L Dalla Palma

Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy

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Publications (138)243.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The DPACS project (Data and Picture Archiving and Communication System) was undertaken at the University of Trieste by the Institute of Radiology and the DEEI (Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica, Elettronica ed Informatica), in collaboration with the CRSTBS (Centro Ricerche e Studi Tecnologie Biomediche Sanitarie) of the Area Science Park and the Azienda Ospedaliera of Trieste. The main objective of this project is to create an open system for the management of clinical data and images and for the integration of health care services. The first phase is oriented toward finding an implementation strategy for the creation of a prototype DPACS system, to serve as a starting point for the realization of a distributed structure for the extension of the service, firstly to the entire structure of the Cattinara Hospital and subsequently to all the Public Health units in Trieste. After local testing, the service will finally be expanded to a wider geographical level. The intensive computerization of the Institute of Radiology furnished the most favourable environment for the verification of the prototype, as the service provided by the existing RIS (Radiology Information System) and PACS (Picture and Archiving Communication System) has long been consolidated. One of the main goals of the project, in particular, is to replace the old, by now obsolete, PACS with the DPACS services.
    Medical informatics = Médecine et informatique 07/2009; 22(4):301-14.
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    L Dalla Palma
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    ABSTRACT: Today's radiology is experiencing two major trends, one negative and one positive. The first is the so-called turf war, in other words, the progressive invasion of the imaging domain by other specialists such as cardiologists, urologists, gastroenterologists, gynaecologists etc. who are taking over various techniques from ultrasonography (US) to computed tomography (CT) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this process, they are aided by new technologies such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed-aided diagnosis CAD and by radiology technologists who collaborate with them, replacing radiologists. The positive aspect is the outstanding technological evolution: the advent of molecular imaging, optical imaging, nanotechnologies, teleradiology and percutaneous gene therapy. While dramatically expanding the diagnostic possibilities down to the subcellular level, these techniques demand new forms of training in radiology and interdisciplinary cooperation. Tomorrow's radiologist will need to acquire appropriate clinical knowledge, restore contact with the patient to take on a prominent role in the diagnostic process, learn the basic sciences, foster a multidisciplinary approach and finally be able to use the Internet for learning and continuing education. Tomorrow's radiologists will survive if they learn to reinvent themselves.
    La radiologia medica 09/2006; 111(5):621-33. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Ludovico Dalla Palma, Aldo Morra, Maurizio Grotto
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present an overview of CT-Urography. With the advent of multislice CT scanners and the evolution of image processing methods this technique now affords optimal urographic images comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques. We describe the acquisition techniques and protocols used by the various authors. Effective radiation dose has conditioned the use of CT-Urography so that the tendency today is to reduce the number of scans by performing, after the nonenhanced scan, a single contrast-enhanced scan comprising both the nephrographic and urographic phase. With the use of multislice CT the quality of the urogram improves with the number of slices. We illustrate a variety of processing techniques, multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum (MIP) and average intensity projection (AIP) and volume rendering (VR) and present a series of upper urinary tract tumours testifying to the superiority of the AIP technique over MIP. We then review the results of comparative studies of CT-Urography with conventional urography in upper urinary tract diagnostics. Finally, we describe the advantages and limitations of CT-Urography.
    La radiologia medica 10/2005; 110(3):170-8. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) research team is the investigation and development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. A dedicated beamline has been built at ELETTRA to evaluate the effectiveness of synchrotron-based techniques in medical radiology with particular interest to mammography, and more in general, to the imaging of biological and biomedical samples, either in planar or tomographic set-ups. Taking advantage of the high intensity and high spatial coherence of Synchrotron Radiation (SR), phase sensitive techniques such as Phase Contrast (PhC) and Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) can be applied. After successful studies carried out on test objects and in vitro samples, the research in mammography is aiming at in vivo clinical trials. For this purpose, the layout of the SYRMEP beamline has been substantially modified and the safety system has been completely redesigned to guarantee the compliance with current radiation protection guidelines. In the present paper, the main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of the results obtained in different contexts of biomedical imaging are presented. Moreover, the status of the project for clinical mammography is outlined.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: A system for in vivo breast imaging with monochromatic x-rays has been designed and built at the synchrotron radiation facility Elettra in Trieste (Italy) and will be operational in 2004. The system design involves the possibility of performing both planar mammography and breast tomography. In the present work, the first results obtained with a test set-up for breast tomography are shown and discussed. Tomographic images of in vitro breasts were acquired using monochromatic x-ray beams in the energy range 20-28 keV and a linear array silicon pixel detector. Tomograms were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection algorithms; the effect of different filters was evaluated. The attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissue were measured, and a quantitative comparison of images acquired at different energies was performed by calculating the differential signal-to-noise ratio of fibroglandular details in adipose tissue. All images required a dose comparable to the dose delivered in clinical, conventional mammography and showed a high resolution of the breast structures without the overlapping effects that limit the visibility of the structures in 2D mammography. A quantitative evaluation of the images proves that the image quality at a given dose increases in the considered energy range and for the considered breast sizes.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 06/2004; 49(9):1739-54. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A synchrotron radiation-based X-ray source offers a powerful tool for mammography due to the energy spectrum properties and the peculiar laminar beam geometry. Significant improvements in image quality have been achieved by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) collaboration, which has designed and built a beamline devoted to medical physics at the SR facility Elettra in Trieste (Italy). The detection system developed for digital mammography consists of a silicon pixel detector with 200×300 μm2 pixel size and high conversion efficiency. The detector is equipped with a low noise read-out electronics working in single photon counting mode. Mammographic phantoms and in vitro full breast samples have been investigated: the digital images show higher contrast resolution and lower absorbed dose than the images of the same samples obtained at the clinical mammographic unit.The SYRMEP collaboration is carrying out a breast tomography feasibility study to evaluate the image quality and the delivered dose. The SYRMEP beam is an ideal tool for tomography due to the laminar and monochromatic beam with negligible divergence. The experimental set-up and the acquisition protocol have been studied and the tomographic images of full breast samples acquired in the energy range 20–28 keV indicate that good quality images can be obtained with delivered doses comparable to conventional mammography.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2003; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.
    Proc SPIE 05/2002;
  • Emilio Quaia, Michele Bertolotto, Ludovico Dalla Palma
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) can characterize liver hemangiomas. We retrospectively evaluated 39 consecutive patients with liver hemangiomas, 20 typical on conventional US (hyperechoic, homogeneous, or slightly inhomogeneous and with sharp margins) and 19 atypical (11 inhomogeneous with different echogenicity larger than 3 cm, 6 hypoechoic, and 2 isoechoic smaller than 3 cm). Each liver hemangioma was firstly evaluated by PIHI and then confirmed by dynamic helical CT (28 patients) or by 6 months of US follow-up (11 patients). The PIHI was performed by two distinct sweeps on a marker lesion, 30 s (vascular phase) and from 3 to 5 min (late phase) after bolus injection of Levovist (2.5 g, 300 mg/ml). Scans were digitally stored and reviewed using a dedicated software. Contrast enhancement features of marker lesion were subjectively evaluated. Typical hemangiomas on conventional US revealed on PIHI a characteristic rim-like or peripheral globular enhancement on 30-s scan in 4 of 20 cases (20%) and a characteristic isoechoic pattern on late phase in 16 of 20 cases (80%). On PIHI, all (11 of 11) atypical hemangiomas larger than 3 cm and 4 of 8 atypical liver hemangiomas smaller than 3 cm revealed a characteristic rim-like or peripheral globular enhancement on vascular phase with a characteristic centripetal fill-in on late phase. In 4 of 8 atypical liver hemangiomas smaller than 3 cm no characteristic pattern was revealed by PIHI. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging revealed a typical pattern in the majority of liver hemangiomas typical and atypical on conventional US. In few liver hemangiomas atypical on conventional US PIHI did not identify a characteristic pattern and helical CT was necessary for final characterization.
    European Radiology 04/2002; 12(3):537-44. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • L Dalla Palma, R Pozzi, F Stacul
    European radiology. 01/2002; 12(1):257.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors analyze whether the imaging approach consisting of ultrasonography and plain film in patients with renal colic is still of value when urography is replaced by unenhanced helical CT (UHCT) in unsolved cases. Eight hundred and three consecutive patients were investigated with US following hydration and KUB, 164 of whom (20.4%) subsequently underwent UHCT (42 with the aim of mapping the excretory pathway and 122 (15.2%) because US and KUB were not considered as fully diagnostic). The 42 patients with detectable ureteral stone (plus possible hydronephrosis) on KUB + US and subsequently examined by UHCT to plan interventional treatment all had a positive UHCT examination. In 62 patients the diagnosis following KUB + US was uncertain (possible stone or possible hydronephrosis) and UHCT depicted the stone and/or the hydronephrosis in 34. In 60 patients the combination of KUB + US was negative but colic recurred and UHCT was positive in 17 patients. The comparison of the present results with a previous study in which KUB and US were followed by IVU in unsolved cases underscores the value of the first approach with KUB and US. The need for further diagnostic investigations when KUB + US are either not conclusive or negative and colic recurs is also confirmed. On the basis of our present data and in agreement with the literature IVU can be safely replaced by UHCT. It is authors' opinion that in settings where KUB, US and UHCT are available throughout the 24 hr the approach consisting of KUB plus US and UHCT in unsolved cases can be preferred in view of its on lower cost and above all lower X-ray dose to patients as compared to UHCT as the sole investigation.
    La radiologia medica 11/2001; 102(4):222-5. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • L Dalla Palma
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    ABSTRACT: Since its introduction into clinical practice in the early 1930s, intravenous urography (IVU) was the primary imaging technique for the investigation of urinary system disorders for many years, until the advent of digital cross-sectional-imaging techniques gradually started to undermine many of its indications. Intravenous urography has been superseded for some indications such as renovascular arterial hypertension, prostatic dysuria, renal failure, palpable abdominal masses and recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Intravenous urography has been reduced, in the sense that it is no longer a primary examination, for other clinical indications such as renal colic, renal trauma, uroseptic fever, asymptomatic haematuria, medical haematuria, obstructive uropathies and follow-up of various disorders. Intravenous urography is indicated and often mandatory in congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, prior to endourological procedures, possible fistulas, renal transplantation, tuberculosis and ureteral pathology. In conclusion, IVU is still the examination of choice where there is a need to visualize the entire urinary system and to evaluate the state of the papillae and calyces. Computed tomography urography and MR urography are the imaging modalities ready in the near future to replace IVU.
    European Radiology 02/2001; 11(6):931-9. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • L Dalla Palma, R Pozzi-Mucelli, F Stacul
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade alternatives to urography have been proposed for the study of patients with renal colic. In 1992 it was suggested to replace urography with KUB and ultrasonography. In 1993 the combination of KUB and ultrasonography followed by urography in unresolved cases was proposed and, in 1995, it was suggested to replace urography with unenhanced helical CT (UHCT). This article illustrates the contribution of UHCT to the study of patients with renal colic and analyses advantages and shortcomings of the technique compared with other diagnostic approaches. Diagnostics of the patient with renal colic is based on the detection of direct and indirect signs which allow identification of not only the calculus, with a sensitivity of 94-100% and accuracy of 93-98% according different authors, but also other signs that can serve to guide patient management and evaluate long-term prognosis. Unenhanced helical CT has the capability to detect extraurinary abnormalities which present with flank pain and mimic renal colic. The examination technique affects the quality of the images and therefore diagnostic accuracy as well as the dose to the patient. With regard to setting parameters, the choice of thickness and table feed should be guided by numerous factors. Multiplanar reconstruction is indicated in the study of the entire ureter course to identify the exact site of the calcification for the urologist to perform an evaluation similar to that obtained by urography. Many authors consider UHCT to be a valuable tool for suggesting the best therapeutic approach. Among these there are also urologists. The evaluation is based on the stone detection, its size and level in the urinary tract. Cost analysis shows that the cost of UHCT is equal to or inferior to the cost of urography. With regard to the dose, different data are reported in the literature. A high pitch (more than 1.5) and a thin collimation (3-mm thickness) are good compromise between quality and dose which can be compared to the dose of normal urography. What is to be done if helical CT is not available? If helical CT is not available, plain film plus ultrasonography should be considered. This approach does not solve all the cases; in unresolved cases urography is indicated. It should also be noted that US has a good sensitivity in detecting other conditions such as biliary lithiasis, acute pancreatitis, acute appendicitis and abdomino-pelvic masses which are responsible for pain that mimics renal colic. In conclusion, IVU should not have any more the priority in investigating the patients with renal colic. Helical CT should be the first choice in imaging a patient with renal colic. If this technique is not available, plain film and ultrasonography should be considered adding urography in unresolved cases.
    European Radiology 02/2001; 11(1):4-17. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test different technical spiral-CT parameters to obtain optimal image quality with reduced X-ray dose. Images were acquired with a spiral-CT system Philips Tomoscan AVE1, using 250 mA, 120 kV, and 1-s rotational time. Three protocols were tested: protocol A with 5-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 2.5 mm; protocol B with 3-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm; and protocol C with 3-mm thickness, pitch 2, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm. Two phantoms were employed to evaluate the image quality. Axial images were acquired, then sagittal and coronal images were reconstructed. Finally, the absorbed X-ray dose for each protocol was measured. Regarding image quality, 5-mm-thick images (protocol A) showed greater spatial resolution and lower noise compared with 3-mm-thick images (protocols B and C) on the axial plane; 3-mm reconstructed sagittal and coronal images (protocols B and C) showed an improved image quality compared with 5-mm reformatted images (protocol A). Concerning X-ray dose, the mean dose was: protocol A 19.6 +/- 0.8 mGy; protocol B 14.4 +/- 0.6 mGy; protocol C 12.5 +/- 1.0 mGy. Our study supports the use of thin slices (3 mm) combined with pitch of 1.6 or 2 in renal colic for X-ray dose reduction to the patient and good image quality.
    European Radiology 02/2001; 11(7):1140-6. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test different technical spiral-CT parameters to obtain optimal image quality with reduced X-ray dose. Images were acquired with a spiral-CT system Philips Tomoscan AVE1, using 250mA, 120kV, and 1-s rotational time. Three protocols were tested: protocol A with 5-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 2.5 mm; protocol B with 3-mm thickness, pitch 1.6, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm; and protocol C with 3-mm thickness, pitch 2, slice reconstruction every 1.5 mm. Two phantoms were employed to evaluate the image quality. Axial images were acquired, then sagittal and coronal images were reconstructed. Finally, the absorbed X-ray dose for each protocol was measured. Regarding image quality, 5-mm-thick images (protocol A) showed greater spatial resolution and lower noise compared with 3-mm-thick images (protocols B and C) on the axial plane; 3-mm reconstructed sagittal and coronal images (protocols B and C) showed an improved image quality compared with 5-mm reformatted images (protocol A). Concerning X-ray dose, the mean dose was: protocol A 19.6±0.8mGy; protocol B 14.4±0.6mGy; protocol C 12.5±1.0mGy. Our study supports the use of thin slices (3mm) combined with pitch of 1.6 or 2 in renal colic for X-ray dose reduction to the patient and good image quality.
    European Radiology 01/2001; 11(7):1140-1146. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • L. Dalla Palma
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    ABSTRACT: Since its introduction into clinical practice in the early 1930s, intravenous urography (IVU) was the primary imaging technique for the investigation of urinary system disorders for many years, until the advent of digital cross-sectional-imaging techniques gradually started to undermine many of its indications. Intravenous urography has been superseded for some indications such as renovascular arterial hypertension, prostatic dysuria, renal failure, palpable abdominal masses and recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Intravenous urography has been reduced, in the sense that it is no longer a primary examination, for other clinical indications such as renal colic, renal trauma, uroseptic fever, asymptomatic haematuria, medical haematuria, obstructive uropathies and follow-up of various disorders. Intravenous urography is indicated and often mandatory in congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, prior to endourological procedures, possible fistulas, renal transplantation, tuberculosis and ureteral pathology. In conclusion, IVU is still the examination of choice where there is a need to visualize the entire urinary system and to evaluate the state of the papillae and calyces. Computed tomography urography and MR urography are the imaging modalities ready in the near future to replace IVU.
    European Radiology 01/2001; 11(6):931-939. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • L Dalla Palma, F Stacul, S Meduri, J T Geitung
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse reasons for and the nature of clinico-radiological contacts and their clinical impact. Three different surveys were performed. (1) Data concerning contacts between staff radiologists (n = 20) and clinicians during 10 consecutive working days were collected; (2) staff clinicians (n = 174) filled in a questionnaire asking for their opinions about relationships with radiologists; (3) staff radiologists collected data about contacts with clinicians related to more urgent/complicated cases. Radiologists assessed the clinical impact of the radiological procedure and of the consultation. (1) During 220 working days 20 radiologists had a mean of 3.95 contacts per day (48.2% personal contacts, 51.8% telephone contacts), amounting to a personal total of 21.65 min per day. These contacts amounted to a total of 7.08 h per day, roughly one whole-time equivalent radiologist. (2) These consultations helped to refine the diagnostic strategy often (12.6%) or sometimes (71.4%) and to alter therapeutic decisions often (10.4%) or sometimes (56.6%). (3) The initial clinical diagnosis was changed in 50% of cases and the therapy was substantially changed on the basis of further radiological investigations and clinical-radiological discussion in 60% of cases. Clinical-radiological consultations are time consuming but have a beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic impact.
    Clinical Radiology 09/2000; 55(8):602-5. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the effect on mammographic examinations of the use of synchrotron radiation to detect phase-perturbation effects, which are higher than absorption effects for soft tissue in the energy range of 15-25 keV. Detection of phase-perturbation effects was possible because of the high degree of coherence of synchrotron radiation sources. Synchrotron radiation images were obtained of a mammographic phantom and in vitro breast tissue specimens and compared with conventional mammographic studies. On the basis of grades assigned by three reviewers, image quality of the former was considerably higher, and the delivered dose was fully compatible.
    Radiology 05/2000; 215(1):286-93. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • L Dalla Palma
    European Radiology 02/2000; 10 Suppl 3:S386-9. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyse the costs of different diagnostic approaches to patients with acute flank pain. Four different diagnostic approaches were considered: (a) spiral CT without contrast medium (CM); (b) plain film, ultrasonography (US) and intravenous urography (IVU)--the latter procedure is used in our department in cases still unsolved following the former investigations (28% in our experience); (c) plain film, US and spiral CT without CM (as an alternative to IVU in 28% of cases); and (d) IVU. The cost of each procedure in a university hospital was calculated, following analysis of the differential costs of each investigation (equipment, depreciation and maintenance costs, related materials and services, radiologists, radiographers, nurses) and their common costs (auxiliary personnel and indirect internal costs). Finally, we calculated the full cost of each procedure and applied it to the different diagnostic approaches. The full cost of each approach was: (a) spiral CT without CM = 74 Euro; (b) plain film, US and IVU (28%) = 66.89 Euro; (c) plain film, US and spiral CT without CM (28%) = 64.93 Euro; (d) IVU = 80.90 Euro. Intravenous urography alone or in unsolved cases is not to be considered because it provides higher costs and worse diagnostic results, whereas X-ray dose to patient is almost equal between IVU and spiral CT. Spiral CT integrated to plain film and US in unsolved cases could be preferred because of lower cost and dose to patient, though reaching a diagnostic conclusion may take longer than an immediate spiral CT.
    European Radiology 02/2000; 10(10):1620-7. · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • M Bertolotto, L Dalla Palma, E Quaia, M Locatelli
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate capabilities of pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) in characterization of unifocal liver lesions. We evaluated with PIHI (HDI5000, ATL, Bothell, Wash.) and spiral CT 46 consecutive patients with a single liver lesion identified by fundamental US [7 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 2 cholangiocarcinomas, 7 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 17 hemangiomas and 13 metastases]. The PIHI was performed before and 30 s, 2 and 4 min after bolus administration of Levovist (2.5 g, 300 mg/ml). Scans were digitally stored and reviewed using a dedicated software. Hepatocellular carcinoma was hyperechoic on 30-s scan, and hypoechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 2-min scan. Cholangiocarcinoma had inhomogeneous persistent enhancement. Focal nodular hyperplasia was hyperechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 30-s scan, hyperechoic (n = 4), isoechoic (n = 2) or slightly hypoechoic (n = 1) on 2-min scan. Large hemangioma revealed peripheral enhancement on 30-s scan which extended centripetally on 2-min scan. Small hemangioma appeared isoechoic on 2-min scan in all but two cases in which they were hypoechoic on 2-min scans and hyperechoic on 4-min scan. Metastasis was hypoechoic on all scans, 70% with rim enhancement. Similar changes in enhancement pattern have been observed at spiral CT. The 30-s and the 2-min scans revealed a conclusive importance in characterization of HCC, cholangiocarcinoma, and large hemangioma. The 2-min scan often furnished enough information for characterization of small hemangioma and metastasis. The 4-min scan allowed characterization of two hemangiomas which appeared hypoechoic on 2-min scans. In the other cases it did not provide further information. Diagnosis of FNH is usually reached with Colour Doppler US; PIHI should be used when colour Doppler is biased by artefacts or when colour Doppler findings are not characteristic. Our results seem to show that PIHI could be a valuable alternative diagnostic approach to spiral CT for unifocal liver lesion characterization. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed with an increased number of lesions.
    European Radiology 02/2000; 10(9):1369-76. · 4.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
243.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2009
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2005
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      • Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences - DISCLIMO
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 1999
    • Bologna Center
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1998
    • Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 1995–1998
    • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
      Frascati, Latium, Italy