Lawrence G. Calhoun

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (94)117.24 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) is the most commonly used measure of positive psychological change that can result from negotiating a traumatic experience. While the PTGI has strong internal reliability, validity studies are still sparse. The present research details trauma survivors' understanding of items comprising the PTGI in order to qualitatively assess content validity. Participants were 14 trauma survivors who completed the PTGI and participated in a semistructured interview. Thematic analysis was conducted on participants' transcribed interviews. One latent theme was identified reflecting that questions were consistently understood. A relationship was found between the constituent themes identified and the five factors of the PTGI. Participants answered the PTGI statements in a way that is consistent with the purpose of the instrument, with only a small discrepancy found when some participants used the PTGI scale to indicate when a decrease in an element of the inventory had been experienced. Overall results supported the content validity of the PTGI.
    Journal of Loss and Trauma 11/2013; 18(6). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruptions to core beliefs, rumination, and finding meaning have been associated with the development of posttraumatic distress (Janoff–Bulman, 1992, 2006). These variables have also contributed to the development of posttraumatic growth, which is the experience of a positive life change as the result of a traumatic experience (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). A new variable, centrality of event, has recently been implicated in both processes (Boals & Schuettler, 2011), although it remains unclear if centrality of event is a unique contributor to posttraumatic outcomes beyond the influence of other variables known to do so. The present study examined the unique contribution of centrality of event to the development of both posttraumatic distress and posttraumatic growth. Centrality of event was a unique predictor of both variables. This seemingly paradoxical finding underscores the need for further research in this area, particularly concerning the perceived valence of a major event that may be interpreted as central. Clinicians may usefully attend to centrality when working with individuals who have experienced a potentially traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 01/2013; 5(5):477. · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence G. Calhoun, Richard G. Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence suggesting that the struggle with highly challenging circumstances (e.g., earthquakes, fires, major transportation accidents) can produce significant positive changes for persons coping with trauma. The authors have termed these changes "posttraumatic growth" (PTG). PTG is positive change that an individual experiences as a result of the struggle with a traumatic event. Although similar to concepts such as hardiness and resilience, which describe persons who, in spite of exposure to highly stressful life circumstances, nevertheless withstand or bounce back psychologically without developing deficiencies or psychological problems, PTG refers to something different. The experience of posttraumatic growth is one in which the individual describes significant positive changes arising from the struggle. The kinds of PTG reported tend to fall into 3 general categories: (1) changes in one's sense of self, (2) changes in relationships with others, and (3) changes in one's spirituality or religion. This chapter describes these 3 general domains of growth, and then discusses how a PTG growth perspective might be applied in the context of posttraumatic interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: A model of the processes leading to posttraumatic growth and to life satisfaction following exposure to trauma was tested. Two types of repeated thought, deliberate and intrusive, posttraumatic symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and meaning in life, were assessed as predictors of general life satisfaction. Challenges to core beliefs were shown to be related to both intrusive and deliberate rumination. The two forms of rumination were in turn differentially related to posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress. Distress and posttraumatic growth were independently and oppositely related to meaning in life and to life satisfaction. Overall, the best fitting model was supportive of proposed posttraumatic growth models. Additional exploratory analyses examined participant groupings, based of self-reported category of resolution of the traumatic experience, and differences supportive of proposed underlying processes were found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 06/2012; 4(4):400-410. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An acute leukemia diagnosis can be an extremely stressful experience for most patients. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is positive psychological change experienced following a struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. The current study is the first longitudinal investigation of predictors of PTG and distress in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. Findings suggest that these patients report PTG, and levels of PTG appear to increase over the weeks following leukemia diagnosis and induction chemotherapy. Variables associated with higher total PTG scores over time included greater number of days from baseline, younger age, and greater challenge to core beliefs. Variables associated with higher distress included greater number of days from baseline, greater perceived cancer threat, higher symptom severity, and lower spiritual well-being. Results underscore the critical role that examination of one's core beliefs may play in the development of PTG over time.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 06/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a growing body of literature examining posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) in adult populations from various cultures, the emerging research base involving youth includes few studies exploring the construct in youth from Eastern cultures. This study examined PTG and perceived growth in the absence of trauma among Japanese youth. A total of 408 youth (215 boys, 193 girls), with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD = .93), from one public junior high school in the suburbs of Tokyo were recruited. They reported whether they had experienced any trauma in the past year and completed measures assessing psychological growth using the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children, subjective severity, and cognitive processing using the adapted Rumination Scale. Results using one-way ANOVA showed that greater growth was reported by those who experienced trauma, and the objective severity of the adversity was reliably related to perceived growth. Chi-square tests revealed that those who did not experience adversity had more difficulty identifying growth. These results suggest that the youth-reported growth does not simply reflect normative maturation. Multiple regression analysis, using participants who reported at least one traumatic event, indicated that deliberate cognitive processing appears to play an important role in PTG. Cultural and developmental aspects of these findings, as well as implications for research and applied work are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 01/2012; 4(4):411. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of challenge to core beliefs, rumination, disclosure, and some sociocultural elements to posttraumatic growth (PTG) were explored. Participants were college students enrolled in psychology classes who reported having experienced a stressful event within the past 2 years and who completed measures in groups. Findings suggested that challenge to core beliefs was the main predictor of PTG, and that a very large proportion of the sample had encountered themes of PTG in their sociocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 03/2011; 5(1). · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 11/2010; 24(2):137-56. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent theory and research have drawn attention to the need to better understand the positive changes, termed posttraumatic growth, that often occur in bereaved individuals; even as negative emotions related to grief persist. We describe five dimensions of posttraumatic growth and present a model for understanding how the loss of a close other can eventually lead to a recognition of important positive personal changes. Loss, especially unexpected loss, disrupts an individual's beliefs about the world and initiates a process of rebuilding an understanding. During this process, many people come to realise their own strengths, appreciate the impact of their relationships, and have new spiritual insights. A strategy for facilitating growth during clinical work also is described.
    Psychologica Belgica 08/2010; 50(1-2):125-143. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = .27, 95% CI = .21 −.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to identify possible sources of these differences. The following moderators were examined: mean age of sample, measure used, nature of the stressful event, language of the measure, and type of sample (i.e., community samples, college students, or mixed). The only significant moderator was age, with women reporting incrementally more posttraumatic growth as the mean age of the sample increased (B = .004, p < .01, SE = .001, Q = 9.13). To check for publication bias, effect sizes were compared across published and unpublished research. The size of the gender difference was not significantly different between published (g = .30, 95% CI = .23 − .38) and unpublished (g = .22, 95% CI = .12 −.31) studies. The present findings indicate that modest, but reliable gender differences exist in posttraumatic growth even when unpublished data are included in the analyses. Possible explanations for these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Psychology of Women Quarterly 02/2010; 34(1):110 - 120. · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence G. Calhoun, Richard G. Tedeschi
    Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 01/2010; , ISBN: 9780470479216
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    ABSTRACT: Positive changes (posttraumatic growth [PTG]) and negative changes (posttraumatic depreciation [PTD]) were assessed using the PTGI-42 with persons reporting changes from a stressful event. PTG and PTD were uncorrelated, and PTG was much greater than PTD. PTG was positively related to disruption of core beliefs and recent deliberate rumination and negatively related to recent intrusive rumination. PTD was positively related to intrusive rumination. Quality of life and meaning in one's life were positively related to PTG, negatively related to PTD, and an interaction indicated that PTG moderated the impact of PTD on both, indicating that PTG and PTD may separately contribute to current well-being.
    Journal of Loss and Trauma 01/2010; 15(3):151-166. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A short form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF) is described. A sample of 1351 adults who had completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in previous studies provided the basis for item selection. The resulting 10-item form includes two items from each of the five subscales of the original PTGI, selected on the basis of loadings on the original factors and breadth of item content. A separate sample of 186 completed the short form of the scale (PTGI-SF). Confirmatory factor analyses on both data sets demonstrated a five-factor structure for the PTGI-short form (PTGI-SF) equivalent to that of the PTGI. Three studies of homogenous clinical samples (bereaved parents, intimate partner violence victims, and acute leukemia patients) demonstrated that the PTGI-SF yields relationships with other variables of interest that are equivalent to those found using the original form of the PTGI. A final study demonstrated that administering the 10 short-form items in a random order, rather than in the fixed context of the original scale, did not impact the performance of the PTGI-SF. Overall, these results indicate that the PTGI-SF could be substituted for the PTGI with little loss of information.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 08/2009; 23(2):127-37. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) was examined among children impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R) assessed PTG at two time points, 12 (T1) and 22 months (T2) posthurricane. The PTGI-C-R demonstrated good reliability. Analyses focused on trauma-related variables in predicting PTG. Child-reported subjective responses to the hurricane and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) correlated with PTG at T1; however, in the regression, only PTSS significantly explained variance in PTG. At follow-up, T1 PTG was the only significant predictor of PTG. Findings suggest that the PTGI-C-R may assist efforts to understand children's responses posttrauma.
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 07/2009; 22(3):248-53. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stressful events that disrupt the assumptive world can force people to make cognitive changes to accommodate these highly stressful experiences. As fundamental assumptions are reestablished, many people report changes and experiences that reflect posttraumatic growth (PTG). The present research describes the development of the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI), a brief measure of disruption of the assumptive world developed for use in applied research and clinical settings. Three studies, two using college samples (Study 1, n=181 and Study 2, n=297 time 1; 85 time 2) and the third using leukemia patients (Study 3, n=70 time 1; 43 time 2), assessed the utility of the CBI to predict PTG in both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Relationships between the CBI and measures of self-reported PTG and well-being indicate that the CBI has construct validity, acceptable test-retest reliability, and very good internal consistency. The CBI may be a useful tool in investigating predictions about the effects of stressful experiences on an individual's assumptive world, PTG, and successful adaptation.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 04/2009; 23(1):19-34. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Kanako Taku, Richard G. Tedeschi, Arnie Cann, Lawrence G. Calhoun
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of disclosure about a highly stressful event and perceived social reactions to the disclosure on posttraumatic growth (PTG) and distress. Participants (395 Japanese university students) reported on their most traumatic life event that had occurred less than 10 years previously. Those who had disclosed about their events provided open-ended descriptions of the perceived social reactions they received. The reactions were coded using two different classifications: a global categorization (Positive, Negative, and Other), and then a more precise assignment to 7 categories (Sympathizing, Encouraging, Listening, Mutual disclosing, Being confused, Not taking it seriously, and Other). PTG was higher in those who disclosed about the event. In addition, those who perceived their recipients' reactions as involving mutual disclosure reported higher PTG than those who reported reactions of being confused, and higher distress than those who reported reactions of listening, encouraging, and sympathizing. These findings point to the importance of disclosure and of perceived recipients’ reactions to disclosure in the PTG and distress processes.
    Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology - J SOC CLIN PSYCHOL. 01/2009; 29(10):1226-1243.
  • Kanako Taku, Arnie Cann, Richard G Tedeschi, Lawrence G Calhoun
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the role of rumination in the aftermath of traumatic/stressful events, posttraumatic growth (PTG) and the four types of rumination (i.e., intrusive rumination soon after the event, intrusive rumination recently, deliberate rumination soon after the event, and deliberate rumination recently) were assessed retrospectively for participants from the USA (N=224) and Japan (N=431). The results from a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the hypothesized relationships among the four types of rumination and PTG were largely supported. Intrusive rumination soon after the event was positively related to PTG but recent deliberate rumination most strongly predicted the current levels of PTG for both samples. Some evidence for cultural differences in the role of rumination in PTG was also observed. In the US sample, deliberate rumination recently was more important than the deliberate rumination in the immediate aftermath of the traumatic/stressful event, whereas in the Japanese sample, deliberate rumination both soon after and recently were positively related to PTG. The results illustrate the importance of considering rumination as multidimensional and as varying across time in its impact on PTG. Future directions and clinical implications were discussed.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 11/2008; 22(2):129-36. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Kanako Taku, Lawrence G Calhoun, Arnie Cann, Richard G Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationships between rumination, distress and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Seventy-one bereaved Japanese university students completed the PTG Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and a rumination scale. Three models, with variables including intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, distress, and PTG, were tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that 1 model, which depicted recent intrusive rumination leading to distress and deliberate rumination soon after the event leading to PTG, with distress and PTG coexisting, was shown to best fit the data. Present findings offer implications for future research on PTG.
    Death Studies 06/2008; 32(5):428-44. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Kanako Taku, Arnie Cann, Lawrence G Calhoun, Richard G Tedeschi
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    ABSTRACT: There are different views about the dimensions of the positive changes resulting from the struggle with traumatic events. Using Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) data reported by participants (N = 926) experiencing a variety of traumatic events, five models of the underlying structure of the PTGI were tested via confirmatory factor analyses to examine whether the PTGI comprises three domains (Changed Perception of Self, Changed Interpersonal Relationships, and Changed Philosophy of Life), five factors (Relating to Others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life), or a unitary dimension. Results indicated an oblique 5-factor model best fit the data, thus revealing the PTGI was multidimensional. Present findings offer implications for understanding the nature of posttraumatic growth.
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 05/2008; 21(2):158-64. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the underlying factor structure of the Japanese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-J), a principal components analysis was performed on data from 312 Japanese undergraduate students who reported growth due to their most traumatic event within the last 5 years. Results showed the PTGI-J has high internal consistency and, of the original five factors reported by Tedeschi and Calhoun (1996), three were replicated: Relating to Others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, and a fourth factor integrating Spiritual Change and Appreciation of Life emerged. There were neither gender differences nor relationships with time since trauma. PTGI-J scores were positively associated with posttraumatic symptoms and correlated with type of traumatic event experienced. These results and future directions are discussed from a cross-cultural viewpoint.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 01/2008; 20(4):353-67. · 1.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
117.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1974–2013
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      • Department of Psychology
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • Oakland University
      • Department of Psychology
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 2003
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Psychology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1979
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States