[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens were prohibited in the food producing animals by European Union (96/22/EC directive) and added to the Report on Carcinogens in United States since 2002. Due to very low concentration in serum or urine (∼pg/mL), the method of control its abuse had not been fully developed. The endogenous estrogens were separated from urines of 18 adult men and women. The exogenous estrogens were chemical reference standards and over the counter preparations. Two patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) administered exogenous estradiol and the urines were collected for 72 hours. The urinary estrogens were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed. The exogenous and exogenous estrogens were analyzed by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the (13)C/(12)C ratio (δ(13)C ‰). The δ(13)C ‰ values of reference standard of E1, E2, and E3 were -29.36 ± 0.72, -27.98 ± 0.35, -27.62 ± 0.51, respectively. The δ(13)C ‰ values of the endogenous E1, E2, and E3 were -21.62 ± 1.07, -22.14 ± 0.98, and -21.88 ± 1.16, with P<0.01 (t-test). Two DUB patients' urinary estradiol δ(13)C ‰ values was depleted to -28.02 ± 0.33 after the administration. The progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, pregnanediol, as well as desogestrel and ethinylestradiol from contraceptives were also determined. Stable carbon isotope analysis can distinguish the endogenous and exogenous urinary estrogen in human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates the development of a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) assay to detect clenbuterol in human urine and the comparison of this method with GC-MS techniques and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) techniques. Urine samples were hydrolyzed with β-glucuronidase, extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether and dried under nitrogen. The derivative reagent was N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide with NH(4)I and was analyzed by GC-MS, GC-MS-MS and GC-HRMS. A validation study was conducted by GC-MS-MS. The analyses of clenbuterol using different mass spectrometric techniques were compared. The limit of detection (LOD) for clenbuterol in human urine was 2 ng/mL by GC-MS (selected ion monitoring mode: SIM mode), 0.06 ng/mL by GC-HRMS and 0.03 ng/mL by GC-MS-MS, respectively, while the LOD by GC-HRMS was 0.06. With GC-MS-MS, the intra-assay and inter-assay precisions were less than 15%, the recoveries were 86 to 112% and the linear range was 0.06 to 8.0 ng/mL. The GC-MS under SIM mode can be used as a screening tool to detect clenbuterol at trace levels in human urine. The GC-MS-MS and GC-HRMS methods can confirm clenbuterol when its concentration is below 2 ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the GC-MS-MS method is quite sensitive, specific and reliable for the detection of clenbuterol in doping analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to validate the biomarker-based approach for the detection of doping with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in sport. The GH-2000 project proposed an indirect method for the detection of exogenously administered growth hormone (GH) based on the measurement of the GH-dependent markers: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Type III pro-collagen (P-III-P). These markers rise in a dose-dependent manner after GH application. In this study, the concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-BP3, and P-III-P in serum were determined to provide further incentives for the implementation of this detection assay in modern anti-doping programmes. This paper reports on an administration study of rhGH involving 25 Chinese male volunteers at a dose of 0.1 IU /kg/day for a continuous 14-day period.
We observed that the serum IGF-I concentration increased rapidly in the rhGH treatment group and showed significantly higher levels compared to baseline between days 4 and day 16 after administration. Although the response of P-III-P to rhGH administration was delayed compared to the IGF-I axis, the P-III-P concentration remained increased for a longer period (from day 4 to day 28). Statistical analysis was carried out to establish a discriminant formula with Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) concluding that the biomarker methodology is valid and universally applicable. Copyright
Drug Testing and Analysis 10/2012; 4(10). DOI:10.1002/dta.1423 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
hGH has been widely abused as a doping agent in sports for many years. There are some important approaches for the detection of hGH doping, and the ratio of 22:20 kDa GH was considered one of the most suitable detection indicators of GH abuse. Currently, effective anti-GH antibodies and related reagents are needed to develop a detection method, in particular, highly specific anti-20 kDa hGH monoclonal antibodies are a prerequisite. Herein we constructed the expression vector of 20 kDa hGH and prepared the corresponding antibodies by the immunization of the recombinant human 20 kDa into mice. Positive clones that can specifically recognize 20 kDa hGH were screened and characterized by enzyme immunoassay, Dot-ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. In total, 14 specific monoclonal cell lines were screened out.
By a series of characterization, it was found that the 6C8, 44H3, 12G7 and 33Y19 clones were showing much higher specificity and affinity to 20 kDa hGH, and P3H9 could recognize both 20 and 22 kDa hGH isoforms. 6C8 and 44H3 matched well with P3H9 in the surface plasmon resonance testing. The 12G7 clone had the best surface properties with an association constant of 3.4 × 10(9) M(-1) and a dissociation constant of 2.95 × 10(10) M.
Highly specific monoclonal antibodies against 20 kDa hGH were generated, and also two paired antibodies (P3H9 and 6C8 or P3H9 and 44H3) were characterized, which can serve as the potential components for 22:20 kDa detection kit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) doping using the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) approved kits is reported in this research. Twenty-five young male students were selected and divided randomly into two groups with six belonging to the placebo and nineteen to the administration group. Thirteen volunteers in one group were administered with a Chinese preparation of rhGH while six volunteers included in the other group were given rhGH made in Switzerland. Both preparations were administered at a dose of 0.1 IU/kg body weight, one injection per day for 14 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected using WADA guidelines and all blood samples were analyzed with WADA-approved Kits 1 and 2.
The time window for detection of rhGH doping using WADA-approved kits and criteria are discussed. Based on the comparison of the data obtained from this excretion study and from our routine (Chinese population as reference), consideration of the recent WADA criteria for rhGH AAF (Analytical Adverse Findings) is reported statistically. A comparison of data obtained from the two sample groups administered with pharmaceutical preparations, one Chinese rhGH (GenHeal®, S19990019, 1.6 mg (4 IU), Shanghai, China) obtained from prokaryotic cells and the other (Saizen®, S20080036, 1.33 mg (4 IU), Laboratoires Serone S.A., Switzerland) from eukaryotic cells is reported and did not show any significant difference for the detection of doping with rhGH. Copyright
Drug Testing and Analysis 11/2011; 3(11-12):784-90. DOI:10.1002/dta.359 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androstenedione (4-androstene-3,17-dione) is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as an endogenous steroid. The official method to confirm androstenedione abuse is isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). According to the guidance published by WADA, atypical steroid profiles are required to trigger IRMS analysis. However, in some situations, steroid profile parameters are not effective enough to suspect the misuse of endogenous steroids. The aim of this study was to investigate the atypical steroid profile induced by androstenedione administration and the detection of androstenedione doping using IRMS. Ingestion of androstenedione resulted in changes in urinary steroid profile, including increased concentrations of androsterone (An), etiocholanolone (Etio), 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5α-diol), and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5β-diol) in all of the subjects. Nevertheless, the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was elevated only in some of the subjects. The rapid increases in the concentrations of An and Etio, as well as in T/E ratio for some subjects could provide indicators for initiating IRMS analysis only for a short time period, 2-22h post-administration. However, IRMS could provide positive determinations for up to 55h post-administration. This study demonstrated that, 5β-diol concentration or Etio/An ratio could be utilized as useful indicators for initiating IRMS analysis during 2-36h post-administration. Lastly, Etio, with slower clearance, could be more effectively used than An for the confirmation of androstenedione doping using IRMS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolism and excretion of toremifene were investigated in one healthy male volunteer after a single oral administration of 120 mg toremifene citrate. Different liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) scanning techniques were carried out for the characterization of the metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes. The potential characteristic fragmentation pathways of toremifene and its major metabolites were presented. An approach for the metabolism study of toremifene and its analogs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Five different LC/MS/MS scanning methods based on precursor ion scan (precursor ion scan of m/z 72.2, 58.2, 44.2, 45.2, 88.2 relative to five metabolic pathways) in positive ion mode were assessed to recognize the metabolites. Based on product ion scan and precursor ion scan techniques, the metabolites were proposed to be identified as 4-hydroxy-toremifene (m/z 422.4), 4'-hydroxy-toremifene (m/z 422.4), α-hydroxy-toremifene (m/z 422.4), 3,4-dihydroxy-toremifene (m/z 404.2), toremifene acid (m/z 402.2), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-toremifene (m/z 456.2), dihydroxy-dehydro-toremifene (m/z 440.2), 3,4-dihydroxy-toremifene (m/z 438.2), N-demethyl-4-hydroxy-toremifene (m/z 408.3), N-demethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-toremifene (m/z 438.3). In addition, a new metabolite with a protonated molecule at m/z 390.3 was detected in all urine samples. The compound was identified by LC/MS/MS as N-demethyl-4,4'-dihydroxy-tamoxifene. The results indicated that 3,4-dihydroxy-toremifene (m/z 404.2), toremifene acid (m/z 402.2) and N-demethyl-4,4'-dihydroxy-tamoxifene (m/z 390.3) were major metabolites in human urine.
The Analyst 02/2011; 136(3):467-72. DOI:10.1039/c0an00487a · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for the simultaneous screening and confirmation of the presence of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) approaches were utilized for the pre-treatment of the urine samples. The study indicated that the capillary temperature played a significant role in the signal abundances of the protonated molecules of cropropamide and crotethamide under positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. In addition, comparison studies of two different pre-treatment approaches as well as the two ionization modes were conducted. The LODs of the developed method for all the analytes were lower than the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) as set forth in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) technical document for laboratories. The human urine sample obtained after oral administration of prolintane.HCl was successfully analyzed by the developed method, which demonstrated the applicability and reliability of the method for routine doping control analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of doping with recombinant human growth hormone is one of the challenges for antidoping analysis. This review focuses on the most important relevant publications that provide insight into the laboratory measurement of human growth hormone (hGH), antibodies and standards, the isoform approach and the biomarker approach. The isoform approach monitors the changes of hGH molecular isoform composition in serum and was applied at the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004, Turin in 2006 and Beijing in 2008. The markers approach detects a formula score, which reflects the changes in concentration of IGF-1 and P-III-P. All these methodologies measure the concentrations of growth hormone and its isoforms for isoform approach, or the concentrations of IGF-1 and P-III-P. All factors that affect these measurements should be taken into account for the development of methods to detect doping with recombinant hGH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new and reliable two-step liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the screening and confirmation of adrafinil and its major metabolites, modafinil and modafinil acid, in human urine has been developed and validated. The method involved reversed-phase C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge extraction and MS analysis by means of LC/MS/MS and GC/MS. The study illustrated that the ESI capillary temperature played a key role in the formation of the protonated molecule. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed method for the three compounds were lower than the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The human urine samples obtained after the oral administration of modafinil and from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games were analyzed by using the described method, which has also been successfully applied to routine analyses and the WADA Proficiency Test.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 06/2009; 23(11):1592-600. DOI:10.1002/rcm.4044 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) was developed to screen and determine trenbolone, tetrahydrogestrinone and gestrinone in human urine. The urine sample was enzymatically hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase, then extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Using positive electrospray ionization mode, the effect of different parameters from electrospray chamber was investigated. The limits of detection based on signal noise ratio of 3 were between 1 and 5 ng. The method can be applied in screening and confirmation of the anabolic steroids in doping control.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 08/2008; 26(4):465-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5 kDa N-terminal fragment of 43 amino acids of human growth hormone (GH) shows a specific and significant in-vivo insulin-like activity. This isoform can be easily obtained by solid phase synthesis methods. Our objective in this study is to describe this procedure in detail and to provide structural information of the protein.
Solid phase synthesis was employed for the synthesis of the 5 kDa GH isoform. Circular dichroism and limited proteolysis have been carried out to provide structural information about the folded state of the protein in solution. Surface plasmon resonance was used to compare the structural equivalence between the synthetic protein and a proteolytic homologue at an antibody binding level. For this purpose, a murine monoclonal antibody specific for the 5 kDa isoform was generated and characterised employing this and several other GH isoforms.
Circular dichroism and proteolysis results suggested that the C-terminal segment of the 5 kDa protein folds in an alpha-helix. The comparison of the synthetic product to its proteolytic homologue at an antibody binding level suggested structural equivalency. A highly specific antibody against the 5 kDa GH isoform was generated with null cross-reactivity for 17, 20 and 22 kDa isoforms. Kinetic data on the interaction with the synthetic 5 kDa GH was obtained.
The structure of the protein appears to be different in comparison to when it is included within the 22 kDa GH isoform. Finally, a highly specific antibody has been generated. The possible significance of the 5 kDa protein as a potential agent for obesity-related diseases is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) is described for quantitation of salbutamol in human urine using nadolol as the internal standard (I.S.). Urine samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure using Bond Elut-Certify cartridges. The HPLC column was an Agilent Zorbax SB-C(18) column. A mixture of 0.01 M ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v) was used as the mobile phase. Analytes were quantitated using positive electrospray ionization in a quadrupole spectrometer. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to monitor m/z 166 for salbutamol and m/z 310 for I.S. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 10.0-2000.0 ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 10.0 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-run precision, calculated from quality control (QC) samples was less than 7.3%. The accuracy as determined from QC samples was within +/-2.6%. The method was applied for determining excretion curves of salbutamol.
Journal of Chromatography B 03/2006; 831(1-2):328-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.11.041 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doping in sports has become a serious problem. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) serves as an effective reference method, but it is limited by low throughput and is therefore not suitable for large-scale screening. Use of protein chips for high-throughput screening of all athletes for prohibited substances could become an important complementary tool to GC-MS.
We developed a protein chip based on an aldehyde-activated glass slide containing 10 physically isolated arrays. The chip was used to screen urine from 1347 athletes for prohibited substances and to screen a negative control group consisting of 200 females and 120 males. Urine samples from 66 individuals known to be abusers, provided by the China Doping Control Center (CDCC), and 129 standard prohibited substances were tested as positive controls.
All 1347 urine samples screened by means of the protein chips were also subjected to reference analysis by GC-MS at the CDCC. There was no qualitative difference between the results obtained with the two methods. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) for the quantitative results obtained with the protein chip and GC-MS was 0.991.
The protein chip could be used to screen for a series of 16 prohibited drugs in urine samples. This system has the potential to become an effective screening method to test substances prohibited by the International Olympic Committee.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analytical data for identifying an unknown substance that was found in a nutrition supplement is presented. The unknown substance is purified using thin-layer chromatography and then measured using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) giving the exact mass from which the structure of the unknown substance was proposed. The procedure for synthesizing N-nitrosofenfluramine from fenfluramine is described. The extracted, synthesized, and standard N-nitrosofenfluramine are compared using HRMS, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS, HPLC-UV, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-MS, TLC, and NMR (1H NMR and 13C NMR). All analytical data obtained confirm that the unknown peak in the nutrition supplement is N-nitrosofenfluramine and that the synthetic procedure described can easily provide the N-nitrosofenfluramine reference substance for identification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A conjugated hapten microarray based on miniature immunoassay for fast and multiplex detection of anabolic steroids is reported for the first time. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of using a microarray technology as a multisteroid detection assay. The microarray system used eight monoclonal antibodies raised against three steroid conjugates, 4-androsten-4-chloro-17beta-ol-3-one, 1,5alpha-androsten-1beta-methyl-17beta-ol-3-one, and 5beta-androsten-1-en-17beta-ol-3-one, which were conjugated to BSA by the active ester method. In addition to 4 commercial conjugated haptens, 18 steroid-BSA conjugates were synthesized and from all these a conjugated hapten microarray was fabricated. The analyzed substances included 42 types of anabolic steroid reference materials and 28 positive urine samples. Of these, 24 anabolic steroids and 12 positive urines were successfully detected.