Kazuo Nitta

Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Japan

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Publications (69)153.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is one of the animal lectin categories which take part in the innate immune responses of fish. Osmerus lanceolatus lectin (OLL) from shishamo smelt eggs is an RBL composed of two tandem-repeated domains, both of which are considered to be a carbohydrate-recognition domain. SAL, catfish (Silurus asotus) egg RBL composed of three domains, binds to Burkitt’s lymphoma Raji cells through globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) carbohydrate chain and to reduce cell size and growth by altering membrane composition without causing cell death. In this experiment, we tried to compare the binding effects of these two RBLs on Raji cells. Flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic analyses revealed that OLL also directly bound to and shrunk Raji cells with ten times less reactivity than SAL but reduced cell growth with decreasing cell viability. Anti-Gb3 antibody completely blocked the binding of SAL to Raji cells but not that of OLL. In addition, the direct bindings of OLL and SAL to Raji cells were comparably inhibited by melibiose, but lactose was more effective inhibitor for the binding of OLL than that of SAL. These results suggest that OLL has slightly different cell-binding property compared with SAL and binds not only to Gb3 but also to the other carbohydrate receptor-bearing β-galactoside chains. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that SAL induced the expression of TNF-α but not of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-10. Thus, SAL-induced cytostatic effect on Raji cells might be partially caused by TNF-α-mediated signaling pathway.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 05/2014; 40(5):1559-1572. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SBL/RC-RNase was originally isolated from frog (Rana catesbeiana) oocytes and purified as a novel sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) that displayed strong anti-cancer activity. SBL was later shown to be identical to a ribonuclease (RC-RNase) from oocytes of the same species. The administration of SBL/RC-RNase induced apoptosis (with nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation) in mouse leukemia P388 cells but did not kill umbilical vein endothelial or fibroblast cells derived from normal tissues. The cytotoxic activity of SBL/RC-RNase was inhibited by desialylation of P388 cells and/or the co-presence of free bovine submaxillary mucin. FACS analysis showed that SBL/RC-RNase was incorporated into cells after attachment to cholesterol-rich microdomains. Addition of the cholesterol remover methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced SBL/RC-RNase-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred through the caspase-3 pathway following activation of caspase-8 by SBL/RC-RNase. A heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and a heat shock protein (Hsp70) (each 70 kDa) on the cell membrane were shown to bind to SBL/RC-RNase by mass spectrometric and flow cytometric analyses. Quercetin, an inhibitor of Hsc70 and Hsp70, significantly reduced SBL/RC-RNase-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that sialyl-glycoconjugates present in cholesterol-rich microdomains form complexes with Hsc70 or Hsp70 that act as triggers for SBL/RC-RNase to induce apoptosis through a pathway involving the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8.
    Glycoconjugate Journal 02/2014; 31(2):171-184. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) is a multi-functional protein that is isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana. It has both lectin and ribonuclease (enzyme) properties, and therefore is called leczyme. We examined the anti-tumor effects of SBL and discovered that SBL has potential as a new type of anti-cancer drug. SBL causes a cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways whereby RNA is its target. It is suggested that the mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pathway participate in SBL-induced signaling. The synergistic anti-tumor effects with other molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand and interferon γ, have been reported. In this study, we summarize the effects of SBL and focus on its cancer-selective apoptotic properties. In addition, we present a possible explanation for its cancer specificity.
    Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:139.
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    ABSTRACT: Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL), isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana, is leczyme and has both lectin and ribonuclease (RNase) activities. A remarkable antitumor effect of SBL has also been reported. SBL agglutinates various kinds of tumor cells but not normal cells. SBL agglutination activity is not affected by mono- or oligosaccharides. However, SBL-induced agglutination and antitumor effects are inhibited by sialomucin but not asialomucin. In addition, SBL has very little effect on sialidase-treated cells. SBL causes cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways, which target RNA. Synergistic antitumor effects with other molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) and interferon- γ (IFN- γ ), have been reported. Thus, SBL may be a novel candidate molecule for anticancer drug development. Sialoglycoconjugates on the tumor cell surface may be associated with lectin activity and antitumor effects of SBL. We review the properties of SBL, particularly its lectin, RNase, and antitumor activities, and comprehensively examine the potential application of SBL for clinical purposes.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:421415. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. An effective drug for treatment of malignant mesothelioma is greatly needed. Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and antitumor activity, so it could be developed as a new type of anticancer drug. The validity of SBL for treatment of malignant mesothelioma was assessed using three malignant mesotheliomas and a non-malignant mesothlial cell line. Effectiveness of combinatorial treatment of SBL and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) was also elucidated and characterized. SBL induced tumor-selective cytotoxicity that was attributed to induction of apoptosis. Combinatorial treatment of SBL and TRAIL showed synergistic apoptosis-inducing effect. Additional experiments revealed that Bid was the mediating molecule for the synergistic effect in SBL and TRAIL. These results suggested that SBL could be a promising candidate for the therapeutics for malignant mesothelioma. Furthermore, the combinatorial treatment of SBL and TRAIL could be an effective regimen against malignant mesothelioma.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that maintain homeostasis of organisms. In regards to the Hsps, many studies have investigated the structure, expression, localization and functions of Hsp70 and Hsc70 including expression in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) on the cell surface and involvement in cell death. Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and antitumor activity. SBL has potential as a new type of anticancer drug, since it causes cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways in which RNA is its target; and the participation of the mitochondrial pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway has been suggested. It has also been suggested that receptor(s) for SBL (SBLR) may exist in the GEM on the cell surface. In the present study, we studied the possible involvement of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in SBL-induced apoptosis. We showed that Hsp70 and Hsc70 were expressed on the P388 cell surface similar to SBLR, and their distribution in cells dramatically changed immediately prior to the execution of apoptosis following stimulation of SBL. Functional study of Hsp70 revealed that decreased expression of Hsp70 diminished the apoptosis induced by SBL. It is suggested that Hsp70 participates in the antitumor effect of SBL.
    Oncology Reports 10/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sialic-acid binding lectin (SBL) isolated from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oocytes is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and cancer-selective antitumor activity. It has been reported that SBL induces apoptosis accompanied by rigid mitochondrial perturbation, which indicates mediation of the intrinsic pathway. However, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of SBL has not been fully elucidated. We report, here, that ER stress is evoked in SBL-treated cells. We show that caspase-4, an initiator caspase of ER stress-mediated apoptosis was activated, and inhibition of caspase-4 resulted in significant attenuation of apoptosis induced by SBL. We analyzed the precise mechanism of activation of the caspase cascade induced by SBL, and found that caspase-9 and -4 are activated upstream of activation of caspase-8. Further study revealed that SBL induces the mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated pathways independently. It is noteworthy that SBL can induce cancer-selective apoptosis by multiple apoptotic signaling pathways, and it can serve as a candidate molecule for anticancer drugs in a novel field.
    International Journal of Oncology 10/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sialic acid binding lectin (SBL) isolated from Rana catesbeiana oocytes is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of antitumor effects of SBL is unclear to date and the validity for human leukemia cells has not been fully studied. We report here that SBL shows cytotoxicity for some human leukemia cell lines including multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. The precise mechanisms of SBL-induced apoptotic signals were analyzed by combinational usage of specific caspase inhibitors and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization detector JC-1. It was demonstrated that SBL causes mitochondrial perturbation and the apoptotic signal is amplified by caspases and cell death is executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The efficacy of this combinational usage was shown for the first time, to distinguish the apoptotic pathway in detail. SBL selectively kills tumor cells, is able to exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of P-glycoprotein expression and has potential as an alternative to conventional DNA-damaging anticancer drugs.
    International Journal of Oncology 09/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An a-galactoside-glycosphingolipid, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3; Gal a1-4Gal b1-4Glc-Cer) is focused to be the trigger for cell regulations through the interaction with the glycan-binding receptors. As glycan-binding subunit of Vero toxin that is secreted from pathogenic bacteria, such as O157 acts for the incorporation of the toxin into Gb3 ceramide expressing digestive cells, Gb3-binding lectins isolated from marine invertebrates and fishes were also reported to perform direct cytotoxic activity, up- and down-regulation of cytokines and are the important membrane proteins on cell surface. Two distinct cell regulative activities through Gb3 and lectins that recognize the glycan is discussed in this presentation. MytiLec is an a-galactoside-binding lectin isolated from Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis with a highly novel primary structure consisted of 149 amino acids and cytotoxic activity against Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells expressing Gb3. On the other hand, another Gb3-binding lectin, SAL from Catfish (Silurus asotus) eggs that is a member of SUEL-lectin family showed down- regulation of multidrug resistance associate protein-1 (MRP1) of the Raji cells instead of the direct cell death occurred by MytiLec. However, the cells which are treated by SAL were effectively killed with low concentrated anti-cancer drugs by the deficiency of MRP1. In addition to above studies, we found another a-galactoside-binding lectin from Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs by the combined use of melibiosyl-agarose and lactosyl-agarose columns. This analytical procedure showed the presence of two different lectins in the eggs which recognize a- and b-galactoside, respectively. Different from MytiLec and SAL, Sea hare lectins were assumed to be glycoproteins. We are now comparing the cell regulation activities with these lectins against Raji cells. The discovery of plural a-galactoside-binding lectins and the elucidation of their distinct cell regulatory mechanisms through the lectin-glycan interaction will provide invaluable findings for glycan-dependent cell signaling.
    22nd International Symposium on Glycoconjugates; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Osmerus (Spirinchus) lanceolatus egg lectin (OLL) is a member of the rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) family which is mainly found in aqueous beings. cDNA of OLL was cloned, and its genomic architecture was revealed. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence indicated that OLL was composed of 213 aa including 95 aa of domain N and 97 aa of domain C. N and C showed 73 % sequence identity and contained both -ANYGR- and -DPC-KYL-peptide motifs which are conserved in most of the RBL carbohydrate recognition domains. The calculated molecular mass of mature OLL was 20,852, consistent with the result, and 20,677.716, from mass spectrometry. OLL was encoded by eight exons: exons 1 and 2 for a signal peptide; exons 3-5 and 6-8 for N- and C-domains, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance spectrometric analyses revealed that OLL showed comparable affinity for Galα- and β-linkages, whereas Silurus asotus lectin (SAL), a catfish RBL, bound preferentially to α-linkages of neoglycoproteins. The Kd values of OLL and SAL against globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) were 1.69 × 10(-5) M for and 2.81 × 10(-6) M, respectively. Thus, the carbohydrate recognition property of OLL is slightly different from that of SAL. On the other hand, frontal affinity chromatography revealed that both OLL and SAL interacted with only glycolipid-type oligosaccharides such as Gb3 trisaccharides, not with N-linked oligosaccharides. The domain composition of these RBLs and an analytical environment such as the "cluster effect" of a ligand might influence the binding between RBL and sugar chains.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 06/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel lectin structure was found for a 17-kDa α-D-galactose-binding lectin (termed "MytiLec") isolated from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The complete primary structure of the lectin was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis. MytiLec was found to consist of 149 amino acids with a total molecular mass of 16,812.59 Da by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, in good agreement with the calculated value of 16,823.22 Da. MytiLec had an N terminus of acetylthreonine and a primary structure that was highly novel in comparison with those of all known lectins in the structure database. The polypeptide structure consisted of three tandem-repeat domains of ∼50 amino acids each having 45-52% homology with each other. Frontal affinity chromatography technology indicated that MytiLec bound specifically to globotriose (Gb3; Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide. MytiLec showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells (which have high surface expression of Gb3) but had no such effect on erythroleukemia K562 cells (which do not express Gb3). The cytotoxic effect of MytiLec was specifically blocked by the co-presence of an α-galactoside. MytiLec treatment of Raji cells caused increased binding of anti-annexin V antibody and incorporation of propidium iodide, which are indicators of cell membrane inversion and perforation. MytiLec is the first reported lectin having a primary structure with the highly novel triple tandem-repeat domain and showing transduction of apoptotic signaling against Burkitt lymphoma cells by interaction with a glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain containing Gb3.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; 288(9):6588. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An a-galactoside-glycosphingolipid, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3; Gal a1-4Gal b1-4Glc-Cer) is focused to be the trigger for cell regulations through the interaction with the glycan-binding receptors. As glycan-binding subunit of Vero toxin that is secreted from pathogenic bacteria, such as O157 acts for the incorporation of the toxin into Gb3 ceramide expressing digestive cells, Gb3-binding lectins isolated from marine invertebrates and fishes were also reported to perform direct cytotoxic activity, up- and down-regulation of cytokines and are the important membrane proteins on cell surface. Two distinct cell regulative activites through Gb3 and lectins that recognize the glycan is discussed in this presentation. MytiLec is an a-galactoside-binding lectin isolated from Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis with a highly novel primary structure consisted of 149 amino acids and cytotoxic activity against Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells expressing Gb3. On the other hand, another Gb3-binding lectin, SAL from Catfish (Silurus asotus) eggs that is a member of SUEL-lectin family showed down- regulation of multidrug resistance associate protein-1 (MRP1) of the Raji cells instead of the direct cell death occurred by MytiLec. However, the cells which are treated by SAL were effectively killed with low concentrated anti-cancer drugs by the deficiency of MRP1. In addition to above studies, we found another a-galactoside-binding lectin from Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs by the combined use of melibiosyl-agarose and lactosyl-agarose columns. This analytical procedure showed the presence of two different lectins in the eggs which recognize a- and b-galactoside, respectively. Different from MytiLec and SAL, Sea hare lectins were assumed to be glycoproteins. We are now comparing the cell regulation activities with these lectins against Raji cells. The discovery of plural a-galactoside-binding lectins and the elucidation of the distinct cell regulatory mechanisms through the lectin-glycan interaction will provide invaluable findings for glycan-dependent cell signaling.
    22nd International Symposium on Glycoconjugates, 23-28 June, 2013, Dalian, China; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies on the diversity of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) are important in glycobiology. Results: A lectin having a novel primary structure was isolated from a mussel and found to have a globotriose-dependent cytotoxicity on Burkitt lymphoma cells. Conclusion: A new primary structure quite distinct from known lectin is described. Significance: Discovery of similar lectin structures from vertebrates will lead to progress in medical sciences.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2012; 287(53):44772-44783. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel lectin structure was found for a 17 kDa a-D-galactose-binding lectin (termed "MytiLec") isolated from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The complete primary structure of the lectin was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis. MytiLec was found to consist of 149 amino acids with a total molecular mass of 16,812.59 Da by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, in good agreement with the calculated value of 16,823.22 Da. MytiLec had an N-terminus of acetyl threonine and a primary structure that was highly novel in comparison with those of all known lectins in the structure database. The polypeptide structure consisted of three tandem-repeat domains of ~50 amino acids each having 45-52% homology with each other. Frontal affinity chromatography technology (FACT) indicated that MytiLec bound specifically to globotriose (Gb3; Gala1-4Galb1-4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide. MytiLec showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells (which have high surface expression of Gb3) but had no such effect on erythroleukemia K562 cells (which do not express Gb3). The cytotoxic effect of MytiLec was specifically blocked by the co-presence of an a-galactoside. MytiLec treatment of Raji cells caused increased binding of anti-annexin V antibody and incorporation of propidium iodide, which are indicators of cell membrane inversion and perforation. MytiLec is the first reported lectin having a primary structure with the highly novel triple tandem-repeat domain and showing transduction of apoptotic signaling against Burkitt lymphoma cells by interaction with a glycosphingolipid enriched-microdomain (GEM) containing Gb3.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytosolic sialidase (NEU2) has been identified and characterized using a NEU2 cDNA constructed from a genomic library of human skeletal muscle. However, the tissue distribution of NEU2 mRNA and the physiological functions of the enzyme remain unclear. In the present study, unlike other human sialidases, NEU2 expression as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR was found to be extremely low or undetectable in many human tissues and cells, with notable exceptions like the placenta and testis. The gene forms obtained by PCR with cDNAs synthesized from poly (A)(+) RNA of human brain and colon were verified to encode cytosolic sialidase with appropriate activity, regardless of the brain gene feature of SNPs. Among a series of human cancer cell lines examined, only prostate cancer PC-3 cells exhibited relatively high expression and NEU2-silencing with an siRNA resulted in decreased cell survival and motility. To gain insights into the significance of the high levels, transcription factors in the promoter region of the NEU2 gene were surveyed for involvement. PC-3 cells were characterized by high expression of Runx2 and Sp3, and their silencing reduced NEU2, suggesting regulatory roles.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, Halichondria okadai. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc), fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for N-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with N-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.
    Toxins. 05/2012; 4(5-ISSN 2072-6651):323-338.
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    ABSTRACT: A divalent cation-independent lectin-HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, Halichondria okadai. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc), fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4-12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for N-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with N-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.
    Toxins 05/2012; 4(5):323-38. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), dimeric peptides related to an opioid peptide containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore were synthesized and their P-gp inhibitory activities were analyzed. Of the 30 analogs synthesized, N(α),N(ε)-[(CH(3))(2)Mle-Tic](2)Lys-NH(2) and its D-Lys analog were found to exhibit potent P-gp inhibitory activity, twice that of verapamil, in doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells. Structure-activity studies indicated that the correct hydrophobicity and spacer length between two aromatic rings are important structural elements in this series of analogs for inhibition of P-gp.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 03/2012; 22(6):2192-4. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modulation of levels of polysialic acid (polySia), a sialic acid polymer, predominantly associated with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), influences neural functions, including synaptic plasticity, neurite growth, and cell migration. Biosynthesis of polySia depends on two polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV in vertebrate. However, the enzyme involved in degradation of polySia in its physiological turnover remains uncertain. In the present study, we identified and characterized a murine sialidase NEU4 that catalytically degrades polySia. Murine NEU4, dominantly expressed in the brain, was found to efficiently hydrolyze oligoSia and polySia chains as substrates in sialidase in vitro assays, and also NCAM-Fc chimera as well as endogenous NCAM in tissue homogenates of postnatal mouse brain as assessed by immunoblotting with anti-polySia antibodies. Degradation of polySia by NEU4 was also evident in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells that were co-transfected with Neu4 and ST8SiaIV genes. Furthermore, in mouse embryonic hippocampal primary neurons, the endogenously expressed NEU4 was found to decrease during the neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, GFP- or FLAG-tagged NEU4 was partially co-localized with polySia in neurites and significantly suppressed their outgrowth, whereas silencing of NEU4 showed the acceleration together with an increase in polySia expression. These results suggest that NEU4 is involved in regulation of neuronal function by polySia degradation in mammals.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(18):14816-26. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

543 Citations
153.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
      Japan
  • 2012
    • Nagasaki International University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 2008–2012
    • Yokohama City University
      • • Department of Genome System Science
      • • Department of Life and Environmental Sciences
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2011
    • University of Chittagong
      • Department of Chemistry
      Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • 1997
    • Juntendo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1996
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1990–1991
    • Fujita Health University
      • Department of Biomedical Polymer Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan