Ana Paula Thomazi

Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (11)30.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic variate stress and lithium treatment on glutamatergic activity and neuronal vulnerability of rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were simultaneously treated with lithium and submitted to a chronic variate stress protocol during 40 days, and afterwards the hippocampal glutamatergic uptake and release, measured in slices and synaptosomes, were evaluated. We observed an increased synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate uptake and an increase in [(3)H]glutamate stimulated release in hippocampus of lithium-treated rats. Chronic stress increased basal [(3)H]glutamate release by synaptosomes, and decreased [(3)H]glutamate uptake in hippocampal slices. When evaluating cellular vulnerability, both stress and lithium increased cellular death after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We suggest that the manipulation of glutamatergic activity induced by stress may be in part responsible for the neuroendangerment observed after stress exposure, and that, in spite of the described neuroprotective effects of lithium, it increased the neuronal vulnerability after OGD.
    Neurochemical Research 05/2011; 36(5):793-800. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Learned helplessness paradigm is a widely accepted animal model of depressive-like behavior based on stress. Glutamatergic system is closely involved with the stress-neurotoxicity in the brain and recently it is pointed to have a relevant role in the pathophysiology of depression disorder. Glutamate uptake is the main mechanism to terminate the glutamatergic physiological activity and to neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. We investigated the profile of glutamate uptake in female rats submitted to the learned helplessness paradigm and to different classes of stress related to the paradigm, in slices of brain cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Glutamate uptake in slices of hippocampus differ between learned helplessness (LH) and non-learned helplessness (NLH) animals immediately persisting up to 21 days after the paradigm. In addition, there were a decrease of glutamate uptake in the three brain structures analyzed at 21 days after the paradigm for LH animals. These results may contribute to better understand the role of the glutamatergic system on the depressive-like behavior.
    Neurochemical Research 08/2010; 35(8):1164-71. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3) are crucial to brain development and function, being relevant for behavioral performance. In the present study we examined the influence of dietary omega3 in the development of the glutamatergic system and on behavior parameters in rats. Female rats received isocaloric diets, either with omega3 (omega3 group) or a omega3 deficient diet (D group). In ontogeny experiments of their litters, hippocampal immunocontent of ionotropic NMDA and AMPA glutamatergic receptors subunits (NR2 A\B and GluR1, respectively) and the alpha isoform of the calcium-calmodulin protein kinase type II (alphaCaMKII) were evaluated. Additionally, hippocampal [(3)H]glutamate binding and uptake were assessed. Behavioral performance was evaluated when the litters were adult (60 days old), through the open-field, plus-maze, inhibitory avoidance and flinch-jump tasks. The D group showed decreased immunocontent of all proteins analyzed at 02 days of life (P2) in comparison with the omega3 group, although the difference disappeared at 21 days of life (except for alphaCaMKII, which content normalized at 60 days old). The same pattern was found for [(3)H]glutamate binding, whereas [(3)H]glutamate uptake was not affected. The D group also showed memory deficits in the inhibitory avoidance, increased in the exploratory pattern in open-field, and anxiety-like behavior in plus-maze. Taken together, our results suggest that dietary omega3 content is relevant for glutamatergic system development and for behavioral performance in adulthood. The putative correlation among the neurochemical and behavioral alterations caused by dietary omega3 deficiency is discussed.
    Neurochemistry International 02/2010; 56(6-7):753-9. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3PUFAs) on brain function is increasingly demonstrated. Here, the effect of dietary deprivation of essential 3PUFAs on some parameters related to neuroprotection was investigated. Rats were fed with two different diets: omega-3 diet and omega-3-deprived diet. To assess the influence of 3PUFAs on brain responses to ischemic insult, hippocampal slices were subjected to an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model of in vitro ischemia. The omega-3-deprived group showed higher cell damage and stronger decrease in the [(3)H]glutamate uptake after OGD. Moreover, omega-3 deprivation influenced antiapoptotic cell response after OGD, affecting GSK-3beta and ERK1/2, but not Akt, phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that 3PUFAs are important for cell protection after ischemia and also seem to play an important role in the activation of antiapoptotic signaling pathways.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 05/2009; 21(4):351-6. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal slices have been widely used to investigate electrophysiological and metabolic neuronal parameters, as well as parameters of astroglial activity including protein phosphorylation and glutamate uptake. S100B is an astroglial-derived protein, which extracellularly plays a neurotrophic activity during development and excitotoxic insult. Herein, we characterized S100B secretion in acute hippocampal slices exposed to different concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) in the extracellular medium. Absence of Ca(2+) and/or low K(+) (0.2 mM KCl) caused an increase in S100B secretion, possibly by mobilization of internal stores of Ca(2+). In contrast, high K(+) (30 mM KCl) or calcium channel blockers caused a decrease in S100B secretion. This study suggests that exposure of acute hippocampal slices to low- and high-K(+) could be used as an assay to evaluate astrocyte activity by S100B secretion: positively regulated by low K(+) (possibly involving mobilization of internal stores of Ca(2+)) and negatively regulated by high-K(+) (likely secondary to influx of K(+)).
    Neurochemical Research 04/2009; 34(9):1603-11. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a current interest in dietary compounds (such as trans-resveratrol) that can inhibit or reverse oxidative stress, the common pathway for a variety of brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol, under conditions of oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2), on acute hippocampal slices from Wistar rats. Here, we evaluated cell viability, extracellular lactate, glutathione content, ERK(MAPK) activity, glutamate uptake and S100B secretion. Resveratrol did not change the decrease in lactate levels and in cell viability (by MTT assay) induced by 1mM H(2)O(2), but prevented the increase in cell permeability to Trypan blue induced by H(2)O(2). Moreover, resveratrol per se increased total glutathione levels and prevented the decrease in glutathione induced by 1mM H(2)O(2). The reduction of S100B secretion induced by H(2)O(2) was not changed by resveratrol. Glutamate uptake was decreased in the presence of 1mM H(2)O(2) and this effect was not prevented by resveratrol. There was also a significant activation of ERK1/2 by 1mM H(2)O(2) and resveratrol was able to completely prevent this activation, leading to activity values lower than control levels. The impairments in astrocyte activities, induced by H(2)O(2), confirmed the importance of these cells as targets for therapeutic strategy in brain disorders involving oxidative stress. This study reinforces the protective role of resveratrol and indicates some possible molecular sites of activity of this compound on glial cells, in the acute damage of brain tissue during oxidative stress.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2008; 480(1):27-32. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke syndromes are a major cause of disability in middle and later life resulting in severe neuronal degeneration and loss of brain functions. In situations with energy failure, glutamate transport is impaired and high levels of this amino acid accumulate on the synaptic cleft. Our group has showed that guanosine exerts neuroprotection against neurotoxicity situations. The aim of this work is draw a post-ischemic profile of glutamate uptake and cell damage using an oxygen and glucose deprivation model (OGD) in hippocampal slices from young (P10) and adult (P60) rats, analyzing guanosine effect. OGD decreases glutamate uptake in both ages and recovery times, although decrease in cell viability was only observed 1 and 3 h after OGD in young and adult animals, respectively. Guanosine partially protected cell damage from 1 h in P10 and at 3 h in P60 rats and avoided glutamate uptake decrease from P10 rats at 3 h. The impairment of glutamate transporters since immediately after the insult observed here is probably due to an energetic failure; loss of cell viability was only observed from 1 h after OGD. The mechanism by which guanosine acts in the 'ischemic' model used here is still unknown, but evidence leads to its antiapoptotic effect.
    Brain Research 02/2008; 1188:233-40. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of the glutamatergic system in the neurotoxicity of diorganylchalcogenides or organochalcogenides from slices of cerebral cortex in different ages of development: 12- and 60-day-old rats. Glutamate uptake was evaluated in cortical slices of 12 and 60 days old rats. Cortex slices were incubated with three different organochalcogenides with or without reduced glutathione or dithiothreitol. At 100 microM, ebselen, diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in vitro inhibited the [3H]glutamate uptake in both age. Both 60-day-old rats and for 12-day-old rats, GSH and DTT prevented the (PhTe)2-induced inhibition of glutamate uptake but did not protect the inhibition caused by ebselen and (PhSe)2. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of organochalcogenides could be related to their effects on brain glutamate uptake, conceivably involving a redox modulation of reactive amino acids from the glutamate transporter proteins.
    Toxicology in Vitro 07/2007; 21(4):639-45. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal and cerebellar slices from immature rats is stimulated by glutamate. This effect occurs via a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor in the hippocampus and an NMDA ionotropic receptor in the cerebellum. We investigated the glutamate modulation of GFAP phosphorylation in the olfactory bulb slices of Wistar rats of different ages (post-natal day 15 = P15, post-natal day 21 = P21 and post-natal day 60 = P60). Our results showed that glutamate stimulates GFAP phosphorylation in young animals and this is mediated by NMDA receptors. We also observed a decrease in glutamate uptake at P60 compared to P15, a finding similar to that found in the hippocampus. The activity of glutamine synthetase was elevated after birth, but was found to decrease with development from P21 to P60. Together, these data confirm the importance of glutamatergic transmission in the olfactory bulb, its developmental regulation in this brain structure and extends the concept of glial involvement in glutamatergic neuron-glial communication.
    Neurochemical Research 10/2005; 30(9):1101-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that high corticosteroid hormone levels increase neuronal vulnerability. Here we evaluate the consequences of in vivo acute or repeated restraint stress on cellular viability in rat hippocampal slices suffering an in vitro model of ischemia. Cellular injury was quantified by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neuron-specific enolase released into the medium. Acute stress did not affect cellular death when oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was applied both immediately or 24h after restraint. The exposure to OGD, followed by reoxygenation, resulted in increased LDH in the medium. Repeated stress potentiated the effect of OGD both, on LDH and neuron-specific enolase released to the medium. There was no effect of repeated stress on the release of S100B, an astrocytic protein. Additionally, no effect of repeated stress was observed on glutamate uptake by the tissue. These results suggest that repeated stress increases the vulnerability of hippocampal cells to an in vitro model of ischemia, potentiating cellular damage, and that the cells damaged by the exposure to repeated stress+OGD are mostly neurons. The uptake of glutamate was not observed to participate in the mechanisms responsible for rendering the neurons more susceptible to ischemic damage after repeated stress.
    Brain Research Bulletin 06/2005; 65(5):443-50. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excitotoxicity of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to be connected with many acute and chronic diseases of the CNS. High affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters play a key role in maintaining adequate levels of extracellular glutamate. In the present study, we used slices of striatum, hippocampus and cortex from rat brain to describe the in vitro profile of glutamate uptake during development and ageing, and its sensitivity to guanosine. In all structures, glutamate uptake was higher in immature animals. There was a maximum decrease in glutamate uptake in striatum and hippocampus in 15-month-old rats, which later increased, while in cortex there was a significant decrease in rats aged 60 days old. The effect of guanosine seems to be age and structure dependent since the increase in basal glutamate uptake was only seen in slices of cortex from 10-day-old animals.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 08/2004; 125(7):475-81. · 3.26 Impact Factor