[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory tract disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane formation. This pathology often progresses to acute respiratory distress (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) and atypical pneumonia in humans, with characteristic age-related mortality rates approaching 50% or more in immunosenescent populations. The molecular basis for the extreme virulence of SARS-CoV remains elusive. Since young and aged (1-year-old) mice do not develop severe clinical disease following infection with wild-type SARS-CoV, a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV (called MA15) was developed and was shown to cause lethal infection in these animals. To understand the genetic contributions to the increased pathogenesis of MA15 in rodents, we used reverse genetics and evaluated the virulence of panels of derivative viruses encoding various combinations of mouse-adapted mutations. We found that mutations in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein and, to a much less rigorous extent, in the nsp9 nonstructural protein, were primarily associated with the acquisition of virulence in young animals. The mutations in S likely increase recognition of the mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor not only in MA15 but also in two additional, independently isolated mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs. In contrast to the findings for young animals, mutations to revert to the wild-type sequence in nsp9 and the S glycoprotein were not sufficient to significantly attenuate the virus compared to other combinations of mouse-adapted mutations in 12-month-old mice. This panel of SARS-CoVs provides novel reagents that we have used to further our understanding of differential, age-related pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models of human disease.
Journal of Virology 11/2011; 86(2):884-97. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV (WI-SARS) vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice and golden Syrian hamsters. The vaccine preparation was tested with or without adjuvants. Adjuvant Systems AS01(B) and AS03(A) were selected and tested for their capacity to elicit high humoral and cellular immune responses to WI-SARS vaccine. We evaluated the effect of vaccine dose and each adjuvant on immunogenicity and efficacy in mice, and the effect of vaccine dose with or without the AS01(B) adjuvant on the immunogenicity and efficacy in hamsters. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge with wild-type virus at early and late time points (4 and 18 wk post-vaccination). A single dose of vaccine with or without adjuvant was poorly immunogenic in mice; a second dose resulted in a significant boost in antibody levels, even in the absence of adjuvant. The use of adjuvants resulted in higher antibody titers, with the AS01(B)-adjuvanted vaccine being slightly more immunogenic than the AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses of WI-SARS with and without Adjuvant Systems were highly efficacious in mice. In hamsters, two doses of WI-SARS with and without AS01(B) were immunogenic, and two doses of 2 μg of WI-SARS with and without the adjuvant provided complete protection from early challenge. Although antibody titers had declined in all groups of vaccinated hamsters 18 wk after the second dose, the vaccinated hamsters were still partially protected from wild-type virus challenge. Vaccine with adjuvant provided better protection than non-adjuvanted WI-SARS vaccine at this later time point. Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection often caused severe end stage lung disease and organizing phase diffuse alveolar damage, especially in the elderly. The virus-host interactions that governed development of these acute end stage lung diseases and death are unknown. To address this question, we evaluated the role of innate immune signaling in protection from human (Urbani) and a recombinant mouse adapted SARS-CoV, designated rMA15. In contrast to most models of viral pathogenesis, infection of type I, type II or type III interferon knockout mice (129 background) with either Urbani or MA15 viruses resulted in clinical disease outcomes, including transient weight loss, denuding bronchiolitis and alveolar inflammation and recovery, identical to that seen in infection of wildtype mice. This suggests that type I, II and III interferon signaling play minor roles in regulating SARS pathogenesis in mouse models. In contrast, infection of STAT1-/- mice resulted in severe disease, high virus titer, extensive pulmonary lesions and 100% mortality by day 9 and 30 post-infection with rMA15 or Urbani viruses, respectively. Non-lethal in BALB/c mice, Urbani SARS-CoV infection in STAT1-/- mice caused disseminated infection involving the liver, spleen and other tissues after day 9. These findings demonstrated that SARS-CoV pathogenesis is regulated by a STAT1 dependent but type I, II and III interferon receptor independent, mechanism. In contrast to a well documented role in innate immunity, we propose that STAT1 also protects mice via its role as an antagonist of unrestrained cell proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between immunosenescence and the host response to virus infection is poorly understood at the molecular level. Two different patterns of pulmonary host responses to virus were observed when gene expression profiles from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-infected young mice that show minimal disease were compared to those from SARS-CoV-infected aged mice that develop pneumonitis. In young mice, genes related to cellular development, cell growth, and cell cycle were downregulated during peak viral replication, and these transcripts returned to basal levels as virus was cleared. In contrast, aged mice had a greater number of upregulated immune response and cell-to-cell signaling genes, and the expression of many genes was sustained even after viral clearance, suggesting an exacerbated host response to virus. Interestingly, in SARS-CoV-infected aged mice, a subset of genes, including Tnfa, Il6, Ccl2, Ccl3, Cxcl10, and Ifng, was induced in a biphasic pattern that correlated with peak viral replication and a subsequent influx of lymphocytes and severe histopathologic changes in the lungs. We provide insight into gene expression profiles and molecular signatures underlying immunosenescence in the context of the host response to viral infection.
Journal of Virology 10/2008; 82(19):9465-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine consisting of a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus lacking the E gene (rSARS-CoV-DeltaE) were studied using hamsters. Hamsters immunized with rSARS-CoV-DeltaE developed high serum-neutralizing antibody titers and were protected from replication of homologous (SARS-CoV Urbani) and heterologous (GD03) SARS-CoV in the upper and lower respiratory tract. rSARS-CoV-DeltaE-immunized hamsters remained active following wild-type virus challenge, while mock-immunized hamsters displayed decreased activity. Despite being attenuated in replication in the respiratory tract, rSARS-CoV-DeltaE is an immunogenic and efficacious vaccine in hamsters.
Journal of Virology 09/2008; 82(15):7721-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We summarize findings of SARS-CoV infections in several animal models each of which support viral replication in lungs accompanied by histopathological changes and/or clinical signs of illness to varying degrees. New findings are reported on SARS-CoV replication and associated pathology in two additional strains (C57BL/6 and 129S6) of aged mice. We also provide new comparative data on viral replication and associated pathology following infection of golden Syrian hamsters with various SARS-CoV strains and report the levels of neutralizing antibody titers following these infections and the cross-protective efficacy of infection with these strains in protecting against heterologous challenge. Finally, we summarize findings of a variety of vaccine approaches and discuss the available in vitro and in vivo data addressing the potential for disease enhancement following re-infection in animals previously vaccinated against or infected with SARS-CoV.
Virus Research 05/2008; 133(1):20-32. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the lethality of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) and the recurring spread from poultry to humans, an effective vaccine against H5N1 viruses may be needed to prevent a pandemic. We generated experimental vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) from an H5N1 virus isolated in 1997. The HA gene was expressed either from an attenuated wild-type VSV vector or from a single-cycle vector containing a deletion of the VSV G gene. We found that all of the vectors induced potent neutralizing antibody titers against the homologous and antigenically heterologous H5N1 viruses isolated in 2004 and 2005. Vaccination of mice with any combination of prime or prime/boost vectors provided long-lasting protection (>7 months) against challenge with AIV, even in animals receiving a single dose of single-cycle vaccine. Our data indicate that these recombinants are promising vaccine candidates for pandemic influenza.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
caused a worldwide epidemic in late 2002/early 2003 and a second
outbreak in the winter of 2003/2004 by an independent animalto-
human transmission. The GD03 strain, which was isolated from
an index patient of the second outbreak, was reported to resist
neutralization by the human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) 80R
and S3.1, which can potently neutralize isolates from the first
outbreak. Here we report that two hmAbs, m396 and S230.15,
potently neutralized GD03 and representative isolates from the
first SARS outbreak (Urbani, Tor2) and from palm civets (SZ3, SZ16).
These antibodies also protected mice challenged with the Urbani or
recombinant viruses bearing the GD03 and SZ16 spike (S) glycoproteins.
Both antibodies competed with the SARS-CoV receptor,
ACE2, for binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD), suggesting
a mechanism of neutralization that involves interference with
the SARS-CoV–ACE2 interaction. Two putative hot-spot residues in
the RBD (Ile-489 and Tyr-491) were identified within the SARS-CoV
spike that likely contribute to most of the m396-binding energy.
Residues Ile-489 and Tyr-491 are highly conserved within the
SARS-CoV spike, indicating a possible mechanism of the m396
cross-reactivity. Sequence analysis and mutagenesis data show
that m396 might neutralize all zoonotic and epidemic SARS-CoV
isolates with known sequences, except strains derived from bats.
These antibodies exhibit cross-reactivity against isolates from the
two SARS outbreaks and palm civets and could have potential
applications for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of SARSCoV
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2007; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated benign and malignant lesions are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination against HPV early proteins could provide an effective means of treating individuals with established infections. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors have been used previously to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses and develop prophylactic vaccines. We have shown that VSV vectors also can be used to elicit therapeutic immunity in the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model of high-risk HPV infection. In the present study, three new VSV vectors expressing the CRPV E1, E2, or E7 protein were produced and compared to the previously generated VSV-E6 vector for therapeutic efficacy. To determine whether vaccine efficacy could be augmented by simultaneous vaccination against two CRPV proteins, the four vaccines were delivered individually and in all possible pairings to rabbits 1 week after CRPV infection. Control rabbits received the recombinant wild-type VSV vector or medium only. Cumulative papilloma volumes were computed for analysis of the data. The analyses showed that VSV-based vaccination against the E1, E2, E6, or E7 protein significantly reduced papilloma volumes relative to those of the controls. Furthermore, VSV-based CRPV vaccination cured all of the papillomas in 5 of 30 rabbits. Of the individual vaccines, VSV-E7 was the most effective. The VSV-E7 vaccine alone was the most effective, as it reduced cumulative papilloma volumes by 96.9% overall, relative to those of the controls, and ultimately eliminated all of the disease in all of the vaccinees. Vaccine pairing was not, however, found to be beneficial, suggesting antigenic competition between the coexpressed CRPV proteins. These preclinical results, obtained in a physiologically relevant animal model of HPV infection, demonstrate that VSV vectors deserve serious consideration for further development as therapeutic antitumor vaccines.
Journal of Virology 06/2007; 81(11):5749-58. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The causative agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was identified as a coronavirus (CoV) following the outbreak of 2002-2003. There are currently no licensed vaccines or treatments for SARS-CoV infections. Potential prevention and control strategies that show promise in vitro must be evaluated in animal models. The aged BALB/c mouse model for SARS supports a high level of viral replication in association with clinical illness and disease that mimics SARS in the elderly. We tested two preventive strategies, vaccination and passive transfer of serum antibody, to determine the extent of protection achieved against SARS-CoV challenge in this model. These approaches were able to achieve or induce antibody titers sufficient to reduce viral load, protect from weight loss and reduce or eliminate histopathologic changes in the lungs of aged mice. This study validates the utility of the aged BALB/c mouse model for evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and immunoprophylaxis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A deletion mutant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been engineered by deleting the structural E gene in an infectious cDNA clone that was constructed as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The recombinant virus lacking the E gene (rSARS-CoV-DeltaE) was rescued in Vero E6 cells. The recovered deletion mutant grew in Vero E6, Huh-7, and CaCo-2 cells to titers 20-, 200-, and 200-fold lower than the recombinant wild-type virus, respectively, indicating that although the E protein has an effect on growth, it is not essential for virus replication. No differences in virion stability under a wide range of pH and temperature were detected between the deletion mutant and recombinant wild-type viruses. Although both viruses showed the same morphology by electron microscopy, the process of morphogenesis seemed to be less efficient with the defective virus than with the recombinant wild-type one. The rSARS-CoV-DeltaE virus replicated to titers 100- to 1,000-fold lower than the recombinant wild-type virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract of hamsters, and the lower viral load was accompanied by less inflammation in the lungs of hamsters infected with rSARS-CoV-DeltaE virus than with the recombinant wild-type virus. Therefore, the SARS-CoV that lacks the E gene is attenuated in hamsters, might be a safer research tool, and may be a good candidate for the development of a live attenuated SARS-CoV vaccine.
Journal of Virology 03/2007; 81(4):1701-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Millions of people worldwide are currently infected with human papillomaviruses (HPVs). A therapeutic HPV vaccine would have widespread applicability because HPV-associated lesions are difficult to treat and may progress to carcinoma. We developed three attenuated VSV recombinants expressing the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) early protein E6 for use as vaccines. In cultured cells, two vectors expressed different levels of the E6 protein, and one expressed a ubiquitin-E6 fusion protein. All three were tested for therapeutic efficacy in the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model. Mock vaccination had no effect on papilloma growth. In contrast, inoculation with any of the VSV-E6 vaccines reduced the rate of papilloma growth to as little as 24% the rate in the controls. In five experiments, these effects were achieved after a single immunization. Furthermore, complete papilloma regression occurred in some rabbits observed for 4 months. A VSV-based papillomavirus E6 vaccine could have significant advantages over other therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates described to date.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No single animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reproduces all aspects of the human disease. Young inbred mice support SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication in the respiratory tract and are available in sufficient numbers for statistical evaluation. They are relatively inexpensive and easily accessible, but their use in SARS research is limited because they do not develop illness following infection. Older (12- to 14-mo-old) BALB/c mice develop clinical illness and pneumonitis, but they can be hard to procure, and immune senescence complicates pathogenesis studies. We adapted the SARS-CoV (Urbani strain) by serial passage in the respiratory tract of young BALB/c mice. Fifteen passages resulted in a virus (MA15) that is lethal for mice following intranasal inoculation. Lethality is preceded by rapid and high titer viral replication in lungs, viremia, and dissemination of virus to extrapulmonary sites accompanied by lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs. Abundant viral antigen is extensively distributed in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar pneumocytes, and necrotic cellular debris is present in airways and alveoli, with only mild and focal pneumonitis. These observations suggest that mice infected with MA15 die from an overwhelming viral infection with extensive, virally mediated destruction of pneumocytes and ciliated epithelial cells. The MA15 virus has six coding mutations associated with adaptation and increased virulence; when introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV, these mutations result in a highly virulent and lethal virus (rMA15), duplicating the phenotype of the biologically derived MA15 virus. Intranasal inoculation with MA15 reproduces many aspects of disease seen in severe human cases of SARS. The availability of the MA15 virus will enhance the use of the mouse model for SARS because infection with MA15 causes morbidity, mortality, and pulmonary pathology. This virus will be of value as a stringent challenge in evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and antivirals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine-induced antibodies can prevent or, in the case of feline infectious peritonitis virus, aggravate infections by coronaviruses. We investigated whether a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was able to elicit a neutralizing and protective immune response in animals and analyzed the capacity of anti-S antibodies to mediate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus entry in vitro and enhancement of replication in vivo. SARS-CoV-specific serum and mucosal immunoglobulins were readily detected in immunized animals. Serum IgG blocked binding of the S-protein to the ACE2 receptor and neutralized SARS-CoV infection in vitro. Entry into human B cell lines occurred in a FcgammaRII-dependent and ACE2-independent fashion indicating that ADE of virus entry is a novel cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of enhanced lung pathology or hepatitis and viral load was undetectable or greatly reduced in lungs following challenge with SARS-CoV. Altogether our results indicate that a recombinant trimeric S protein was able to elicit an efficacious protective immune response in vivo and warrant concern in the safety evaluation of a human vaccine against SARS-CoV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in the Guangdong province of China in late 2002 and spread to 29 countries. By the end of the outbreak in July 2003, the CDC and WHO reported 8437 cases with a 9.6% case fatality rate. The disease was caused by a previously unrecognized coronavirus, SARS-CoV. Drawing on experience with animal coronavirus vaccines, several vaccine candidates have been developed and evaluated in pre-clinical trials. Available data suggest that vaccines should be based on the the 180kDa viral spike protein, S, the only significant neutralization antigen capable of inducing protective immune responses in animals. In the absence of clinical cases of SARS, candidate vaccines should be evaluated for efficacy in animal models, and although it is uncertain whether the United States Food and Drug Administration's "animal rule" would apply to licensure of a SARS vaccine, it is important to develop standardized animal models and immunological assays in preparation for this eventuality. This report summarizes the recommendations from a WHO Technical Meeting on Animal Models and Antibody Assays for Evaluating Candidate SARS Vaccines held on 25-26 August 2005 in South Mimms, UK, provides guidance on the use of animal models, and outlines the steps to develop standard reagents and assays for immunological evaluation of candidate SARS vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 was controlled by public health measures at a time when specific interventions such as antiviral drugs, vaccines and immunotherapy were not available. Since then, several animal models have been developed for the study of SARS and, although no model replicates the human disease in all aspects, the use of animal models for SARS has led to the establishment of several important principles for vaccine and immunotherapy. Consistency and reproducibility of findings in a given model must be demonstrated to establish the superiority of one model over others. Here, we suggest aspects of an ideal animal model for studies of SARS pathogenesis and vaccine development and present our assessment of the strengths and limitations of the current animal models for SARS.
Trends in Microbiology 08/2006; 14(7):299-303. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) offers safe interventions for the prevention of infection in patients after organ transplantation and for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. MAb 201 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-specific MAb that prevents establishment of viral replication in vitro and prevents viral replication in vivo when administered prophylactically. The efficacy of MAb 201 in the treatment of SARS was evaluated in golden Syrian hamsters, an animal model that supports SARS-CoV replication to high levels and displays severe pathological changes associated with infection, including pneumonitis and pulmonary consolidation.
Golden Syrian hamsters that were intranasally inoculated with SARS-CoV were treated with various doses of MAb 201 or an irrelevant MAb 24 h after inoculation. Two to 7 days after infection, the hamsters were killed, and their lungs were collected for evaluation of viral titers and pathological findings.
Postexposure treatment with MAb 201 can alleviate the viral burden and associated pathological findings in a golden Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV infection. After a hamster is treated with MAb 201, its viral burden is reduced by 102.4-103.9 50% tissue-culture infectious doses per gram of tissue, and the severity of associated pathological findings, including interstitial pneumonitis and consolidation, is also remarkably reduced.
The demonstration of successful postexposure MAb 201 therapy in an animal model that demonstrates viral replication and associated pulmonary pathological findings suggests that MAb 201 may be useful in the arsenal of tools to combat SARS.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2006; 193(5):685-92. · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2002–2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was a newly identified illness that emerged in Southern China, spread to involve more than 30 countries, and affected more than 8000 people and caused nearly 800 deaths worldwide. Although the etiologic agent was rapidly identified to be a previously unknown coronavirus (named SARS coronavirus or SARS-CoV) and the outbreak was controlled by public health measures, no specific options were available for prevention and control of human disease. Over the past two years, a number of strategies for vaccines and immunoprophylaxis have been investigated. Animal models are essential for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of candidate vaccines and antivirals, and they are also needed in order to understand the pathogenesis of SARS. A number of investigators around the world have evaluated several different animal species as models for SARS; this effort is important for two natural reservoir, and second, if the efficacy of vaccines cannot be evaluated in humans, efficacy in two or more animal models may be required for licensure. The ideal animal models would be those in which viral replication is accompanied by clinical illness and pathology that resembles that seen in human cases of SARS. However, the consequences of SARS-CoV infection in different animal models may vary from this picture to one in which viral replication is associated with pathology in the absence of clinical illness or models in which viral replication is present in the absence of clinical illness or histopathologic changes. Models that demonstrate clinical illness and pathology can be used to study the disease process as well as to evaluate intervention strategies while models in which virus replication occurs without clinical illness can be used in vaccine or antiviral studies. In these cases, the efficacy of an intervention can be assessed by quantitative virology with or without accompanying pathology. A review of the different animal models that have been reported follows with a summary of the pros and cons and potential applications of the different models.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2006; 581:463-71. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the recent SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that appeared in 2002 has now been contained, the possibility of re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains. Due to the threat of re-emergence, the overall fatality rate of approximately 10%, and the rapid dispersion of the virus via international travel, viable vaccine candidates providing protection from SARS are clearly needed. We developed an attenuated VSV recombinant (VSV-S) expressing the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein. In cells infected with this recombinant, S protein was synthesized, glycosylated at approximately 17 Asn residues, and transported via the Golgi to the cell surface. Mice vaccinated with VSV-S developed SARS-neutralizing antibody and were able to control a challenge with SARS-CoV performed at 1 month or 4 months after a single vaccination. We also demonstrated, by passive antibody transfer, that the antibody response induced by the vaccine was sufficient for controlling SARS-CoV infection. A VSV-vectored SARS vaccine could have significant advantages over other SARS vaccine candidates described to date.