A Gasparetto

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (79)503.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate a possible antinociceptive role of serotonin receptor subtype 3 (5-HT(3)), we evaluated the effects of a coadministration of ondansetron, a 5-HT(3) selective antagonist, and tramadol, a central analgesic dependent on enhanced serotonergic transmission. Fifty-nine patients undergoing ear, throat, and nose surgery, using tramadol for 24-h postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (bolus = 30 mg; lockout interval = 10 min) were randomly allocated either to a group receiving ondansetron continuous infusion (1 mg. mL(-1). h(-1)) for postoperative nausea and vomiting (Group O) or to a control group receiving saline (Group T). Pain and vomiting scores and tramadol consumption were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Pain scores were never >4, according to a 0-10 numerical rating scale, in both groups. Group O required significantly larger doses of tramadol at 4 h (213 versus 71 mg, P < 0.001), 8 h (285 versus 128 mg, P < 0.002), and 12 h (406 versus 190 mg, P < 0.002). Vomiting scores were higher in Group O at 4 h (P < 0.05) and 8 h (P = 0.05). We conclude that ondansetron reduced the overall analgesic effect of tramadol, probably blocking spinal 5-HT(3) receptors. IMPLICATIONS: Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter of the descending pathways that down-modulate spinal nociception. In postoperative pain, ondansetron, a selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, increased the analgesic dose of tramadol. We suggest that, when antagonized for antiemetic purpose, 5-HT(3) receptors foster nociception, because of their site-dependent action.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 06/2002; 94(6):1553-7, table of contents. DOI:10.1097/00000539-200206000-00033 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • M Antonini · S Meloncelli · C Dantimi · S Tosti · L Ciotti · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: The haemodynamic monitor PiCCO System, based on transpulmonary arterial thermodilution, has been used with a brachial-axillary access instead of the femoral arterial access during abdominal aortic aneurysm surgical repair. Accuracy and limitations of pulse contour continuous cardiac output (PCCO) were evaluated on the basis of arterial thermodilution cardiac output. The patterns of cardiac index, preload, afterload and cardiac function parameters were also studied in the different phases of the surgical procedure. Twenty consecutive patients were studied. Mean differences (bias) between PCCO and arterial thermodilution cardiac output were calculated by the Bland-Altman test. Analysis of variance with multiple comparison test of haemodynamic variables in the different phases were performed. The correlation coefficients between cardiac index and the volumetric preload variables were also obtained. Brachial artery catheterization was achieved without any major complication. Pulse contour continuous cardiac index (CI) and arterial thermodilution CI values showed overall mean differences (bias) of -0.04 Lámin-1. m-2 (SD 0.8) but after aortic cross-clamping and aortic unclamping they were 0.64 Lámin-1. m-2 (SD 0.57) e -0.57 Lámin-1. m-2 (SD 0.85), respectively (p<0.05). CI, global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) and intrathoracic blood volume (ITBVI) were significantly lower during aortic cross-clamping. CI was not correlated to central venous pressure (r=0.18) but instead, to GEDV (r=0.57) and ITBVI (r=0.65). PiCCO System with brachial-axillary arterial access was suitable for haemodynamic monitoring of the abdominal aortic aneurysm surgical repair procedures. PCCO must be recalibrated with arterial thermodilution after aortic cross-clamping and unclamping to avoid an over-estimation and an under-estimation respectively. During aortic cross-clamping GEDV and ITBVI indicated a decreased preload. Other haemodynamic variables were less valuable but EVLWI showed an interesting steady increase during the whole procedure.
    Minerva anestesiologica 06/2001; 67(6):447-56. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • M Rocco · M Antonelli · V Letizia · D Alampi · G Spadetta · M Passariello · G Conti · P Serio · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygenation on lipid peroxidation, on the release of circulating cytokines (TNFa, IL6, IL1b) and endothelin-1 (ET1). single arm, prospective study. ICU hyperbaric division of a University Hospital. fifteen healthy volunteers (10 male and 5 female, mean age 32+/-7 years) studied during hyperbaric oxygenation divided at random into two groups: group A (7 subjects) and group B (8 subjects). Both groups were consecutively pressurized at 2 atmospheres (2 atm abs) and 2.8 atm abs, with a constant descending rate of 1 m/min; in accordance with the experimental design, group A breathed pure oxygen continuously through facial masks and group B breathed chamber air during pressurization. Twenty millilitres of blood were drawn from all individuals at the following times: 1) basal, before HBO; 2) after 10 min at 2 atm abs; 3) after 10 min at 2.8 atm abs; 4) 30 min after the end of HBO. In all collected samples thiobarbituric reacting substances were evaluated, using the spectrophotometric technique, IL1 TNF and IL6 serum levels by ELISA and endothelin 1 plasma levels by radioimmunoassay. In both groups, TBARS levels showed a twofold increase (p<0.05) in relation to the baseline, during and after hyperbaric oxygenation. Serum IL6 and IL1b values did not significantly change over the study in any of the volunteers. TNFa amounts significantly increased (p<0.05) during HBO, at 2 atm abs and 2.8 atm abs in both groups, with almost twofold increments. ET1 plasma values increased (p<0.05) in all volunteers during and after HBO: at 2 atm abs (range 7 to 24 pg/ml), 2.8 atm abs (range 7 to 19 pg/ml) and 30 min after (range 8 to 17 pg/ml) in relation to baseline (range 4 to 12 pg/ml). All the studied compounds had a similar trend in the two groups. Hyperbaric oxygenation in healthy volunteers can induce not only lipid peroxidation, but also liberation of compounds such as TNFa and endothelins, no matter whether pure oxygen is breathed or not. These results suggest that the phenomenon behind this release might be leukocyte activation as induced by HBO. The possible role of ET1 in determining vasoconstriction occurring during HBO is also suggested.
    Minerva anestesiologica 05/2001; 67(5):393-400. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • G Rocca · C Montecchi · F Baisi · S Monaco · D Romboli · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristics of sevoflurane make it able to be used without N2O avoiding its undesirable effects to this associates. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of sevoflurane anesthesia "N2O free" in comparison to sevoflurane anesthesia with N2O. 920 patient undergoing elective surgery in 12 centers were included in this study. All the patients were monitored with routine monitoring. The patients were randomized in two groups: group Air in which the anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in Air:O2; group N2O in which the anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in N2O:O2. Opioids were administered as necessary (changes of the heart rate and/or of the arterial pressure > 20% in comparison to the baseline values). For each patient we evaluated the consumption of opioids, the time from discontinuation of the sevoflurane and the extubation and full recovery, defined as presence of a complete cognitive function; the quality of awakening, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and the quality of postoperative analgesia. We didn't observe differences between the two groups. In conclusions, omitting N2O during sevoflurane anesthesia can be considered a safe technique, avoiding the acute and chronic side effects associated with the use of N2O, without modifying the intraop consumption of opioid, the recovery and the early postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and analgesia.
    Minerva anestesiologica 10/2000; 66(9):611-9. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anesthesia for lung transplantation: intraoperative complications and long term results. 52 patients were scheduled for 16 single lung transplantations (SLT) (9 fibrosis and 7 emphysema) and 36 bilateral sequential lung transplantations (DLT) (4 bronchiectasis, 6 emphysema, 3 fibrosis, 22 cystic fibrosis and 1 pulmonary hypertension). Anesthesia was induced with propofol or midazolam, and fentanyl or alfentanil. As muscle relaxant vecuronium bromide was used. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, fentanyl in boluses or sufentanil continuous infusion in O2 100%. Prostaglandin E1 (20-300 ng/kg/min), inhaled nitric oxide (10-40 ppm), dobutamine (5-15 mcg/kg/min), norepinephrine (0.05-3 mcg/kg/min) and ephedrine (5-10 mg per bolus) were used for hemodynamic management. In 2 patients inhaled areosolized prostacyclin were administered. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPA) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI) increased after pulmonary artery clamping during first lung (mPA: 3347 nel DLT, 3643 nel SLT; PVRI; 375488 nel DLT, 377420 nel SLT) and second lung implantation (mPA: 3746; PVRI: 263553) and decreased after reperfusion of the first (mPA: 4737 nel DLT, 4329 nel SLT; PVRI: 488263 nel DLT, 420233 nel SLT) and the second lung (mPA: 4629; PVRI: 553260). Only in 9 cases (7 DLT and 2 SLT) C-P bypass was used. With a strong drug support with pulmonary vasodilators, positive inotropic and systemic vasoconstrictor drugs, in most patients we transplanted C-P bypass can be avoided. Intraoperative deaths were not observed. Two years actuarial survival is 65% for DLT and 60% for SLT.
    Minerva anestesiologica 05/2000; 66(4):183-93. · 2.13 Impact Factor

  • Transplantation Proceedings 03/2000; 32(1):104-8. DOI:10.1016/S0041-1345(99)00895-7 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with lower rates of endotracheal intubation in populations of patients with acute respiratory failure. To compare NIV with standard treatment using supplemental oxygen administration to avoid endotracheal intubation in recipients of solid organ transplantation with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Prospective randomized study conducted at a 14-bed, general intensive care unit of a university hospital. Of 238 patients who underwent solid organ transplantation from December 1995 to October 1997, 51 were treated for acute respiratory failure. Of these, 40 were eligible and 20 were randomized to each group. Noninvasive ventilation vs standard treatment with supplemental oxygen administration. The need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation at any time during the study, complications not present on admission, duration of ventilatory assistance, length of hospital stay, and intensive care unit mortality. The 2 groups were similar at study entry. Within the first hour of treatment, 14 patients (70%) in the NIV group, and 5 patients (25%) in the standard treatment group improved their ratio of the PaO2 to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2). Over time, a sustained improvement in PaO2 to FIO2 was noted in 12 patients (60%) in the NIV group, and in 5 patients (25%) randomized to standard treatment (P = .03). The use of NIV was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of endotracheal intubation (20% vs 70%; P = .002), rate of fatal complications (20% vs 50%; P = .05), length of stay in the intensive care unit by survivors (mean [SD] days, 5.5 [3] vs 9 [4]; P = .03), and intensive care unit mortality (20% vs 50%; P = .05). Hospital mortality did not differ. These results indicate that transplantation programs should consider NIV in the treatment of selected recipients of transplantation with acute respiratory failure.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2000; 283(2):235-41. DOI:10.1001/jama.283.2.235 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    Antonelli M · Conti G · Bufi M · Costa MG · Lappa A · Rocco M · Gasparetto A · Meduri GU ·

    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2000; · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of dobutamine (DBT) on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation in lung transplant candidates. Forty-five patients (21M, 24F) to be introduced in waiting list for lung transplantation were studied (14 pulmonary fibrosis, 15 COPD, and 16 cystic fibrosis). They were studied awake, while spontaneously breathing in two different phases: baseline--O2 100%; DBT phase--O2 100% after 10 minutes of DBT continuous infusion (10 mcg/Kg/min). Blood gas samples and hemodynamic data were collected during right heart catheterization. Data were statistically analyzed with Student's "t" test and values for p < 0.05 were considered as significant. During DBT phase, a significant increase of cardiac output with a decreasing in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance was observed. Since the fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI) was not proportional to the increase of cardiac output, mean pulmonary artery pressure and transpulmonary gradient increased. The prevalent role of vascular recruitment as mechanism in PVRI reduction during DBT is supported by the concomitant fall in PaO2/FiO2. This strongly suggests a worsening of regional Va/Qc due to an increased perfusion of poorly ventilated areas. DBT reduces PVRI through a recruitment of vessels due to an increase of pulmonary flow. Dobutamine has a favorable hemodynamic effect in mild-to-moderate pulmonary hypertension in lung transplant candidates.
    Minerva anestesiologica 12/1999; 65(11):785-90. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response to CPB in paediatric patients undergoing surgical correction of congenital heart diseases. Experimental design: comparative investigation. Setting: paediatric cardiology hospital Intervention: ICAM-1, IL-8, and IL-6 production were analysed before and during CPB, and after surgery in 9 paediatric patients, submitted to cardiocirculatory arrest (Group A); and in 11 without cardiocirculatory arrest (Group B). Measures: ICAM-1, IL-8, and IL-6 production were analysed from arterial samples before and during CPB, and after surgery. In group A vs group B a significant increase of IL-8 was detected during (297+/-250 vs 11+/-19 pg x ml(-1), p<0.001) and after (100+/-230 vs n.d. pg x ml(-1)) surgery and was correlated with the duration of operation (r=0.759; p=0.0001) and clamping time (r=0.738; p<0.05). After surgery in group A, IL-6 levels (35+/-43 pg x ml) were higher than those in group B (2+/-5 pg x ml), and a good correlation was observed between IL-6 and duration of aortic clamping (r=0.714; p=0.048), cardiac arrest, (r=0.714; p=0.048), and length of surgery (r=0.867; p=0.04). In children who underwent CPB with cardiocirculatory arrest cytokine production seems related to duration of operation and amplified by ischemia-reperfusion phenomena.
    The Journal of cardiovascular surgery 12/1999; 40(6):803-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor

  • Intensivmedizin + Notfallmedizin 01/1999; 36(2):230-234. DOI:10.1007/s003900050232
  • G Conti · P Marino · A Cogliati · D Dell'Utri · A Lappa · G Rosa · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate treatment with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) by nasal mask as an alternative to endotracheal intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with hematologic malignancies complicated by acute respiratory failure to decrease the risk of hemorrhagic complications and increase clinical tolerance. Prospective clinical study. Hematologic and general intensive care unit (ICU), University of Rome "La Sapienza". 16 consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure complicating hematologic malignancies. NIV was delivered via nasal mask by means of a BiPAP ventilator (Respironics, USA); we evaluated the effects on blood gases, respiratory rate, and hemodynamics along with tolerance, complications, and outcome. 15 of the 16 patients showed a significant improvement in blood gases and respiratory rate within the first 24 h of treatment. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), PaO2/FIO2 (fractional inspired oxygen) ratio, and arterial oxygen saturation significantly improved after 1 h of treatment (43+/-10 vs 88+/-37 mmHg; 87+/-22 vs 175+/-64; 81+/-9 vs 95+/-4%, respectively) and continued to improve in the following 24 h (p < 0.01). Five patients died in the ICU following complications independent of the respiratory failure, while 11 were discharged from the ICU in stable condition after a mean stay of 4.3+/-2.4 days and were discharged in good condition from the hospital. NIV by nasal mask proved to be feasible and appropriate for the treatment of respiratory failure in hematologic patients who were at high risk of intubation-related complications.
    Intensive Care Medicine 12/1998; 24(12):1283-8. DOI:10.1007/s001340050763 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • G Conti · D Dell'Utri · P Pelaia · G Rosa · A A Cogliati · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the level of cost awareness of drugs and devices among intensive care unit (ICU) doctors with variable levels of experience (senior intensivists, junior intensivists, residents). Interview-questionnaire. ICU of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". 60 ICU doctors (40 specialists in anaesthesia and intensive care, 20 residents). The estimated prices of drugs and devices were compared with the correct prices; responses within a range +/- 20% of the true price were arbitrarily considered correct; all the subgroups of doctors made inaccurate estimates of the prices, showing an absence of any impact of professional experience of cost awareness. The doctors in the study showed a high level of inaccurate cost awareness of drugs and devices.
    Intensive Care Medicine 12/1998; 24(11):1194-8. DOI:10.1007/s001340050744 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been recently used as pulmonary vasodilator without any systemic effects because of a rapid inactivation by haemoglobin. We studied haemodynamic and oxygenation effects during iNO administration in cystic fibrotic patients during preoperative evaluation and during anaesthesia for lung transplantation. From March 1996 to November 1997, 35 patients received iNO (40 ppm) during preoperative evaluation in spontaneously breathing. 13 patients, who underwent double lung transplantation, received iNO (40 ppm) during the surgical procedures, after pulmonary artery clamping. In the preoperative evaluation a significant decrease of mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance index and intrapulmonary shunt, with an increase of PaO2/FiO2, were observed during iNO administration, compared to baseline in 100% O2. During lung transplantation a significant decrease in intrapulmonary shunt was noted. All the transplants were successfully performed without cardio-pulmonary bypass. In all procedures, after iNO administration, we observed no modification of systemic haemodynamics. In conclusion, our study confirms the pulmonary effects of iNO without any systemic effects in patients affected by cystic fibrosis during preoperative evaluation and during anaesthesia for lung transplantation.
    European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/1998; 8(5):262-7. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1071211 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by an inherited genetic defect. While pulmonary and pancreatic abnormalities predominate the clinical spectrum, other organ involvement is common, including liver. The severity of liver disease does not appear to be related to the severity of exocrine pancreatic or lung function. We discuss anaesthesia in four CF patients undergoing liver transplantation. We studied haemodynamic and oxygenation modifications during anaesthesia in four patients affected by CF with end-stage liver disease and mild to moderate pulmonary abnormalities. The patients received pancreatic enzyme prior to transplantation and two had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. After a waiting time ranging one week to three months, all patients were successfully transplanted. General anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl, thiopental and pancuronium, and maintained with isoflurane supplemented by fentanyl in O2:air. Haemodynamic and oxygenation evaluations were made during the main phases of the transplant. After the intubation and at the end of the procedure all patients received a broncho-alveolar toilet through fiberoptic bronchoscopy. During anaesthesia for liver transplantation, PaO2 increased proportionally to the decreasing of Qs/Qt. In postoperative follow-up, Fev1 and FVC improved from preoperative time in all patients. In conclusion, even if cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease, liver transplantation can be offered to CF patients with endstage liver disease and mild to moderate pulmonary function abnormalities. The four patients are still alive, enjoying good health. The improved respiratory function and quality of life of these children is remarkable.
    European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/1998; 8(5):278-81. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1071214 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation delivered through a face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure is uncertain. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation as compared with endotracheal intubation with conventional mechanical ventilation in 64 patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure who required mechanical ventilation. Within the first hour of ventilation, 20 of 32 patients (62 percent) in the noninvasive-ventilation group and 15 of 32 (47 percent) in the conventional-ventilation group had an improved ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2:FiO2) (P=0.21). Ten patients in the noninvasive-ventilation group subsequently required endotracheal intubation. Seventeen patients in the conventional-ventilation group (53 percent) and 23 in the noninvasive-ventilation group (72 percent) survived their stay in the intensive care unit (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.1 to 1.4; P=0.19); 16 patients in the conventional-ventilation group and 22 patients in the noninvasive-ventilation group were discharged from the hospital. More patients in the conventional-ventilation group had serious complications (66 percent vs. 38 percent, P=0.02) and had pneumonia or sinusitis related to the endotracheal tube (31 percent vs. 3 percent, P=0.003). Among the survivors, patients in the noninvasive-ventilation group had shorter periods of ventilation (P=0.006) and shorter stays in the intensive care unit (P=0.002). In patients with acute respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation was as effective as conventional ventilation in improving gas exchange and was associated with fewer serious complications and shorter stays in the intensive care unit.
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/1998; 339(7):429-35. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199808133390703 · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • G Vivino · M Antonelli · M L Moro · F Cottini · G Conti · M Bufi · F Cannata · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the risk factors for the development of acute renal failure (ARF) in severe trauma. Prospective observational study. A general intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. A cohort of 153 consecutive trauma patients admitted to the ICU over a period of 30 months. Forty-eight (31%) patients developed ARF. They were older than the 105 patients without ARF (p = 0.002), had a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (p < 0.001), higher mortality (p < 0.001), a more compromised neurological condition (p = 0.007), and their arterial pressure at study entry was lower (p = 0.0015). In the univariate analysis, the risk of ARF increased by age, ISS > 17, the presence of hemoperitoneum, shock, hypotension, or bone fractures, rhabdomyolysis with creatine phosphokinase (CPK) > 10000 IU/l, presence of acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation, and Glasgow Coma Score < 10. Sepsis and use of nephrotoxic agents were not associated with an increased risk of ARF. In the logistic model, the need for mechanical ventilation with a positive end-expiratory pressure > 6 cm H2O, rhabdomyolysis with CPK > 10000 IU/l, and hemoperitoneum were the three conditions most strongly associated with ARF. The identified risk factors for post-traumatic acute renal failure may help the provision of future strategies.
    Intensive Care Medicine 09/1998; 24(8):808-14. DOI:10.1007/s001340050670 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    Giorgio Conti · Massimo Antonelli · Silvia Arzano · Alessandro Gasparetto ·

    Critical care (London, England) 01/1998; 1(3):1-5. DOI:10.1186/cc110 · 4.48 Impact Factor

  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/1998; 29(8):3362-6. DOI:10.1016/S0041-1345(97)00944-5 · 0.98 Impact Factor
  • M Bufi · G Conti · M G Costa · A Rossi · A Lappa · M Antonelli · A Picarazzi · E Calzecchi · A Gasparetto ·
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    ABSTRACT: 1) To compare the haemodynamic tolerance of ACV and PSV in patients mechanically ventilated after orthotopic liver transplantation; 2) to compare patients comfort during ACV and PSV. Prospective randomized cross-over study. General ICU of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". Eighteen patients admitted in ICU after orthotopic liver transplantation. Haemodynamic, oxygen transport and blood gas data were compared during an ACV and PSV trial (30'). A statistically significant decrease of mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure, PCOP, LVSWI, occurred during the PSV trial. PaO2 and DO2I decreased during PSV, but were still in supranormal range; 16 out of 18 patients described PSV as more comfortable. ACV and PSV provided a comparable haemodynamic tolerance in our patients, although during PSV the PaO2 was slightly decreased, probably due to decreased mean airway pressure (from 9.3 +/- 1.2 cmH2O during ACV to 6.6 +/- 1 cmH2O during PSV). PSV can be considered as a good alternative to the standard weaning techniques following orthotopic liver transplantation.
    Minerva anestesiologica 01/1998; 63(12):389-93. · 2.13 Impact Factor