[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crosslinking ligand-engaged cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to the T cell receptor (TCR) with a bispecific fusion protein (BsB) comprised of a mutant mouse CD80 and lymphocyte activation antigen-3 (LAG-3) has been shown to attenuate TCR signaling and to direct T-cell differentiation toward Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Here, we show that antigen-specific Tregs can also be induced in an antigen-specific setting in vitro. Treatment of non-obese diabetic (NOD) female mice between 9-12 weeks of age with a short course of BsB elicited a transient increase of Tregs in the blood and moderately delayed the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, a longer course of treatment (10 weeks) of 4-13 weeks-old female NOD animals with BsB significantly delayed the onset of disease or protected animals from developing diabetes, with only 13% of treated animals developing diabetes by 35 weeks of age compared to 80% of the animals in the control group. Histopathological analysis of the pancreata of the BsB-treated mice that remained non-diabetic revealed the preservation of insulin-producing β-cells despite the presence of different degrees of insulitis. Thus, a bifunctional protein capable of engaging CTLA-4 and MHCII and indirectly co-ligating CTLA-4 to the TCR protected NOD mice from developing T1D.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63530. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cross-linking of ligand-engaged cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to the T cell receptor (TCR) during the early phase of T cell activation attenuates TCR signaling, leading to T cell inhibition. To promote this event, a bispecific fusion protein comprising a mutant mouse CD80 (CD80w88a) and lymphocyte activation antigen-3 was engineered to concurrently engage CTLA-4 and cross-link it to the TCR. Cross-linking is expected to be attained via ligation of CTLA-4 first to MHCII and then indirectly to the TCR, generating a CTLA-4-MHCII-TCR trimolecular complex that forms between T cells and antigen-presenting cells during T cell activation. Treating T cells with this bispecific fusion protein inhibited T cell activation. In addition, it induced the production of IL-10 and TGF-β and attenuated AKT and mTOR signaling. Intriguingly, treatment with the bispecific fusion protein also directed early T cell differentiation into Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs). This process was dependent on the endogenous production of TGF-β. Thus, bispecific fusion proteins that engage CTLA-4 and co-ligate it to the TCR during the early phase of T cell activation can negatively regulate the T cell response. Bispecific biologics with such dual functions may therefore represent a novel class of therapeutics for immune modulation. These findings presented here also reveal a potential new role for CTLA-4 in Treg differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(14):11098-107. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secretory form of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is postulated to play a key role in the retention and aggregation of lipoproteins in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall by converting sphingomyelin in lipoproteins into ceramide. The present study aimed to determine whether the level of circulating ASM activity affects lesion development in mouse model of atherosclerosis.
Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice were injected intravenously with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV8-ASM) that constitutively expressed high levels of human ASM in liver and plasma.
Plasma sphingomyelin levels were reduced at early but not later time points after the administration of AAV8-ASM despite persistently elevated circulating ASM. No change in serum lipoprotein levels was observed. Thirteen or 17 weeks after the administration of AAV8-ASM, the amount of plaque formation in the aortic sinus was comparable to that of mice treated with a control AAV.
Unexpectedly, the lesion area of the entire aorta was reduced significantly in the AAV8-ASM virus-treated group. Hepatic expression and secretion of ASM into the circulation did not accelerate or exacerbate, but rather decreased, lesion formation in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, plasma ASM activity does not appear to be rate limiting for plaque formation during atherogenesis.
The Journal of Gene Medicine 06/2011; 13(6):324-32. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts reportedly have a role in coalescing key signaling molecules into the immunological synapse during T cell activation,
thereby modulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activity. Recent findings suggest that a correlation may exist between
increased levels of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the lipid rafts of T cells and a heightened response of those T cells toward
activation. Here, we show that lowering the levels of GSLs in CD4+ T cells using a potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase (Genz-122346) led to a moderation of the T cell response toward
activation. TCR proximal signaling events, such as phosphorylation of Lck, Zap70 and LAT, as well as early Ca2+ mobilization, were attenuated by treatment with Genz-122346. Concomitant with these events were significant reductions in
IL-2 production and T cell proliferation. Similar findings were obtained with CD4+ T cells isolated from transgenic mice genetically deficient in GM3 synthase activity. Interestingly, lowering the GSL levels
in CD4+ T cells by either pharmacological inhibition or disruption of the gene for GM3 synthase also specifically inhibited the differentiation
of T cells to the Th17 lineage but not to other Th subsets in vitro. Taken together with the recently reported effects of Raftlin deficiency on Th17 differentiation, these results strongly suggest that altering the GSL composition of lipid rafts modulates TCR signaling
activity and affects Th17 differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(17):14787-14794. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts reportedly have a role in coalescing key signaling molecules into the immunological synapse during T cell activation, thereby modulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activity. Recent findings suggest that a correlation may exist between increased levels of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the lipid rafts of T cells and a heightened response of those T cells toward activation. Here, we show that lowering the levels of GSLs in CD4(+) T cells using a potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase (Genz-122346) led to a moderation of the T cell response toward activation. TCR proximal signaling events, such as phosphorylation of Lck, Zap70 and LAT, as well as early Ca(2+) mobilization, were attenuated by treatment with Genz-122346. Concomitant with these events were significant reductions in IL-2 production and T cell proliferation. Similar findings were obtained with CD4(+) T cells isolated from transgenic mice genetically deficient in GM3 synthase activity. Interestingly, lowering the GSL levels in CD4(+) T cells by either pharmacological inhibition or disruption of the gene for GM3 synthase also specifically inhibited the differentiation of T cells to the Th(17) lineage but not to other Th subsets in vitro. Taken together with the recently reported effects of Raftlin deficiency on Th(17) differentiation, these results strongly suggest that altering the GSL composition of lipid rafts modulates TCR signaling activity and affects Th(17) differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(17):14787-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts reportedly play an important role in modulating the activation of mast cells and granulocytes, the primary effector cells of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Activation is mediated through resident signaling molecules whose activity, in part, may be modulated by the composition of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in membrane rafts. In this study, we evaluated the impact of inhibiting GSL biosynthesis in mast cells and in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma using either a small molecule inhibitor or anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) directed against specific enzymes in the GSL pathway. Lowering GSL levels in mast cells through inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) reduced phosphorylation of Syk tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2) as well as cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels. Modulating these intracellular signaling events also resulted in a significant decrease in mast cell degranulation. Primary mast cells isolated from a GM3 synthase (GM3S) knockout mouse exhibited suppressed activation-induced degranulation activity further supporting a role of GSLs in this process. In previously OVA-sensitized mice, intra-nasal administration of ASOs to GCS, GM3S or lactosylceramide synthase (LCS) significantly suppressed metacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation to a subsequent local challenge with OVA. However, administration of the ASOs into mice that had been sensitized and locally challenged with the allergen did not abate the consequent pulmonary inflammatory sequelae. These results suggest that GSLs contribute to the initiation phase of the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity and asthma and lowering GSL levels may offer a novel strategy to modulate these manifestations.
International Immunology 05/2010; 22(7):593-603. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies examining the effects of hypoxia upon osteoclast biology have consistently revealed a stimulatory effect; both osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity have been shown to be enhanced in the presence of hypoxia. In the present study we examined the effects of the hypoxia mimetics dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) and desferrioxamine (DFO) upon osteoclastogenesis. In contrast to hypoxia, our studies revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclast formation from macrophages treated with DMOG and DFO. Moreover, expression of a constitutively active form of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) did not enhance osteoclastogenesis and actually attenuated the differentiation process. DMOG did not affect cell viability or receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. However, RANKL-dependent transcription of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was reduced in the presence of DMOG. Additionally, DMOG promoted transcription of the pro-apoptotic mediator B-Nip3. These studies suggest that a hypoxia-responsive factor other than HIF-1alpha is necessary for enhancing the formation of osteoclasts in hypoxic settings.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 03/2010; 28(5):510-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver and other tissues, leading to insulin resistance. We have previously shown that a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, which inhibits the initial step in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), improved glucose metabolism and decreased hepatic steatosis in both ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Here we have determined in the DIO mouse model the efficacy of a related small molecule compound, Genz-112638, which is currently being evaluated clinically for the treatment of Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder.
DIO mice were treated with the Genz-112638 for 12 to 16 weeks by daily oral gavage. Genz-112638 lowered HbA1c levels and increased glucose tolerance. Whole body adiposity was not affected in normal mice, but decreased in drug-treated obese mice. Drug treatment also significantly lowered liver triglyceride levels and reduced the development of hepatic steatosis. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps on the DIO mice treated with Genz-112638 and showed that insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production increased significantly compared to the placebo treated mice, indicating a marked improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity.
These results indicate that GSL inhibition in obese mice primarily results in an increase in insulin action in the liver, and suggests that GSLs may have an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in conditions of obesity.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e11239. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving the delivery of therapeutics to disease-affected tissues can increase their efficacy and safety. Here, we show that chemical conjugation of a synthetic oligosaccharide harboring mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues onto recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) via oxime chemistry significantly improved its affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) and subsequent uptake by muscle cells. Administration of the carbohydrate-remodeled enzyme (oxime-neo-rhGAA) into Pompe mice resulted in an approximately fivefold higher clearance of lysosomal glycogen in muscles when compared to the unmodified counterpart. Importantly, treatment of immunotolerized Pompe mice with oxime-neo-rhGAA translated to greater improvements in muscle function and strength. Treating older, symptomatic Pompe mice also reduced tissue glycogen levels but provided only modest improvements in motor function. Examination of the muscle pathology suggested that the poor response in the older animals might have been due to a reduced regenerative capacity of the skeletal muscles. These findings lend support to early therapeutic intervention with a targeted enzyme as important considerations in the management of Pompe disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steatosis in the liver is a common feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and the precursor to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver failure. It has been shown previously that inhibiting glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis increases insulin sensitivity and lowers glucose levels in diabetic rodent models. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting GSL synthesis in ob/ob mice not only improved glucose homeostasis but also markedly reduced the development of hepatic steatosis. The ob/ob mice were treated for 7 weeks with a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, the initial enzyme involved in the synthesis of GSLs. Besides lowering glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, drug treatment also significantly reduced the liver/body weight ratio, decreased the accumulation of triglycerides, and improved several markers of liver pathology. Drug treatment reduced liver glucosylceramide (GL1) levels in the ob/ob mouse. Treatment also reduced the expression of several genes associated with hepatic steatosis, including those involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation. In addition, inhibiting GSL synthesis in diet-induced obese mice both prevented the development of steatosis and partially reversed preexisting steatosis. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that inhibiting GSL synthesis ameliorates the liver pathology associated with obesity and diabetes, and may represent a novel strategy for treating fatty liver disease and NASH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a common comorbidity of atherosclerosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the master regulator of the angiogenic response to hypoxia.
We studied the effects of adenoviral vectors expressing a constitutively active HIF-1 alpha hybrid (Ad2/HIF-1 alpha/VP16) or vascular endothelial growth factor (Ad2/VEGF) on collateral development and vascular leakiness in a diabetic rat model of hindlimb ischemia.
After the removal of the right femoral artery, the mRNA levels of VEGF, angiopoietin-1 and angiopietin-4 in the calf muscles, as measured by Taqman reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, were transiently elevated in Zucker lean (ZL) but not Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The angiographic score, as determined by post-mortem angiography, was significantly lower in ZDF animals 35 days after surgery compared to their ZL counterparts. In separate animals, intramuscular injection of Ad2/HIF-1a/VP16 and Ad/2VEGF into the thigh muscles significantly increased the angiographic score and capillary density 21 and 35 days after the injection compared to Ad2/CMVEV (a vector expressing no transgene) or vehicle. After the injection of Ad2/CMVEV or vehicle, the Evans-blue dye content in the thigh muscles was significantly higher in ZDF rats than their ZL counterparts. Ad2/HIF-1 alpha/VP16 but not Ad2/VEGF reduced tissue Evans blue dye content.
The endogenous angiogenic response to ischemia was impaired in ZDF rats, possibly due to down-regulation of angiogenic factors. Ad2/HIF-1 alpha/VP16 enhanced collateral development and reduced vascular leakage in the ischemic hindlimb of ZDF rats indicating that hybrid HIF-1 alpha angiogenic therapy may be efficacious for peripheral vascular disease with a diabetic comorbidity.
The Journal of Gene Medicine 03/2009; 11(5):390-400. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1alpha/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for beta-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1alpha/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPARalpha ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPARalpha/RXR.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(3):567-72. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a primary regulator of the physiological response to hypoxia. A recombinant adenovirus expressing a constitutively active hybrid form of the HIF-1alpha subunit (Ad2/HIF-1alpha/VP16) is being evaluated as a gene therapy for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Ad2/HIF-1alpha/VP16 up-regulates known HIF-1-responsive genes, including those involved in angiogenesis. Expression profile analysis revealed that the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene was significantly up-regulated in response to HIF-1alpha/VP16 in human fetal cardiac cells. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed transcriptional activation of the BNP gene by HIF-1alpha/VP16 in human but not rat cardiac cells. Because hypoxia itself did not increase human BNP gene expression in these analyses, the mechanism of the HIF-1alpha/VP16 effect was determined. Analyses of promoter deletion mutants suggested that the cis-acting sequence in the human BNP promoter mediating activation by HIF-1alpha/VP16 was a putative HIF-1 responsive element (HRE) located at -466. An SV40 basal promoter-luciferase plasmid containing a minimal BNP HRE was up-regulated by HIF-1alpha/VP16, whereas a similar construct carrying a mutation within the HIF-1 binding site was not. Mutation of an E-box motif within the BNP HRE reduced HIF-1alpha/VP16-mediated transcriptional activation by 50%. Gel-shift analyses showed that both the native HIF-1alpha and HIF-1alpha/VP16 are able to bind to a probe containing the HIF-1 binding site. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a functional HRE in the BNP promoter and further define the scope and mechanism of action of Ad2/HIF-1alpha/VP16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To enhance the delivery of rhGAA (recombinant GAA, where GAA stands for acid alpha-glucosidase) to the affected muscles in Pompe disease, the carbohydrate moieties on the enzyme were remodelled to exhibit a high affinity ligand for the CI-MPR (cation-independent M6P receptor, where M6P stands for mannose 6-phosphate). This was achieved by chemically conjugating on to rhGAA, a synthetic oligosaccharide ligand bearing M6P residues in the optimal configuration for binding the receptor. The carbonyl chemistry used resulted in the conjugation of approx. six synthetic ligands on to each enzyme. The resulting modified enzyme [neo-rhGAA (modified recombinant human GAA harbouring synthetic oligosaccharide ligands)] displayed near-normal specific activity and significantly increased affinity for the CI-MPR. However, binding to the mannose receptor was unaffected despite the introduction of additional mannose residues in neo-rhGAA. Uptake studies using L6 myoblasts showed neo-rhGAA was internalized approx. 20-fold more efficiently than the unmodified enzyme. Administration of neo-rhGAA into Pompe mice also resulted in greater clearance of glycogen from all the affected muscles when compared with the unmodified rhGAA. Comparable reductions in tissue glycogen levels in the Pompe mice were realized using an approx. 8-fold lower dose of neo-rhGAA in the heart and diaphragm and an approx. 4-fold lower dose in the skeletal muscles. Treatment of older Pompe mice, which are more refractory to enzyme therapy, with 40 mg/kg neo-rhGAA resulted in near-complete clearance of glycogen from all the affected muscles as opposed to only partial correction with the unmodified rhGAA. These results demonstrate that remodelling the carbohydrate of rhGAA to improve its affinity for the CI-MPR represents a feasible approach to enhance the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction is the single most important cause of morbidity in kidney hemodialysis patients. Failure of an arteriovenous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft, the most common form of hemodialysis access, is primarily due to intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis at the venous anastomosis.
This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of an adenoviral vector (Ad2/betaARKct) encoding the carboxyl terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARKct) in a pig model of arteriovenous PTFE graft failure. Transduction of the external jugular vein with Ad2/betaARKct (5E9, 5E10, or 5E11 particles per vein) did not result in systemic toxicity, as measured by clinical and pathological assessments. Ad2/betaARKct significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia in the graft/vein anastomosis. It also improved the graft patency rate and angiographic score, as measured histologically and angiographically, compared with vehicle or empty viral vector controls.
Our results suggest that local administration of adenoviral vectors encoding betaARKct into the jugular vein represents a viable strategy to treat AV graft hemodialysis vascular access failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular Therapy (2005) 11, S244|[ndash]|S244; doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.07.168
628. Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of |[beta]|-Adrenergic Receptor Kinase C-Terminus Reduces Intimal Hyperplasia and Luminal Stenosis in a Pig Model of Arteriovenous Polytetrafluoroethylene Graft Failure
Zhengyu Luo1,|[ast]|, Geoffrey Y. Akita1,|[ast]|, Taro Date1,|[ast]|, Chris Treleaven1,|[ast]|, Karen A. Vincent1,|[ast]|, Denise Woodcock1,|[ast]|, Seng H. Cheng1,|[ast]|, Richard J. Grogery1,|[ast]| and Canwen Jiang1,|[ast]|1Gene Transfer Research, Genzyme Corporation, Framingham, MA|[ast]|All authors are employed by Genzyme Corporation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preconditioning in cultured cardiomyocytes elevates the expression of several protective genes including Glut-4 and heat shock protein (HSP)70. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is known to mediate the transcriptional activation of hypoxia-responsive genes. In this study, we examined the effect of adenovirus-mediated expression of constitutively stable hybrid forms of HIF-1alpha on cardiomyocyte viability and gene expression. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia-reperfusion with or without preinfection with recombinant adenoviral vectors [Ad2/HIF-1alpha/herpes simplex virus protein VP16 and Ad2/HIF-1alpha/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)]. Cellular viability and mRNA levels of several cardioprotective genes were measured. We demonstrated that infection with Ad2/HIF-1alpha/VP16 and Ad2/HIF-1alpha/NF-kappaB mimicked the upregulation of the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Glut-1, Glut-4, HSP70, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the protection of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by late-phase preconditioning against simulated ischemia-reperfusion. The same dose of a control viral vector expressing no transgene had no effect. Preconditioning also elevated HIF-1alpha protein levels. These results suggest that adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1alpha/VP16 or HIF-1alpha/NF-kappaB, a constitutively stable hybrid transcriptional factor, protected cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes against simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury by inducing multiple protective genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction is the single most important cause of morbidity in the hemodialysis population which is currently over 230,000 in the US and growing at a rate of 5% per annum. Failure of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft, the most common form of hemodialysis access, is primarily due to intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis at the venous anastomosis. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of an adenoviral vector (Ad2/βARKct) encoding the carboxyl terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct) in a pig model of arteriovenous PTFE graft failure. To estimate gene transduction efficiency, Ad2/β-gal4 (5E11 particles) was infused into the clamped external jugular vein segment prior to the construction of the PTFE/vein graft. Endothelial cells and patches of smooth muscle cells in the medial area expressed nuclear-localized β-gal. Approximate 4.9±2.4% of the cells stained positively for β-gal expression. In a safety and efficacy study, eight pigs were enrolled in each treatment group. Twenty-eight days after gene transfer, there was no Ad2/βARKct-related systemic toxicity, as measured by clinical and pathological assessments. However, Ad2/βARKct improved the graft patency rate and angiographic score, as measured histologically and angiographically, compared to vehicle or empty viral vector controls. The majority of the PTFE/vein grafts treated with vehicle were occluded at the graft/vein anastomosis, with a patency rate of 37.5%. All the grafts in pigs that received Ad2/EV (5E11 particles/per vessel) were occluded. In animals treated with Ad2/βARKct at 5E9, 5E10, and 5E11 particles/per vessel, the patency rate was 75%, 37.5%, and 75%, respectively. The percentage of the graft/vein luminal stenosis was 83.4±9.6%, 100%, 63.8±12.8%, 70±14.8%, 56.6±13.7% in pigs treated with vehicle, Ad2/EV, and Ad2/βARKct at 5E9, 5E10, or 5E11 particles/per vessel, respectively. Ad2/βARKct also significantly (P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hereditary von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome predisposes sufferers to highly vascularized tumors such as renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) and central nervous system hemangioblastoma. In RCC4 and RCC786-0 VHL- cells with VHL mutations, the protein of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is constitutively stabilized and the mRNA levels of HIF target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are elevated. However, the expression of angiopoietins in these cells and their involvement in angiogenesis are not well known. In this study, we compared the mRNA levels of angiopoietins in human kidney proximal tubule epithelial (RPTE) and RCC4 and RCC786-0 VHL- cells. In RPTE cells, angiopoietin-4 (Ang-4) expression was selectively induced by hypoxia or by expression of a hybrid form of HIF-1alpha. Under normoxic conditions, the mRNA levels of Ang-4 were higher in RCC4 and RCC786-0 VHL- than RPTE cells. Angiopoietin-1 expression was detectable in RCC4 and RCC786-0 VHL- cells but not RPTE cells. In RCC786-0 VHL+ cells, which were stably transfected with a wild-type copy of VHL, the mRNA levels of VEGF and Ang-4 were suppressed and the hypoxic response was restored. We also demonstrated that stimulation of endothelial tube formation by conditioned medium harvested from RCC4 cells was inhibited by a soluble Tie-2 receptor. These results suggest that the angiopoietin/Tie-2 system may participate in the angiogenic response to hypoxia in renal tissues and in tumor angiogenesis in renal carcinoma.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 11/2004; 287(4):F649-57. · 3.61 Impact Factor