M S Campo

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (84)413.49 Total impact

  • Yuan Z, Gault E, Campo MS, Nasir L.
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    ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids represent the most common skin tumours in equids worldwide, characterised by extensive invasion and infiltration of lymphatics, rare regression and high recurrence after surgical intervention. Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1) activity is necessary for the transformation phenotype of equine fibroblasts. Among the many changes induced by BPV-1, MMP-1 upregulation contributes to the invasiveness of equine fibroblasts. However it is yet unknown how BPV-1 proteins regulate equine MMP-1 expression. To elucidate the mechanism, equine MMP-1 promoter was cloned and analysed. A putative AP-1 BS was demonstrated to be crucial for upregulated MMP-1 promoter activity by BPV-1. BPV-1 E6 and E7 increased MMP-1 promoter activity, and inhibition of BPV-1 genes expression by siRNA significantly reduced the promoter activity. c-Jun and Fra-1, two components of the AP-1 transcription factor complexes are overexpressed and activated by BPV-1 in equine fibroblasts. Finally BPV-1 E5, E6 and E7 increased MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. In conclusion the expression of MMP-1 can be enhanced by BPV-1 oncoproteins E6 and E7 through AP-1 transcription factor, and by E5 via an indirect mechanism. These findings shed light on the mechanism of BPV-1 mediated equine fibroblast infiltration and indicate that both BPV-1 oncoproteins and AP-1 can be potential targets for equine sarcoid therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: HPV-16 is the major causes of cervical cancer. Persistence of infection is a necessary event for progression of the infection to cancer. Among other factors, virus persistence is due the viral proteins fighting the immune response. HPV-16 E5 down-regulates MHC/HLA class I, which is much reduced on the cell surface and accumulates in the Golgi apparatus in cells expressing E5. This effect is observed also in W12 cells, which mimic early cervical intraepithelial progression to cervical cancer. The functional effect of MHC I down-regulation on human CD8 T cells is not known, because of the need for HLA-matched, HPV-specific T cells that recognise E5 expressing-cells. Here we employ a heterologous cell/MHC I system which uses mouse cells expressing both E5 and HLA-A2, and A2-restricted CTLs; we show that the E5-induced reduction of HLA-A2 has a functional impact by reducing recognition of E5 expressing cells by HPV specific CD8+ T cells.
    Virology 11/2010; 407(1):137-42. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2010.07.044 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Z Q Yuan, L Bennett, M S Campo, L Nasir
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    ABSTRACT: BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are associated with the pathogenesis of equine skin tumours termed sarcoids. We recently documented the transcriptional changes that are induced by BPV-1 in equine fibroblasts using microarray analyses. TLR4 expression was found to be significantly down-regulated by BPV-1. In the present study, we show that TLR4 expression is significantly decreased following the exogenous expression of BPV-1 E2 and E7 in primary equine fibroblasts. The results were confirmed by the demonstration of increased TLR4 expression following siRNA suppression of BPV-1 E2 and E7 viral gene expression. These data imply that BPV-1 is able to subvert the innate immune response by downregulation of TLR4.
    Virus Research 04/2010; 149(1):124-7. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the cause of cervical cancer. The HPV genome encodes three transforming proteins, E5, E6 and E7, E6 and E7 are the main transforming proteins of HPV, while the role of E5 is still poorly understood. Using three dimensional organotypic raft cultures we show that HaCaT human keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E5 form a very perturbed epithelium, with simultaneous hyperkeratinization of some cells and defective differentiation of other cells. The basal layer is disturbed and many cells invade the collagen matrix. Many cells among the differentiated layers show characteristics of basal cells: progression through the cell cycle, expression of cytokeratin 14, lack of cytokeratin 1 and production of matrix metalloproteases (MMP). Using deletion mutants which encompass the three hydrophobic domains of E5, we have assigned the ability to promote invasion of the matrix to the first hydrophobic domain, and the capacity to induce MMP9 to the C-terminal four amino acids. We also show that invasion and production of MMP9 can be dissociated, as mutants that are still capable of invasion do not produce MMP9 and vice versa
    Journal of General Virology 10/2009; 91(2). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.016295-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papillomas and fibropapillomas may occur in the skin and in different organs in animals. Ten different genotypes of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been identified. BPV-1 through BPV-10 are all strictly species-specific, but BPV-1/2 may also infect other species such as equids, inducing fibroblastic tumors. BPV-1 and BPV-2 are associated with fibropapillomas in cattle; these tumors are formed by excessive proliferation of virus-infected dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. Nine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were examined for the presence of multiple cutaneous and perivulvar tumors. Cutaneous and perivulvar fibropapillomatosis were confirmed histologically. Negative-stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus-like particles in the fibropapillomas, and papillomaviral DNA was also detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified long control region (LCR) DNA sequence was identical to that of BPV-1. The BPV-1 E5 oncoprotein was strongly expressed in the tumor cells thus confirming a causal role of the virus. This article represents the first report of cutaneous, perivulvar, and vulvar fibropapilloma associated with BPV-1 infection in the water buffalo and describes another example of cross-species infection by BPV-1.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2009; 46(4):636-41. DOI:10.1354/vp.08-VP-0222-P-FL · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has been linked to cutaneous human papillomaviruses of the genus beta (betaPV). We sought to assess the presence of betaPV in NMSC biopsies from a group of Scottish skin cancer patients, both immunocompetent (IC) patients and immunosuppressed (IS) organ transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty-one paraffin-embedded skin tumours (27 actinic keratosis, 41 intraepidermal carcinoma, 53 squamous cell carcinoma) and 11 normal skin samples were analysed for the presence of betaPV by a polymerase chain reaction-reverse hybridization assay designed to detect the presence of the 25 known betaPV genotypes. In IC patients, betaPV was detected in 30 of 59 (51%) tumours and two of 11 (18%) normal skin samples (P = 0.046). In IS patients, betaPV was found in 27 of 62 (44%) tumours; no normal skin samples were available for comparison. The most frequently found genotypes were HPV-24, HPV-15 and HPV-38. Of those tumours infected with betaPV, 28 of 57 (49%) were infected with more than one genotype (range 2-8). Tumours from IS patients were from a younger age group (mean age 57.4 years) than IC patients (mean age 73.8 years). Multiple infections were more common in tumours from IC patients (21 of 30; 70%) compared with those from IS patients (seven of 27; 26%) (P < 0.001). In the IC group, age did not appear to influence the distribution of single and multiple infections whereas in IS patients the proportion of multiple infections to single infections increased with age. There were no multiple infections in normal skin. A wide spectrum of betaPV types was detected in our samples. Further characterization of betaPV in vivo is needed in order to determine the mechanisms by which the virus contributes to cutaneous carcinogenesis.
    British Journal of Dermatology 03/2009; 161(1):56-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09146.x · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and, less commonly, BPV-2 are associated with the pathogenesis of common equine skin tumors termed sarcoids. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which BPV-1 induces sarcoids, we used gene expression profiling as a screening tool to identify candidate genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. Gene expression profiles of equine fibroblasts transformed by BPV-1 experimentally or from explanted tumors were compared with those of control equine fibroblasts to identify genes associated with expression of BPV-1. Analysis of the microarray data identified 81 probe sets that were significantly (P < 0.01) differentially expressed between the BPV-1-transformed and control cell lines. Expression of several deregulated genes, including MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, NKG7, TLR4, and the gene encoding the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) protein, was confirmed using other BPV-1-transformed cell lines. Furthermore, expression of these genes was examined using a panel of 10 sarcoids. Increased expression of MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, and NKG7 was detected in a subset of tumors, and TLR4 and MHC I showed robust down-regulation in all tumors. Deregulated expression was confirmed at the protein level for MMP-1 and MHC-I. The present report identifies genes modulated by BPV-1 transformation and will help identify the molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis.
    Journal of Virology 07/2008; 82(13):6481-91. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00429-08 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.
    Virology 05/2008; 373(2):352-61. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.11.037 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Equine sarcoids are fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 (and less commonly type 2) has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process. Sarcoids very seldom regress and in fact often recrudesce following therapy. Nothing is known about the immune response of the equine host to BPV. Given that the viral genes are expressed in sarcoids, it is reasonable to assume that vaccination of animals against the expressed viral proteins would lead to the induction of an immune response against the antigens and possible tumour rejection. To this end we vaccinated sarcoid-bearing donkeys in a placebo-controlled trial using chimeric virus-like particles (CVLPs) comprising BPV-1 L1 and E7 proteins. The results show a tendency towards enhanced tumour regression and reduced progression in the vaccinated group compared to control animals. Although promising, further studies are required with larger animal groups to definitely conclude that vaccination with CVLPs is a potential therapy for the induction of sarcoid regression.
    Journal of General Virology 02/2008; 89(Pt 1):148-57. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.83267-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BPV-1 DNA is the predominant viral type detected in equine sarcoids and represents the only reported natural cross species infection of papillomaviruses. In this study, nucleotide variations in the LCR and the E2 regions of equine sarcoid-associated BPV-1 were characterised by sequence analysis. Variants particular to sarcoid BPV-1 were identified in both the LCR and E2 sequence. The functionality of the most common LCR variant was examined in equine and bovine cells. These studies showed that the activity of the variant LCR was higher in equine cells than bovine cells; the activity of the variant LCR in the presence of the E2 variant was similar to the reference/wild-type sequences in equine cells, whereas in bovine cells the variant function was reduced by 50%. These data suggest the viral BPV variants commonly detected in sarcoids have an enhanced function in equine cells compared to their function in bovine cells.
    Virology 09/2007; 364(2):355-61. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.02.019 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 04/2007; 39(2):189-91. DOI:10.2746/042516407X179879 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region in mammals contains both classical and non-classical MHC class I genes. Classical MHC class I molecules present antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas non-classical MHC class I molecules have a variety of functions. Both classical and non-classical MHC molecules interact with natural killer cell receptors and may under some circumstances prevent cell death by natural killer cytotoxicity. The E5 oncoprotein of BPV-4 down-regulates the expression of classical MHC class I on the cell surface and retains the complex in the Golgi apparatus. The inhibition of classical MHC class I to the cell surface results from both the impaired acidification of the Golgi, due to the interaction of E5 with subunit c of the H+ V-ATPase, and to the physical binding of E5 to the heavy chain of MHC class I. Despite the profound effect of E5 on classical MHC class I, E5 does not retain a non-classical MHC class I in the Golgi, does not inhibit its transport to the cell surface and does not bind its heavy chain. We conclude that, as is the case for HPV-16 E5, BPV-4 E5 does not down-regulate certain non-classical MHC class I, potentially providing a mechanism for the escape of the infected cell from attack by both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells.
    Virology 10/2006; 353(1):174-83. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2006.05.031 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The E5 protein family of papillomaviruses comprises small hydrophobic proteins which are associated with the cell endomembrane compartments. The functions of the E5 proteins, particularly those of HPV, are still far from clear. We have reported that the E5 proteins of BPV-1, BPV-4, HPV-16 and HPV-6 down-regulate MHC class I, potentially helping the virus evade the host immune response. Others have described MHC class I down-regulation by HPV-2 E5. We report here that another E5 protein, HPV-83 E5, likewise down-regulates MHC class I and propose that interference with expression, assembly and/or transport of MHC class I is a common property of all E5 proteins evolved by the virus to circumvent host immunosurveillance and thus establish productive infection.
    Virus Research 10/2006; 120(1-2):208-11. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2006.02.005 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BPV-4 E5 inhibits transcription of the bovine MHC class I heavy chain (HC) gene, increases degradation of HC and downregulates surface expression of MHC class I by retaining the complex in the Golgi apparatus (GA). Here we report that transcription inhibition can be alleviated by interferon treatment and the degradation of HC can be reversed by treatment with inhibitors of proteasomes and lysosomes. However, the inhibition of transport of MHC class I to the cell surface is irreversible. We show that E5 is capable of physically interacting with HC. Together with the inhibition of the vacuolar ATPase (due to the interaction between E5 and 16k subunit c), the interaction between E5 and HC is likely to be responsible for retention of MHC class I in the GA. C-terminus deletion mutants of E5 are incapable of either downregulating surface MHC class I or interacting with HC, establishing that the C-terminus domain of E5 is important in the inhibition of MHC class I.
    Oncogene 05/2006; 25(15):2254-63. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1209245 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies regarding the functions of the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E5 oncoprotein in vivo are lacking and no E5-mediated mechanism underlying epithelial carcinogenesis is known. We have shown that BPV-2 DNA is present in the majority of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumours of cattle and that E5 is expressed in the cancer cells. Here we show that the interaction between the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor and BPV E5, described in vitro in cultured cells, takes place in vivo in bovine urinary bladder cancers. In these cancers, E5 and PDGF beta receptor colocalize, as shown by confocal microscopy, and physically interact, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the PDGF beta receptor associated with E5 is highly phosphorylated, suggesting the functional activation of the receptor upon E5 interaction. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that E5-PDGF beta receptor interaction occurs during the natural history of bovine urinary bladder tumours, suggesting an important role for E5 in carcinogenesis. Finally, the system provides a suitable animal model of papillomavirus-associated cancer to test therapeutic vaccination against E5. Successful bladder tumour regression would provide a valuable model for therapeutic vaccination against papillomavirus-associated tumours.
    Oncogene 03/2006; 25(8):1251-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1209152 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    R G Beniston, M S Campo
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work with primary human keratinocytes demonstrated that quercetin, a potent mutagen found in high levels in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), arrested cells in G1 with concomitant elevation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdki) p27Kip1. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, under transcriptional control of a heterologous promoter, in transformed keratinocytes failed to abrogate this arrest [Beniston, R., Campo, M.S., 2003. Quercetin elevates p27Kip1 and arrests both primary and HPV-16 E6/E7 transformed human keratinocytes in G1. Oncogene 22, 5504-5514]. Given the link between papillomavirus infection, bracken fern in the diet and cancer of the oesophagus in humans, we wished to investigate further whether cells transformed by the whole genome of HPV-16 or HPV-18, with E6 and E7 under the transcriptional control of their respective homologous promoters, would be similarly arrested in G1 by quercetin. In agreement with earlier work, quercetin arrested HPV-16 transformed cells in G1 with an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. However, HPV-18 transformed cells did not arrest after quercetin treatment. The failure of HPV-18 transformed cells to arrest in G1 was linked to the up-regulation of the HPV-18 long control region (LCR) by quercetin, maintaining high expression of the viral transforming proteins. Transcriptional up-regulation of the HPV-18 LCR was mediated by a "quercetin responsive element" homologous to the one identified previously in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR.
    Virus Research 06/2005; 109(2):203-9. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2004.12.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we analysed the outcome of the interaction between HPV-16 L2 and E2 on the transactivation and DNA replication functions of E2. When E2 was expressed on its own, it transactivated a number of E2-responsive promoters but co-expression of L2 led to the down-regulation of the transcription transactivation activity of the E2 protein. This repression is not mediated by an increased degradation of the E2 protein. In contrast, the expression of L2 had no effect on the ability of E2 to activate DNA replication in association with the viral replication factor E1. Deletion mutagenesis identified L2 domains responsible for binding to E2 (first 50 N-terminus amino acid residues) and down-regulating its transactivation function (residues 301-400). The results demonstrate that L2 selectively inhibits the transcriptional activation property of E2 and that there is a direct interaction between the two proteins, although this is not sufficient to mediate the transcriptional repression. The consequences of the L2-E2 interaction for the viral life cycle are discussed.
    Virus Research 04/2005; 108(1-2):1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2004.07.004 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces papillomas in cattle; in the great majority of cases, these regress due to the host immune response, but they can persist and progress to malignancy. Even in the absence of malignant transformation, BPV infection persists for a significant period of time before activation of the host immune system, suggesting that the host immune system is unaware of, or disabled by, BPV. E5 is the major oncoprotein of BPV, which, in addition to its transforming properties, downregulates the expression and transport to the cell surface of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Here, it is shown that co-expression of MHC I and E5 in papillomas caused by BPV-4 infection is mutually exclusive, in agreement with the inhibition of surface MHC I expression by E5 that is observed in vitro. The inhibition of MHC expression in E5-expressing papilloma cells could explain the long period that is required for activation of the immune response and has implications for the progression of papillomas to the malignant stage; absence of peptide presentation by MHC I to cytotoxic T lymphocytes would allow the infected cells to evade the host cellular immune response and allow the lesions to persist.
    Journal of General Virology 11/2004; 85(Pt 10):2809-14. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.80128-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The equine sarcoid, one of the most common dermatological lesions in equids, is a benign, locally invasive dermal fibroblastic lesion. Previous studies have suggested an association with two bovine papilloma virus (BPV) types, BPV-1 and BPV-2. In the present study, we examined sarcoids from horses from two geographical areas, Switzerland and the UK, for the major transforming gene of BPV, E5. We detected BPV DNA for the E5 open reading frame and viral E5 RNA transcripts in most sarcoids. Sequence analysis of the E5 open reading frame of sarcoid-associated BPV detected several unique DNA sequence variants, three of which resulted in sarcoid specific amino acid sequence variations. It is unclear if these sequence variants contribute to the unique clinical presentation of the sarcoid. However, our work provides further evidence of the association between BPV and sarcoid development and the direct involvement of the virus in the pathogenesis of sarcoids.
    Virus Research 11/2003; 96(1-2):141-5. DOI:10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00175-8 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive papillomatosis was identified in a heifer born and raised in Scotland and a steer born and raised in England. In both cases, the papillomas extended from the mouth and tongue to the reticulum. Although cases of florid papillomatosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract occur relatively frequently in cattle grazing on bracken fern in the Scottish Highlands, no such cases have been reported previously in English cattle. Histopathological examination of the papillomas showed that the lesions were wholly epithelial, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and the pathognomonic koilocytes characteristic of papillomavirus infection. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was identified by molecular amplification and sequencing of the viral genome.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 08/2003; 129(2-3):93-9. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9975(03)00007-0 · 1.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
413.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2009
    • University of Glasgow
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Division of Biological Sciences
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1984–2001
    • Beatson Institute for Cancer Research
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1979–1981
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom