[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different approaches have been used to study the pattern of cytokines in celiac disease (CD). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful tool for the isolation of specific tissue compartments. We aimed to investigate the mucosal immune response that takes place in different intestinal compartments of CD patients, dissected by LCM, analyzing cytokine expression profile. Frozen section of jejunum was obtained from 15 untreated CD and 15 control. Surface epithelium and lamina propria compartment were isolated by LCM. RNA from each LCM sample was extracted and, after a retrotranscription step, messenger RNA levels for MxA, IL-15, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17aα, IL-21, IL-10, and TGF-β were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Increased gene expression levels of MxA, IL-15, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β was observed in the surface epithelium of untreated CD with respect to control. Furthermore, all the cytokines investigated were upregulated in the lamina propria of untreated CD as compared to control. Within the untreated CD group the expression of IL-15 was higher, in the surface epithelium than in the lamina propria, whereas the expression levels of IL-17 and IL-21 were higher in the lamina propria than in the surface epithelium. Finally, high levels of IL-10 and TGF-bβ were detected in both compartments of untreated CD biopsies. In CD, surface epithelium and lamina propria compartments, play a prominent role in determining innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. Conversely, surface epithelium and lamina propria produce high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that both compartments are involved in the immunoregulatory response.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2596-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals and it is the result of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Among genetic risk factors, the strongest association is with the HLA class II DQ region; nevertheless at least 39 non-HLA loci are associated with CD. Gluten is the main environmental trigger of the disease. In addition, infant feeding and weaning practices as well as timing of gluten introduction in the diet have been suggested to contribute to CD risk. Furthermore a role for infectious agents and microbiota composition in disease development has also been proposed.
Aim of this short review is to discuss the current knowledge on both genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of CD; moreover we will provide a brief overview of the possible strategies that could be envisaged to prevent this condition, at least in the population at-risk.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics 08/2015; 41(1):57. DOI:10.1186/s13052-015-0166-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
The mechanisms of tissue destruction during progression of celiac disease are poorly defined. It is not clear how tissue stress and adaptive immunity contribute to the activation of intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells and the development of villous atrophy. We analyzed epithelial cells and intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells in family members of patients with celiac disease, who were without any signs of adaptive antigluten immunity, and in potential celiac disease patients, who have antibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 in the absence of villous atrophy.
We collected blood and intestinal biopsy specimens from 268 patients at tertiary medical centers in the United States and Italy from 2004 to 2012. All subjects had normal small intestinal histology. Study groups included healthy individuals with no family history of celiac disease or antibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 (controls), healthy family members of patients with celiac disease, and potential celiac disease patients. Intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells were isolated and levels of inhibitory and activating natural killer (NK) cells were measured by flow cytometry. Levels of heat shock protein (HSP) and interleukin 15 were measured by immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural alterations in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were assessed by electron microscopy.
IECs from subjects with a family history of celiac disease, but not from subjects who already had immunity to gluten, expressed higher levels of HS27, HSP70, and interleukin-15 than controls; their IECs also had ultrastructural alterations. Intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells from relatives of patients with celiac disease expressed higher levels of activating NK receptors than cells from controls, although at lower levels than patients with active celiac disease, and without loss of inhibitory receptors for NK cells. Intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells from potential celiac disease patients failed to up-regulate activating NK receptors.
A significant subset of healthy family members of patients with celiac disease with normal intestinal architecture had epithelial alterations, detectable by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The adaptive immune response to gluten appears to act in synergy with epithelial stress to allow intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells to kill epithelial cells and induce villous atrophy in patients with active celiac disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ancient diploid Triticum monococcum is of special interest as a candidate low-toxic wheat specie for celiac disease patients. Here, we investigated how an in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion, affected the immune toxic properties of gliadin from diploid compared to hexaploid wheat.
Gliadins from Triticum monococcum, and Triticum aestivum cultivars were digested using either a partial proteolysis with pepsin-chymotrypsin, or an extensive degradation that used gastrointestinal enzymes including the brush border membrane enzymes. The immune stimulatory properties of the digested samples were investigated on T-cell lines and jejunal biopsies from celiac disease patients. The T-cell response profile to the Triticum monococcum gliadin was comparable to that obtained with Triticum aestivum gliadin after the partial pepsin-chymotrypsin digestion. In contrast, the extensive gastrointestinal hydrolysis drastically reduced the immune stimulatory properties of Triticum monococcum gliadin. Mass spectrometry-based analysis showed that several Triticum monococcum peptides, including known T-cell epitopes, were degraded during the gastrointestinal treatment, whereas many of Triticum aestivum gliadin survived the gastrointestinal digestion.
The pattern of Triticum monococcum gliadin proteins is sufficiently different from those of common hexaploid wheat to determine a lower toxicity in celiac disease patients following in vitro simulation of human digestion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria have been reported to reduce inflammation and contribute to intestinal homeostasis. However, the interaction between these bacteria and the gut immune system remains largely unknown. Because of the central role played by dendritic cells (DCs) in immune responses, we examined in vitro the effects of a Bifidobacteria mixture (probiotic) on DC functionality from children with inflammatory bowel disease. DCs obtained from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis, and noninflammatory bowel disease controls (HC) were incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated particles of Escherichia coli or DQ-Ovalbumin (DQ-OVA) after a pretreatment with the probiotic, to evaluate DC phenotype, antigen sampling and processing. Moreover, cell supernatants were collected to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, interleukin 17, and interleukin 10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DCs from CD children showed a higher bacteria particles uptake and DQ-OVA processing after incubation with the probiotic; in contrast, DC from both ulcerative colitis and HC showed no significant changes. Moreover, a marked tumor necrosis factor alpha release was observed in DC from CD after exposure to E. coli particles, whereas the probiotic did not affect the production of this proinflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, the Bifidobacteria significantly improved the antigen uptake and processing by DCs from patients with CD, which are known to present an impaired autophagic functionality, whereas, in DCs from ulcerative colitis and HC, no prominent effect of probiotic mixture was observed. This improvement of antigen sampling and processing could partially solve the impairment of intestinal innate immunity and reduce uncontrolled microorganism growth in the intestine of children with inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There exists a wide variation in the reported incidence of coeliac disease in recent decades. We aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of coeliac diagnoses performed in an Italian region, Campania, between 2011 and 2013 and its variation therein.
All coeliac diagnoses made from 2011 to 2013 and registered within the Campania coeliac disease register (CeliacDB) were identified. Incidence rates were analysed by sex, age and province of residence, with a Poisson model fitted to determine incidence rate ratios.
We found 2049 coeliac disease diagnoses registered in the CeliacDB between 2011 and 2013; 1441 of these patients were female (70.4%) and 1059 were aged less than 19 years (51.7%). The overall incidence of coeliac disease in Campania was 11.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 11.3-12.3) during the study period, with marked variation by age [27.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 25.8-29.1) in children under 19 years of age and 7.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 6.8-7.8) in adults] and sex [16.1 per 100,000 person-years in females (95% CI 15.3-16.9) and 7.2 per 100,000 person-years in males (95% CI 6.6-7.8)]. Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar in Naples, Salerno, Caserta and Avellino, but about half in Benevento. More than 80% of our study population was diagnosed by the combination of positive antitransglutaminase IgA and Marsh 3. More than half of the patients were symptomatic at the time of coeliac disease diagnosis (39.7% had a classical presentation and 21.1% a non-classical one according to the Oslo definition).
Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar among Campania provinces, except in Benevento where it was about half, probably due to less awareness of coeliac disease in this area. The incidence of coeliac disease in Campania appears to be lower than that reported by most of the previous literature, suggesting the necessity of new coeliac awareness programmes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
New evidence emerged on early feeding practices and the risk of coeliac disease.AimTo systematically update evidence on these practices to find out whether there is a need to revise current recommendations.MethodsMEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched from July 2012 (end of last search) to February 2015 for studies of any design that assessed the effect of gluten consumption and breastfeeding on the development of coeliac disease and/or coeliac disease-related autoimmunity.ResultsWe identified 21 publications, including two, new, large, randomised controlled trials performed in high-risk infants. Exclusive or any breastfeeding, as well as breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction, did not reduce the risk of developing coeliac disease during childhood. For infants at high risk of developing coeliac disease, gluten introduction at 4 months of age in very small amounts, or at 6 or 12 months of age, resulted in similar rates of coeliac disease diagnosis in early childhood. Later gluten introduction was associated with later development of coeliac specific autoimmunity and coeliac disease during childhood, but not total risk reduction. Observational studies indicate that consumption of a higher amount of gluten at weaning may increase the risk for coeliac disease development.Conclusions
Infant feeding practices (breastfeeding, time of gluten introduction) have no effect on the risk of developing coeliac disease during childhood (at least at specific timeframes evaluated in the included studies), necessitating an update of current European recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) represents a spectrum, which includes cases with minor histological abnormalities (potential CD). The aim of this work is to evaluate the contribution of immunohistochemical analysis of duodenal biopsies to the diagnosis of gluten-related minor enteropathy.
Duodenal biopsies from 56 untreated CD patients and 56 controls were analyzed for CD3 and γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes number, γδ /CD3 ratio, density of CD25+ lamina propria cells. A discriminant equation was obtained by which 61 more biopsies with normal villous architecture were blindly evaluated.
All the immunohistochemical parameters were significantly different between CD and control patients. None of the single parameters showed sufficient specificity for CD. The combination of all four markers resulted in the following discriminant equation: Dscore = (CD3 x 0.06) - (γδ x 0.119) + (CD25 x 0.012) + (γδ /CD3 x 0.131) - 4.709. Using this discriminant score patients were correctly classified as celiac or controls in 97.3% of cases. When this equation was applied to a validation set of 61 patients with normal villous architecture and unknown diagnosis, 92.9% of those with a positive score turned out to be potential celiac patients. However, a normal score did not exclude this condition.
Immunohistochemistry represents a very specific tool for the diagnosis of CD, but does lack sensitivity in detecting all potential CD cases.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 12/2014; 60(5). DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000675 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses. The major mediator of the stress and innate immune response to gliadin peptides (i.e., peptide 31-43, P31-43) is the cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15). The role of epithelial growth factor (EGF) as a mediator of enterocyte proliferation and the innate immune response has been described. In this paper, we review the most recent literature on the mechanisms responsible for triggering the up-regulation of these mediators in CD by gliadin peptides. We will discuss the role of P31-43 in enterocyte proliferation, structural changes and the innate immune response in CD mucosa in cooperation with EGF and IL-15, and the mechanism of up-regulation of these mediators related to vesicular trafficking. We will also review the literature that focuses on constitutive alterations of the structure, signalling/proliferation and stress/innate immunity pathways of CD cells. Finally, we will discuss how these pathways can be triggered by gliadin peptide P31-43 in controls, mimicking the celiac cellular phenotype.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2014; 15(11):20518-20537. DOI:10.3390/ijms151120518 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although dietary counseling is generally recommended in children with food allergy (FA), its effect on the nutritional status of these patients has not yet been evaluated. Our nonrandomized multicenter prospective intervention study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary counseling on children with FA. Anthropometric data, dietary intakes, and laboratory biomarkers of nutritional status were evaluated in children with FA (aged 6 to 36 months) before and after dietary counseling, by multidisciplinary teams composed of pediatricians, dietitians, and nurses. Ninety-one children with FA (49 boys and 42 girls; mean age 18.9 months, 95% CI 16.5 to 21.3) were evaluated; 66 children without FA (41 boys and 25 girls; mean age 20.3 months, 95% CI 17.7 to 22.8) served as controls providing baseline values only. At enrollment, energy and protein intakes were lower in children with FA (91 kcal/kg/day, interquartile range [IQR]=15.1, minimum=55.2, maximum=130.6; and 2.2 g/kg/day, IQR=0.5, minimum=1.5, maximum=2.7, respectively) than in children without FA (96 kcal/kg/day, IQR=6.1, minimum=83.6, maximum=118.0; and 4.6 g/kg/day, IQR=1.2, minimum=2.0, maximum=6.1, respectively; P<0.001). A weight to length ratio <2 standard deviations was more frequent in children with FA than in children without FA (21% vs 3%; P<0.001). At 6 months following dietary counseling, the total energy intake of children with FA was similar to the baseline values of control children. Dietary counseling also resulted in a significant improvement of their anthropometric and laboratory biomarkers of nutritional status. The results of our study support the crucial role of dietary counseling in the clinical management of children with FA.
Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 09/2014; 114(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2014.03.018 · 3.47 Impact Factor