[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymph node (LN) status is an important parameter for determining the treatment strategy and for predicting the prognosis for patients with uterine cervical cancer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can be feasible for differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer.
To determine the usefulness of CAD that comprehensively evaluates MR images and clinical findings for detecting LN metastasis in uterine cervical cancer.
In 680 LNs from 143 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy for uterine cervical cancer, the CAD system using the Bayesian classifier estimated the probability of metastasis based on MR findings and clinical findings. We compared the diagnostic accuracy for detecting metastatic LNs in the CAD and MR findings.
Metastasis was diagnosed in 70 (12%) LNs from 34 (24%) patients. The area under ROC curves of CAD (0.924) was greater than those of the mean ADC (0.854), minimum ADC (0.849), maximum ADC (0.827), short-axis diameter (0.856) and long-axis diameter (0.753) (P < 0.05). The specificity and accuracy of the CAD (86%, 86%) were greater than those of the mean ADC (77%, 77%), maximum ADC (77%, 77%), minimum ADC (68%, 70%), and short-axis diameter (65%, 67%) (P < 0.05).
CAD system can improve the diagnostic performance of MR for detecting metastatic LNs in uterine cervical cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to assess the value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for prostate cancer detection on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI).
DCE-MRI examinations of 42 patients with prostate cancer were used to generate perfusion parameters, including baseline and peak signal intensities, initial slope, maximum slope within the initial 50 seconds after the contrast injection (slope(50)), wash-in rate, washout rate, time to peak, percentage of relative enhancement, percentage enhancement ratio, time of arrival, efflux rate constant from the extravascular extracellular space to the blood plasma (k(ep)), first-order rate constant for eliminating gadopentetate dimeglumine from the blood plasma (k(el)), and constant depending on the properties of the tissue and represented by the size of the extravascular extracellular space (A(H)). CAD for cancer detection was established by comprehensive evaluation of parameters using a support vector machine. The diagnostic accuracy of single perfusion parameters was estimated using receiver operating characteristic analysis, which determined threshold and parametric maps for cancer detection. The diagnostic performance of CAD for cancer detection was compared with those of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and single perfusion parameter maps, using histologic results as the reference standard.
The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CAD were 83%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, in the entire prostate; 77%, 91%, and 64%, respectively, in the transitional zone; and 89%, 89%, and 89%, respectively, in the peripheral zone. Values for k(ep), k(el), initial slope, slope(50), wash-in rate, washout rate, and time to peak showed greater area under the curve values (0.803-0.888) than did the other parameters (0.545-0.665) (p < 0.01) and were compared with values for CAD. In the entire prostate, accuracy was greater for CAD than for all perfusion parameters or T2WI (63-77%); sensitivity was greater for CAD than for T2WI, initial slope, wash-in rate, slope(50), and washout rate (38-77%); and specificity was greater for CAD than for T2WI, k(ep), k(el), and time to peak (59-68%) (p < 0.05).
CAD can improve the diagnostic performance of DCE-MRI in prostate cancer detection, which may vary according to zonal anatomy.
American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2011; 197(5):1122-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) for measuring blood flow in tumor models.
In eight mice tumor models, FAIR and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed. The reliability for measuring blood flow on FAIR was evaluated using the coefficient of variation of blood flow on psoas muscle. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in the peripheral, intermediate, and central portions within each tumor. The location of ROI was the same on FAIR and DCE-MR images. The correlation between the blood flow on FAIR and perfusion-related parameters on DCE-MRI was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
The coefficient of variation for measuring blood flow was 9.8%. Blood flow on FAIR showed a strong correlation with Kep (r = 0.77), percent relative enhancement (r = 0.73), and percent enhancement ratio (r = 0.81). The mean values of blood flow (mL/100 g/min) (358 vs. 207), Kep (sec(-) (1)) (7.46 vs. 1.31), percent relative enhancement (179% vs. 134%), and percent enhancement ratio (42% vs. 26%) were greater in the peripheral portion than in the central portion (P < 0.01).
As blood flow measurement on FAIR is reliable and closely related with that on DCE-MR, FAIR is feasible for measuring tumor blood flow.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2010; 32(3):738-44. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative and visual assessments of regional heterogeneity of emphysema and to investigate the influence of regional heterogeneity on pulmonary function in smoking-related emphysema.
We developed an automatic computerized algorithm to quantitatively assess heterogeneity in the upper-lower, anterior-posterior, and central-peripheral directions. The emphysema index was plotted with a linear function (emphysema index slopes: slope of emphysema index in upper-lower direction, slope of emphysema index in anterior-posterior direction, and slope of emphysema index in central-peripheral direction) for consecutive 1-pixel-thick slices using volumetric CT data of 59 patients (58 men and one woman; mean age, 65.7 years). Emphysema index was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below -950 HU. Visual assessment was performed using a 5-point scoring system. Quantitative and visual assessments were compared. Multiple linear regression was performed to evaluate the influence of emphysema index and emphysema index slopes on the pulmonary function test.
Quantitative and visual assessments were significantly correlated in both upper-lower (r(2) = 0.40 and r(2) = 0.67 for observers 1 and 2, respectively) and central-peripheral (r(2) = 0.51 and r(2) = 0.47, respectively) directions. Multiple linear regression revealed that emphysema index, slope of emphysema index in upper-lower direction, and slope of emphysema index in anterior-posterior direction were independent determinants of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (r(2) = 0.30; p < 0.001). Emphysema index and slope of emphysema index in upper-lower direction were independent determinants of the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) (r(2) = 0.32; p < 0.001). In addition to higher emphysema index, lower and posterior lung dominance was associated with a decrease in FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC.
Computerized, quantitative assessment using the emphysema index slope is comparable to visual assessment in the evaluation of regional heterogeneity of emphysema. In addition to the emphysema index, regional heterogeneity of smoking-related emphysema contributes to impairment of pulmonary function.
American Journal of Roentgenology 03/2010; 194(3):W248-55. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to perform a node-by-node comparison of an ADC-based diagnosis and various size-based criteria on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with regard to their correlation with PET/CT findings in patients with uterine cervical cancer. In 163 patients with 339 pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) with short-axis diameter >5 mm, the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean ADC, short- and long-axis diameters, and ratio of long- to short-axis diameters (L/S ratio) were compared in PET/CT-positive and -negative LNs. On PET/CT, 118 (35%) LNs in 58 patients were positive. The mean value of minimum and mean ADCs, short- and long-axis diameters, and L/S ratio were different in PET/CT-positive (0.6436 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, 0.756 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, 10.3 mm, 13.2 mm, 1.32, respectively) and PET/CT-negative LNs (0.8893 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, 1.019 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, 7.4 mm, 11.0 mm, 1.49, respectively) (P < 0.05). The Az value of the minimum ADC (0.864) was greater than those of mean ADC (0.836), short-axis diameter (0.764), long-axis diameter (0.640) and L/S ratio (0.652) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and accuracy of the minimum ADC (86%, 82%) were greater than those of the short-axis diameter (55%, 74%), long-axis diameter (73%, 58%) and L/S ratio (52%, 66%) (P < 0.05). ADC showed superior correlation with PET/CT compared with conventional size-based criteria on T2WI.
European Radiology 03/2009; 19(8):2024-32. · 4.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the reference site for relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) and to evaluate the benefit of rADC for detecting metastatic lymph nodes in uterine cervical cancer.
Two observers independently measured ADCs in the spleen, liver, renal cortex, lumbar spine, lumbar spinal cord, and gluteus maximus on diffusion-weighted images (b value, 0 and 1000 mm/sec(2)) in 50 patients. The reference site for rADC was determined using the intra- and interobserver coefficient of variation (CV) of ADC in these organs. rADC was calculated by ADC(lesion)/ADC(reference site). The benefit of rADC over ADC was validated by comparing the area under the receiver operating curve for identifying metastatic lymph nodes in uterine cervical cancer in 130 patients.
The renal cortex was determined to be the reference site for rADC, as its CVs (intraobserver, 5%-7%; interobserver, 5%) were less than those of the other organs (P < 0.05). The ADC and rADC of metastatic lymph nodes (n = 29, ADC, 0.7483 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; rADC, 0.3832) were less than those of nonmetastatic lymph nodes (n = 229, ADC, 0.9960 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; rADC, 0.5383) (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes was greater for rADC (0.914; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872-0.945) than for ADC (0.872; 95% CI, 0.825-0.910) (P = 0.007).
The renal cortex is an appropriate reference site for rADC and rADC may improve the accuracy for diagnosing metastatic lymph nodes in uterine cervical cancer.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 01/2009; 29(2):383-90. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to develop an automated system for quantification of various regional disease patterns of diffuse lung diseases as depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and to compare the performance of the automated system with human readers.
A total of 600 circular regions-of-interest (ROIs), 10 pixels in diameter, were utilized. The 600 ROIs comprised 100 ROIs that represented six typical regional patterns (normal, ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). The ROIs were used to train the automated classification system based on the use of a Support Vector Machine classifier and 37 features of texture and shape. The performance of the classification system was tested with a 5-fold cross-validation method. An automated quantification system was developed with a moving ROI in the lung area, which helped classify each pixel into six categories. A total of 92 HRCT images obtained from patients with different diseases were used to validate the quantification system. Two radiologists independently classified lung areas of the same CT images into six patterns using the manual drawing function of dedicated software. Agreement between the automated system and the readers and between the two individual readers was assessed.
The overall accuracy of the system to classify each disease pattern based on the typical ROIs was 89%. When the quantification results were examined, the average agreement between the system and each radiologist was 52% and 49%, respectively. The agreement between the two radiologists was 67%.
An automated quantification system for various regional patterns of diffuse interstitial lung diseases can be used for objective and reproducible assessment of disease severity.
Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 01/2009; 10(5):455-63. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating prostate cancer from noncancerous tissue according to anatomical region.
In 47 patients with diffusion-weighted-MR (b-value, 0 and 1000 sec/mm2) on a 1.5 T unit, ADCs were measured in prostate cancer and in three noncancerous tissues (transitional zone, peripheral zone, and prostatic base). Diagnostic performance of ADC for differentiating cancer from noncancerous tissue was evaluated using receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) analysis.
Mean ADC of prostate cancer (0.963x10(-3) mm2/s) was lower than those of all noncancerous tissues (P<0.001). In noncancerous tissue, ADC differed according to anatomical region (peripheral zone, 1.572x10(-3) mm2/sec; transitional zone, 1.441x10(-3) mm2/sec; prostatic base, 1.146x10(-3) mm2/sec) (P<0.01). ADC was lower in prostate cancer than in all noncancerous tissues in 34 (72%) patients. Area under the ROC curve for differentiating cancer from noncancerous tissue in prostatic base (0.725) was less than those for differentiating cancer from noncancerous tissue in peripheral (0.952) and transitional zones (0.906) (P<0.05). Sensitivity differed according to anatomical region (peripheral zone, 98%; transitional zone, 82%; prostatic base, 66%) (P<0.05).
Variable ADC in noncancerous tissue according to anatomical region may limit diagnostic performance of ADC for cancer detection.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2008; 28(5):1173-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiation of metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes.
In 125 patients who underwent lymph node dissection for uterine cervical cancer, DWI was performed at b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2. By referring to the surgical maps of the pelvic lymph nodes, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was compared in the metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes, and receiver-operating-characteristics analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ADC in differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes.
The ADC were significantly lower in the metastatic lymph nodes (0.7651x10(-3) mm2/s+/-0.1137) than in the nonmetastatic lymph nodes (1.0021x10(-3) mm2/s+/-0.1859; P<0.001). The area-under-the-curve of ADC for differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes, was 0.902. The sensitivity and specificity of ADC for differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes, were 87% for the ADC and 80%, respectively.
DWI is feasible for differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2008; 28(3):714-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor