the mean number of SCEs/cell induced by 1.5 mM styrene was 1.55 times (P = 0.011) or 1.34 times (P = 0.015) higher in subjects lacking both GSTM1 and GSTT1 than in subjects having both genes. Donors null for only one of the genes showed intermediate SCE induction by styrene. At 0.5 mM styrene, no clear differences in SCE rates among the genotypes were seen. Our results suggest that the concurrent lack of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes increases the genotoxic effects of styrene in human cells. The discrepant findings obtained for the importance of GSTM1 genotype in modulating the genotoxic effects induced by styrene-7,8-oxide and styrene may reflect a difference between a direct treatment with styrene-7,8-oxide and its formation from styrene in the cells. Although glutathione conjugation is a minor route in styrene detoxification in human liver in vivo, individual sensitivity associated with GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes may be important locally in blood circulation and in blood-forming organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of Swedish railway employees have indicated that railroad engine drivers have an increased cancer morbidity and incidence of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The drivers are exposed to relatively high magnetic fields (MF), ranging from a few to over a hundred microT. Although the possible genotoxic potential of MF is unclear, some earlier studies have indicated that occupational exposure to MF may increase chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Since an increased level of chromosomal aberrations has been suggested to predict elevated cancer risk, we performed a cytogenetic analysis on cultured (48 h) peripheral lymphocytes of Swedish train engine drivers. A pilot study of 18 engine drivers indicated a significant difference in the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations (gaps included or excluded) in comparison with seven concurrent referents (train dispatchers) and a control group of 16 office workers. The engine drivers had about four times higher frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (excluding gaps) than the office workers (P < 0.01) and the dispatchers (P < 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of the engine drivers showed at least one cell per 100 with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 29% among the dispatchers and 31% among the office workers. In a follow-up study, another 30 engine drivers showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (gaps excluded) as compared with 30 referent policemen. Sixty percent of the engine drivers had one or more cells (per 100 cells) with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 30% among the policemen. In conclusion, the results of the two studies support the hypothesis that exposure to MF at mean intensities of 2-15 microT can induce chromosomal damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 50% and 15% of Caucasians lack the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genes and the corresponding enzyme activity, respectively. Both of these polymorphisms have been shown to affect the genotoxicity of some epoxides in cultured human lymphocytes. Especially GSTT1 appears to be important in whole-blood cultures, probably because GSTT1 activity is high in erythrocytes. The in vitro genotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO), a model substrate for GSTM1, has been shown to depend on individual GSTM1 activity. The potential role of GSTM1 genotype, and the possible interference of GSTT1 genotype, has not previously been examined in this context. We have studied TSO-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in 72 h whole-blood lymphocyte cultures from 24 healthy human donors, representing different combinations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 positive and null genotypes. TSO clearly increased SCEs in cultures of all donors. The mean number of SCEs per cell induced by 75 and 150 microM TSO was, respectively, 1.5- and 1.3-times higher in cultures of GSTM1 null than GSTM1 positive donors. In another experiment, GSTM1 null individuals showed, in comparison with GSTM1 positive subjects, a 1.8-fold SCE induction by 50 microM TSO. GSTT1 genotype did not have an unequivocal effect. Our findings suggest that the lack of the GSTM1 gene, resulting in reduced detoxification capacity, increases individual sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of TSO.