[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression on sexually mature broiler breeders. Cobb 500 birds were divided into 2 groups at 4 wk and fed either an everyday (ED) or skip-a-day (SKP) regimen. At 24 wk of age, all birds were switched over to an ED regimen. At 26.4 wk, breeder hens were randomly selected and killed at intervals after feeding. Livers were sampled from 4 hens at 4-h intervals for 24 h for a total of 28 samples per treatment. Blood was sampled from 4 hens per sampling time; sampling times were 0, 30, and 60 min and 2 and 4 h after feeding and then every 4 h up to 24 h for a total of 36 samples per treatment. Main feeding regimen, time, and interaction effects were analyzed. Significant interaction effects were found between time and feeding regimen for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and malic enzyme mRNA expression. The peak for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase expression was higher in ED-reared birds, whereas the peak for malic enzyme expression was higher in SKP-reared birds. Overall, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-II were higher in SKP-reared birds. Overall, plasma corticosterone levels were also higher in SKP-reared birds and significant interaction effects between time and feeding regimen were seen. The expression of apolipoprotein A1 was significantly higher in ED-reared birds: significant interaction effects were also noted. Other researchers also found some of the differences observed in the present study in 16-wk-old pullets. In summary, different feeding regimens alter metabolic responses, some of which carry over into sexual maturity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different feeding regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels in 16-wk-old broiler breeder pullets. A flock of 350 Cobb 500 breeder pullets was divided in 2 at 28 d of age and fed either every day (ED, 5 pens of 35 birds) or skip-a-day (SKIP, 5 pens of 35 birds) from 28 to 112 d of age. Total feed intake did not differ between the 2 groups. At 112 d, 52 randomly selected pullets from the larger flock of ED-fed pullets, and 76 from the SKIP-fed pullets were individually caged and fed a meal of 74 g (ED) or 148 g (SKIP). Blood samples were collected from 4 pullets in each group by cardiac puncture at intervals after feeding. Plasma was analyzed for insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-II, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, corticosterone, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and uric acid. Feed retention in the crop was also noted at each interval. In ED birds, the crop was empty by 12 h and in SKIP birds, the crop was empty by 24 h after feeding. The physiological responses to fasting, such as increased glucagon and corticosterone and reduced plasma triglyceride, occurred at times coincidental with crop emptying in both ED and SKIP birds. Overall, mean insulin-like growth factor-I levels were higher (P < 0.05) in ED birds. Triiodothyronine was higher (P = 0.09) in SKIP birds. Overall mean plasma corticosterone was 2-fold higher in SKIP-fed birds, which may be related to the increased length of fasting periods, hunger, and stress. Plasma leptin was consistently higher in ED-fed birds, which was indicative of their more consistent food supply and more stable energy status. In summary, the experiment reported here shows that different feeding regimens can alter hormone and metabolite profiles, in spite of total feed intakes being equal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were investigated in chondrocytes isolated from the avian growth plate. The genes for IGF-I, IGF-II, type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-R), IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-7 were found to be expressed in both proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of IGF-II in proliferative chondrocytes was extremely high relative to IGF-I. Although IGF-I expression was significantly increased in hypertrophic chondrocytes, the level was still low relative to IGF-II. In cell culture, IGF-I stimulated proteoglycan synthesis and increased the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and type X collagen, markers of chondrocyte differentiation. IGF-II was found to be equally efficacious in stimulating proteoglycan biosynthesis. These observations suggest that IGF-II may play a significant role in avian growth plate physiology, which is consistent with several reports on mammalian endochondral bone growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of embryogenesis and posthatch development. Plasma samples were obtained daily from 10 d of embryogenesis (10E) through 13 d posthatch and also at 17 and 21 d posthatch. A significant increase in plasma insulin was observed with increasing age from 10E to hatch. Plasma glucagon levels remained low until 17E, and then significantly increased approximately 3-fold at hatch, which corresponded with increasing plasma glucose levels during late embryo development. The plasma insulin to glucagon molar ratio of incubation from 14E to 17E ranged from 2 to 4, and was significantly higher than at any other time during incubation. These results indicate that insulin may be an important promoter of chick embryonic growth by the anabolic drive to promote protein deposition. Insulin and glucagon increased after hatch, which may be due to increased feed consumption and increased utilization of carbohydrates as the key energy source, compared with nutrients obtained through lipolysis and proteolysis in the embryos. Plasma triiodothyronine increased 4-fold from 18E to 20E, and thyroxine increased 3-fold from 16E to 19E. Insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF-II peaked at 14E. Insulin-like growth factor-I steadily increased above embryonic levels during the 3 wk of the posthatch period, whereas IGF-II levels steadily declined. These results suggest that IGF-II may be a more important functionary for chick embryonic development than IGF-I, and that IGF-I may be more important than IGF-II after hatch. The profile of metabolic hormones in the present study may help support an understanding of significant changes that occur in embryonic development and posthatch growth in chicks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study is a comprehensive genome analysis to detect QTL affecting metabolic traits in chickens. Two unique F(2) crosses generated from a commercial broiler male line and 2 genetically distinct inbred lines (Leghorn and Fayoumi) were used in the present study. The plasma glucagon, insulin, lactate, glucose, tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin-like growth factor I, and insulin-like growth factor II concentrations at 8 wk were measured in the 2 F(2) crosses. Birds were genotyped for 269 microsatellite markers across the entire genome. The program QTL Express was used for QTL detection. Significance levels were obtained using the permutation test. For the 10 traits, a total of 6 and 9 significant QTL were detected at a 1% chromosome-wise significance level, of which 1 and 6 were significant at the 5% genome-wise level for the broiler-Leghorn cross and broiler-Fayoumi cross, respectively. Most QTL for metabolic traits in the present study were detected in Gga 2, 6, 8, 9, 13, and Z for the broiler-Leghorn cross and Gga 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 13, 17, and E47 for the broiler-Fayoumi cross. Phenotypic variation for each trait explained by all QTL across genome ranged from 2.73 to 14.08% in the broiler-Leghorn cross and from 6.93 to 21.15% in the broiler-Fayoumi cross. Several positional candidate genes within the QTL region for metabolic traits at the 1% chromosome-wise significance level are biologically associated with the regulation of metabolic pathways of insulin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in regulating cellular energy homeostasis. The AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme complex that consists of 1 catalytic (alpha) and 2 regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits. Mutations of the gamma subunit genes are known to affect AMPK functioning. In this study, we characterized the genomic organization and expression of 3 chicken AMPK gamma subunit genes (cPRKAG). Alternative splicing of the second exon of the cPRKAG1 gene resulted in 2 transcript variants that code for predicted proteins of 298 and 276 amino acids. Use of an alternate promoter and alternative splicing of the cPRKAG2 gene resulted in 4 transcript variants that code for predicted proteins of 567, 452, 328, and 158 amino acids. Alternative splicing of exon 3 of the cPRKAG3 gene resulted in the production of "long" and "short" transcript variants that code for predicted proteins of 382 and 378 amino acids, respectively. We found evidence for differential expression of individual gamma subunit gene transcript variants and, in some cases, tissue-specific expression was observed. The cPRKAG subunit genes displayed similar structural features and high sequence homology compared with corresponding mammalian gamma subunit gene homologues.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three hundred twenty Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets at 21 wk of age were selected from a flock fed according to Cobb Breeder Management Guide specifications. One hundred sixty pullets at 21 wk of age were switched to ad libitum feeding, and the remaining 160 pullets continued to be control-fed. The pullets were photostimulated at 22 wk and maintained until 36.5 wk. Plasma samples were obtained, BW was determined, and hens were killed for determination of body composition at the following periods: 24 h prior to photostimulation, 2.5 wk after photostimulation, 24 h after first egg, and 36.5 wk following peak egg production. Compared with ad libitum-fed breeders, the restricted breeders had a higher percentage carcass protein and lower percentage carcass fat at all sampling periods. Total egg numbers were greater, and abnormal eggs were less for the restricted pullets compared with the ad libitum-fed pullets at 36.5 wk. Carcass percentage fat of ad libitum-fed pullets was positively related to plasma glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and 17beta-estradiol but negatively related to plasma insulin, insulin/glucagon M ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Carcass percentage fat of feed-restricted pullets was negatively related to IGF-I, IGF-II, and T4. The T4 was the most important hormone for predicting the percentage carcass fat in ad libitum-fed pullets, and IGF-I was the most important hormone for predicting the percentage carcass fat in feed-restricted pullets. The percentage carcass protein for ad libitum-fed breeders was positively correlated to IGF-I, T4, T3, insulin/glucagon M ratio, and insulin. Carcass percentage protein for feed-restricted breeders was positively correlated to IGF-I, IGF-II, T4, and glucagon. Stepwise regressions for predicting percentage carcass protein for breeders fed by both systems shows that T3 and IGF-I concentrations were the most important for ad libitum-fed breeders, whereas IGF-II and T4 were best for feed-restricted breeders. The hormone status of breeders may be a key indicator to help predict the body composition and thus support management decisions for maintaining optimum production.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed three experiments to determine both the optimal dose of and time on experiment for methimazole (MMI; 1-methyl-2-mercaptimidazole). Our goals were to determine if chicken growth was related to thyroid hormone levels and if intermediary metabolism changed along with changes in thyroid hormone levels. Initiating MMI at one week of age decreased (P<0.01) plasma thyroid levels and growth in four-week old birds. In contrast, initiating MMI at two and three weeks of age decreased (P<0.05) hormone levels without affecting growth as severely. Although initiating MMI at two weeks of age depressed (P<0.05) plasma thyroid hormones at four weeks, there was little change in vitro lipogenesis at four weeks. Again, initiating MMI at one week of age decreased body weight, plasma thyroid hormones and in vitro lipogenesis at four weeks of age. In addition, this treatment also decreased (P<0.05) malic enzyme activity at this same age period. The second experiment showed that MMI, initiated at 14 days, had no significant effect on 28-day body weight and again decreased both plasma T(3) and T(4) but T(3) replacement increased plasma T(3) in both 14-28-day treatment groups. All body weights were similar at 30 days, however. Lastly, diets containing graded levels of MMI decreased thyroid hormones and body weight (0>0.25>0.5>1 g MMI/kg). In contrast, only the two higher levels (0.5 and 1 g MMI/kg) decreased in vitro lipogenesis. Growth depression, caused by MMI feeding, can occur without changes in lipid metabolism. The length of MMI administration may be as important as dose level in obtaining effects (growth, thyroid hormone depression and inhibition of lipogenesis).
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 02/2006; 143(1):35-41. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birds have the ability to store large quantities of excess energy in liver, adipose tissue and in the yolk of developing oocytes. Lipogenesis takes place primarily in the liver of birds and involves a series of linked, enzyme-catalyzed reactions comprising glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis. Hepatic lipogenesis is subject to both nutritional and hormonal control. Adipose tissue serves primarily as a storage site for lipid, especially in the form of triglycerides with little lipogenesis occurring in this tissue Lipid accumulation by adipose tissue and the developing oocyte depends on a plasma lipid supply derived from hepatic lipogenesis as well as lipid absorbed from the diet. Hepatic lipogenesis and the export of lipid are crucial steps linked to fat accretion and oocyte growth and maturation (yolk formation) in egg-laying hens. The nutritional state of the bird, as determined by the amount and composition of feed consumed, dramatically affects heptic lipid metabolism. Variations in nutrient intake are communicated to the liver and other internal organs by alterations in the levels of hormones that respond to dietary changes.The present studies of changes in the levels of key metabolic hormones and hepatic expression of genes that code for selected lipogenic enzymes, lipid transport proteins, and uncoupling protein are important because they add to our understanding of the relationship between nutritional state and lipid metabolism, specifically as it relates to growth, body composition and reproductive performance in broiler chickens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular genetic selection on individual genes is a promising method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. A resource population was developed to study the genetics of growth, body composition, skeletal integrity, and metabolism traits. Broiler sires were crossed to dams of 2 diverse, highly inbred lines (Leghorn and Fayoumi), and the F1 birds were intermated by dam line to produce broiler-Leghorn and broiler-Fayoumi F2 offspring. Growth, body composition, skeletal integrity, and hormonal and metabolic factors were measured in 713 F2 individuals. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1) was selected for study as a biological and positional candidate gene. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified between the founder lines in the IGF1 promoter region, and a PCR-RFLP assay was developed. A mixed model was used to statistically analyze associations of IGF1-SNP1 with phenotypic traits. The IGF1-SNP1 had significant associations with most recorded traits, except metabolic traits. Strong interactions between the IGF1 gene and genetic background on growth traits in the 2 F2 populations suggest that genetic interaction is an important aspect for consideration before using the IGF1-SNP1 in marker-assisted selection programs. Several beneficial effects (improved growth, increased breast muscle weight, decreased abdominal fat, and enhanced skeletal integrity) associated with 1 allele indicate the presence of 1 or more loci near IGF1-SNP1 controlling biologically diverse and economically important traits in chickens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this research was to determine whether directing expression of an insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgene specifically to striated muscle would alter the growth characteristics in swine. Transgenic pigs were produced with a fusion gene composed of avian skeletal alpha-actin regulatory sequences and a cDNA encoding human IGF-I. Six founder transgenic pigs were mated to nontransgenic pigs to produce 11 litters of G1 transgenic and sibling control progeny. Birth weight, weaning weight, and proportion of pig survival did not differ between transgenic and control pigs. The ADG of pigs as they grew incrementally from 20 to 60 kg, 60 to 90 kg, and 90 to 120 kg, respectively, did not significantly differ between transgenic and control pigs. Efficiency of feed utilization (gain:feed) was also similar for transgenic and control pigs. Plasma IGF-I and porcine growth hormone (pGH) concentrations were determined at 60, 90, and 120 kg body weight. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were 19% higher in transgenic gilts than control gilts and 11.1% higher in transgenic boars than control boars (P=0.0005). Plasma IGF-I concentrations for boars were also higher than for gilts (P=0.0001). At 60, 90, and 120 kg body weight each pig was scanned by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to derive comparative estimates of carcass fat, lean, bone content of the live animal. Control pigs had more fat and less lean tissue than transgenic pigs at each of the scanning periods and the difference became more pronounced as the pigs grew heavier (P<0.005 at each weight). Transgenic pigs also had a slightly lower percentage of bone than control pigs (P<0.05 at each weight). While daily rates of lean tissue accretion did not differ for transgenic and control pigs, daily rates of fat accretion were lower in transgenic pigs than in control pigs (P<0.05). Based on these results we conclude that expression of IGF-I in the skeletal muscles gradually altered body composition as pigs became older but did not have a major affect on growth performance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although changes in dietary protein levels change metabolism in the broiler chicken, there is little information concerning the time course of the process of adaptation. Therefore, male Hubbard broiler chickens were fed diets containing either 12 or 30% crude protein from 7 to 28 d of age and then were switched to the opposite level for an additional 9 d. Birds were bled and killed at 0, 2, 5, 7and 9 d following the reversals. Data taken at these intervals included those involved in vitro lipogenesis (IVL), growth and feed consumption, hepatic enzyme activities and plasma hormones and metabolites. Birds fed the lower level of crude protein were smaller in growth from 7 to 28 d. Feeding these birds a higher protein diet from 28 to 37 d improved both growth and feed efficiency in comparison to controls. Lipogenesis was also greater and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) less in birds fed the lower protein diet. Switching dietary treatments increased and decreased lipogenesis as birds were switched from high to low and low to high protein diets, respectively. Half-maximal changes were observed 2 d after the reversal and maximal changes 5 d after the reversal. In contrast, switching dietary treatments decreased and increased plasma IGF-I as birds were switched from high to low and low to high protein diets, respectively. Half-maximal changes were observed 2 d after the reversal. Of the three hepatic enzymes monitored, malic enzyme activity most closely followed the rapid changes in IVL. In the present study, plasma IGF-I may be a more sensitive indicator of changes in dietary protein than changes in intermediary metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven-day-old chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein + 0 or 1g methimazole/kg to produce either euthyroid or hypothyroid groups of birds at 28 days of age. These two groups were then offered diets containing either 0 or 1mg triiodothyronine (T(3))/kg diet. Birds were sampled at 0, 2, 5, and 8 days following the onset of the T(3) treatment. Measurements taken at these intervals included in vitro hepatic lipogenesis (IVL), growth and feed consumption, hepatic enzyme activities (malic enzyme, ME; isocitrate dehydrogenase, ICD; and aspartate amino transferase, AAT), plasma hormones (T(3); thyroxine, T(4); insulin like growth factors I, IGF-I; and insulin like growth factors II, IGF-II) and metabolites (glucose; fatty acids, NEFA; triglyerides; uric acid). Hypothyroidism decreased IVL and ME at 28 days of age; however, T(3) supplementation for 2 days restored both IVL and ME. Paradoxically, continuing T(3) replenishment for an additional 3-6 days decreased IVL without affecting ME activity. In contrast, supplemental T(3) decreased IVL in euthyroid birds, regardless of the dosing interval, but had no effect on ME activity. Methimazole decreased plasma T(3), T(4), uric acid, and IGF-I, but did not affect IGF-II at 28 days. Giving T(3) to birds previously on methimazole increased plasma IGF-I as did feeding a control diet. Supplemental T(3) increased NEFA in both euthyroid and hypothyroid birds, but only for a short period following the initiation of supplementation (2 days post-supplementation). These data may help to explain some of the apparent reported dichotomies in lipid metabolism elicited by changes in the thyroid state of animals. In addition, most metabolic changes in response to feeding T(3) occurred within 2-5 days, suggesting that changes in intermediary metabolism preceded morphological changes. In conclusion, the thyroid state of the animal will determine responses to exogenous T(3).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bi-guanide metformin is used to treat noninsulin dependent diabetes in obese patients. In addition to having antihyperglycemic effects, metformin is also anorectic and reduces BW. These studies were performed to determine if metformin possesses similar properties in chickens. Metformin-HCl was administered to 14-day-old broiler chickens at either 300 or 600 mg/kg per day in the drinking water for 10 d while monitoring BW and feed intake. No changes in water intake were observed, while feed intake and daily gains were only significantly reduced by the 600 mg/kg dose. After oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg/kg metformin-HCl, feed intake was significantly reduced by 4 h and remained suppressed for greater than 24 h relative to controls. Plasma hormones and metabolites (glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, uric acid, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglycerides) were monitored at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. Significant and acute decreases in blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were observed at 3 h posttreatment as compared to controls. Opposing acute increases in glucagon and NEFA levels were also observed at 3 h followed by an increase in uric add 6 h posttreatment. These observations suggest that metformin induces metabolic changes in birds, similar to that observed in mammals and may act in a common manner. Metformin-HCl may be useful in glucose metabolism studies by inducing hypoglycemia, a condition rarely observed in birds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polypeptide hormone leptin is produced by both adipose tissue and the liver and has been shown to induce satiety in chickens. In this study we have investigated the developmental regulation of leptin mRNA expression in growing broiler chickens. Leptin expression generally increases in all tissues from 1-12 weeks of age. In the subcutaneous fat depot there is an apparent pattern of increased leptin mRNA expression occurring at 2, 6, and 10 weeks post-hatch. This pattern was not evident in the other tissues surveyed and may relate to the cycle of loading and unloading of adipocytes with lipid. No consistent gender differences in leptin expression patterns were detected in the tissues surveyed, as is often observed in mammals. Positive correlations between metabolic body weight and adipose leptin expression levels were observed. Leptin expression by the liver was highly correlated with metabolic body weight from 1-6 weeks of age, and uncorrelated from 6-12 weeks of age. This pattern of increasing liver leptin expression with increasing body weight during the early rapid growth phase of the bird may be due to limited fat storage during this period, which is followed by rapid body fat accumulation from 6-12 weeks. The characterization and tissue specific distribution of leptin mRNA expression in the growing broiler indicate similar patterns of leptin production to that of growing mammals. Leptin may be involved in lipid flux through the adipocyte as well as the shift in lipid metabolism to increased storage during pre-puberty.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to most vertebrates, GH reportedly has no effect upon somatic growth of the chicken. However, previous studies employed only one to two dosages of the hormone, and limited evidence exists of a hyperthyroid response that may confound its anabolic potential. This study evaluated the effects of 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200 microgram/kg body weight per day chicken GH (cGH) (0-200 GH) infused i.v. for 7 days in a pulsatile pattern to immature, growing broiler chickens (9-10 birds/dosage). Comprehensive profiles of thyroid hormone metabolism and measures of somatic growth were obtained. Overall (average) body weight gain was reduced 25% by GH, with a curvilinear, dose-dependent decrease in skeletal (breast) muscle mass that was maximal (12%) at 100 GH. This profile mirrored GH dose-dependent decreases in hepatic type III deiodinase (DIII) activity and increases in plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), with bot! h also maximal (74 and 108% respectively) at 100 GH. No effect on type I deiodinase was observed. At the maximally effective dosage, hepatic DIII gene expression was reduced 44% versus controls. Despite dose-dependent, fold-increases in hepatic IGF-I protein content, circulating IGF-I was not altered with GH infusion, suggesting impairment of hepatic IGF-I release. Significant, GH dose-dependent increases in plasma non-esterified fatty acid and glucose, and overall decreases in triacylglycerides were also observed. At 200 GH, feed intake was significantly reduced (19%; P<0.05) versus controls; however, additional control birds pair-fed to this level did not exhibit any responses observed for GH-treated birds. The results of this study support a pathway by which GH impacts on thyroid hormone metabolism beginning at a pretranslational level, with reduced hepatic DIII gene expression, translating to reduced protein (enzyme) ex! pression, and reflected in a reduced level of peripheral T(3)-degrading activity. This contributes to decreased conversion of T(3) to its inactive form, thereby elevating circulating T(3) levels. The hyper-T(3) state leads to reduced net skeletal muscle deposition, and may impair release of GH-enhanced, hepatic IGF-I. In conclusion, GH has significant biological effects in the chicken, but profound metabolic actions predominate that may confound positive, IGF-I-mediated skeletal muscle growth.
Journal of Endocrinology 10/2000; 166(3):609-20. · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting results concerning the role of the thyroid hormones in lipid metabolism. The experiments in this report were designed to examine the role of T(3) in modifying responses obtained by shifting birds from moderate to low protein diets. Birds were grown from 7 to 28 d on a diet containing 18% protein. At this time, birds were switched to a diet containing 12% protein +/- T(3) The switch was accomplished either immediately or after a 24 hr fast. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis (IVL), hepatic enzyme activities and plasma metabolites and thyroid hormones. Simply switching to birds to the low protein diet increased IVL, but rates were similar for three days following the switch. Feeding T(3) in this same regimen resulted in lower, but again, constant rates of IVL. In contrast, although switching protein levels after a 24 hr fast increased IVL, the rate after two days of refeeding was nearly double that following one day. This accentuated response was somewhat attenuated by including T(3) in the diet. Neither fasting nor refeeding altered plasma T(3) relative to ad libitum values. Supplemental dietary T(3) increased plasma T(3) and results were not affected by feeding regimens. Plasma T(4) was greatest in birds fasted for 24 hr and least in birds fed T(3) suggesting that feeding regimens may regulate the conversion of T(4) to T(3) It is suggested from this study that some of the effects of alterations in dietary feeding regimens can be modulated by T(3)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin, the protein hormone product of the obese (ob) gene, functions in the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, and reproduction in animals and humans. Since changes in the level of circulating leptin can have marked physiological consequences, it is important to be able to accurately quantify leptin gene expression. Toward this goal, we have constructed a chicken leptin RNA competitor and successfully employed it as an internal standard in the development of a quantitative-competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) assay for leptin mRNA. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was utilized for the separation and analysis of chicken leptin target (261 bp) and competitor (234 bp) dsDNA products from QC-RT-PCR assay samples. Leptin amplicons were separated using a DB-1 coated capillary (27 cm x 100 microm ID) at a field strength of 300 V/cm in a replaceable sieving matrix consisting of 0.5% hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) in 1 x TBE (89 mM Tris-base, 89 mM boric acid, 2 mM EDTA, pH 8.3) buffer with 0.5 microg/mL EnhanCE fluorescent intercalating dye. Samples were diluted 1:100 with deionized water and introduced into the capillary by electrokinetic injection. QC-RT-PCR/CE-LIF was used to quantify leptin mRNA in liver and adipose tissue from 8-week-old male and female broiler chickens. This study is the first report of quantitative analysis of leptin gene expression using QC-RT-PCR/CE-LIF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the effect of dietary protein on the distribution of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins in chicken plasma. Three groups of male broilers (n = 6 per group) were fed (ad libitum) isocaloric diets containing 12, 21 or 30% dietary protein. Birds were fed respective diets beginning at 7 days of age and killed at 28 days. No differences were observed between adequate (21%) and high (30%) protein intakes for any of the parameters investigated (growth criteria, plasma levels of IGF-I, growth hormone or IGF-binding proteins). Feeding protein deficient diets (12%) resulted in a 34% decrease in body weight, 17% decrease in feed intake and a 39% increase in feed/gain ratio. IGF-binding proteins in plasma samples were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose sheets. Nitrocellulose blots were probed with [125I]chicken IGF-II. Four regions of binding activity corresponding to 70, 43, 30 and 24 kDa were observed in all samples. Birds consuming 12% dietary group protein had less than 50% of the 43-kDa binding activity of birds consuming 21 or 30% dietary protein. The 30-kDa binding activity was 42% lower in the 12% dietary protein group compared to birds consuming adequate protein. In contrast, 70- and 24-kDa binding activities were not influenced by dietary protein. Chickens consuming 12% dietary protein had higher levels of growth hormone and lower levels of IGF-I than those consuming 21 or 30% dietary protein. These data indicate that in chickens, the circulating levels of at least two independent IGF-binding proteins are influenced by dietary protein.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 01/2000; 124(4):417-21. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite well documented anabolic effects of GH in mammals, a clear demonstration of such responses in domestic poultry is lacking. Recently, comprehensive dose-response studies of GH have been conducted in broilers during late post-hatch development (8 to 9 weeks of age). GH reduced feed intake (FI) and body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner, whereas birds pair-fed to the level of voluntary FI of GH-infused birds did not differ from controls. The reduction in voluntary FI may involve centrally mediated mechanisms, as hypothalamic neuropeptide Y protein and mRNA were reduced with GH, coincident with the maximal depression in FI. Growth of breast muscle was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Circulating IGF-I was not enhanced by GH, despite evidence that early events in the GH signaling pathway were intact. A GH dose-dependent increase in circulating 3,3',5-triiodothyronine(T3) paralleled decreases in hepatic 5D-III monodeiodinase activity, whereas 5'D-I activity was not altered. This confirms that a marked hyperthyroid response to GH occurs in late posthatch chickens, resulting from a decrease in the degradative pathway of T3 metabolism. This secondary hyperthyroidism would account for the decreased skeletal muscle mass (52) and lack of enhanced IGF-I (53) in GH-treated birds. Based upon these studies, it is now evident that GH does in fact have significant effects in poultry, but metabolic responses may confound the anabolic potential of the hormone.