Peter Vickerman

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (160)761.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is frequently used to test women for maternal syphilis. Rapid syphilis immunochromatographic strip tests detecting only Treponema pallidum antibodies (single RSTs) or both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies (dual RSTs) are now available. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using these tests to screen pregnant women. Observed costs of maternal syphilis screening and treatment using clinic-based RPR and single RSTs in 20 clinics across Peru, Tanzania, and Zambia were used to model the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using combinations of RPR, single, and dual RSTs, and no and mass treatment. Sensitivity analyses determined drivers of key results. Although this analysis found screening using RPR to be relatively cheap, most (>70%) true cases went untreated. Algorithms using single RSTs were the most cost-effective in all observed settings, followed by dual RSTs, which became the most cost-effective if dual RST costs were halved. Single test algorithms dominated most sequential testing algorithms, although sequential algorithms reduced overtreatment. Mass treatment was relatively cheap and effective in the absence of screening supplies, though treated many uninfected women. This analysis highlights the advantages of introducing RSTs in three diverse settings. The results should be applicable to other similar settings. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 04/2015; 91. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.04.007 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • M. Hickman, N. Martin, P. Vickerman, G. David, S. Hutchinson, T. Martin, G. Dore, J. Grebeley, A. Miners, G. Foster
    Journal of Hepatology 04/2015; 62:S835. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(15)31466-5 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection rates are probably underestimated due to reinfection episodes occurring between study visits. A Markov model of HCV reinfection and spontaneous clearance was fitted to empirical data. Bayesian post-estimation was used to project reinfection rates, reinfection spontaneous clearance probability and duration of reinfection. Uniform prior probability distributions were assumed for reinfection rate (more than 0), spontaneous clearance probability (0-1) and duration (0.25-6.00 months). Model estimates were 104 per 100 person-years (95% CrI: 21-344), 0.84 (95% CrI: 0.59-0.98) and 1.3 months (95% CrI: 0.3-4.1) for reinfection rate, spontaneous clearance probability and duration, respectively. Simulation studies were used to assess model validity, demonstrating that the Bayesian model estimates provided useful information about the possible sources and magnitude of bias in epidemiological estimates of reinfection rates, probability of reinfection clearance and duration or reinfection. The quality of the Bayesian estimates improved for larger samples and shorter test intervals. Uncertainty in model estimates notwithstanding, findings suggest that HCV reinfections frequently and quickly result in spontaneous clearance, with many reinfection events going unobserved. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface 03/2015; 12(104). DOI:10.1098/rsif.2014.1197 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promoted globally as an evidence-based intervention in the prevention of HIV and treatment of heroin addiction among people who inject drugs (PWID), opioid substitution treatment (OST) can help control emerging HIV epidemics among PWID. With implementation in December 2014, Kenya is the third Sub-Saharan African country to have introduced OST. We combine dynamic mathematical modelling with qualitative sociological research to examine the 'promise of methadone' to Kenya. We model the HIV prevention impact of OST in Nairobi, Kenya, at different levels of intervention coverage. We draw on thematic analyses of 109 qualitative interviews with PWID, and 43 with stakeholders, to chart their narratives of expectation in relation to the promise of methadone. The modelled impact of OST shows relatively slight reductions in HIV incidence (5-10%) and prevalence (2-4%) over 5 years at coverage levels (around 10%) anticipated in the planned roll-out of OST. However, there is a higher impact with increased coverage, with 40% coverage producing a 20% reduction in HIV incidence, even when accounting for relatively high sexual transmissions. Qualitative findings emphasise a culture of 'rationed expectation' in relation to access to care and a 'poverty of drug treatment opportunity'. In this context, the promise of methadone may be narrated as a symbol of hope-both for individuals and community-in relation to addiction recovery. Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed methods approaches to investigating newly-introduced interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 03/2015; 5(3). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007198 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV epidemics have traditionally been classified as "concentrated" among key populations if overall HIV prevalence was below 1% and as "generalized" otherwise. We aimed to objectively determine the utility of this classification by determining how high overall HIV prevalence can reach in epidemics driven by unprotected sex work (SW) and how estimates of the contribution of SW to HIV transmission changes over time in these epidemics. We developed a deterministic model of HIV transmission specific to West and Central Africa to simulate 1000 synthetic HIV epidemics, where SW is the sole behavioral driver that sustains HIV in the population (ie, truly concentrated epidemics), and it is based on a systematic extraction of model parameters specific to West and Central Africa. We determined the range of plausible HIV prevalence in the total population over time and calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of SW over different time periods. In 1988 and 2008, HIV prevalence across the 1000 synthetic concentrated HIV epidemics ranged (5th-95th percentile) between 0.1%-4.2% and 0.1%-2.8%, respectively. The maximum HIV prevalence peaked at 12%. The PAF of SW measured from 2008 over 1 year was <5%-18% compared with 16%-59% over 20 years in these SW-driven epidemics. Even high HIV-prevalence epidemics can be driven by unprotected SW and therefore concentrated. Overall, HIV prevalence and the short-term PAF are poor makers of underlying transmission dynamics and underestimate the role of SW in HIV epidemics and thus should not be used alone to inform HIV programs.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2015; 68 Suppl 2:S74-S82. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000437 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as prevention is likely to vary depending on the local context. Burkina Faso has a concentrated mature HIV epidemic where female sex workers (FSW) are thought to have driven HIV transmission. A dynamic HIV transmission model was developed using data from the Yerelon FSW cohort in Bobo-Dioulasso and population surveys. Compared with current ART provision [status quo (SQ)], the model estimated the proportion of HIV infections averted or incremental life-years gained per additional person-year of ART over 20 years for ART targeting different subgroups or expanding eligibility to all HIV-infected individuals compared with SQ. Modeling suggests that condom use within commercial sex has averted 40% of past HIV infections. Continuing SQ averts 35%-47% of new infections over 20 years compared with no ART. Expanding ART eligibility to all HIV-infected individuals and increasing recruitment (80% per year) could avert a further 65% of new infections, whereas targeting full-time FSW or all FSWs achieved less impact but was more efficient in terms of life-years gained per 100 person-years of ART. Local HIV elimination is possible with expanded ART provision to FSWs but requires condom use within commercial sex to be maintained at high levels. Increasing FSW recruitment onto ART could be a highly efficient method for reducing HIV transmission in concentrated epidemic settings but should not be undertaken at the expense of existing interventions for FSWs. Specialized clinics providing multiple interventions for FSWs should be a fundamental component of prevention in concentrated epidemics.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2015; 68 Suppl 2:S180-S188. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000441 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes significant disease globally. Adolescent and adult infection may present as painful genital ulcers. Neonatal infection has high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, HSV-2 likely contributes substantially to the spread of HIV infection. The global burden of HSV-2 infection was last estimated for 2003. Here we present new global estimates for 2012 of the burden of prevalent (existing) and incident (new) HSV-2 infection among females and males aged 15-49 years, using updated methodology to adjust for test performance and estimate by World Health Organization (WHO) region. We conducted a literature review of HSV-2 prevalence studies world-wide since 2000. We then fitted a model with constant HSV-2 incidence by age to pooled HSV-2 prevalence values by age and sex. Prevalence values were adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. The model estimated prevalence and incidence by sex for each WHO region to obtain global burden estimates. Uncertainty bounds were computed by refitting the model to reflect the variation in the underlying prevalence data. In 2012, we estimate that there were 417 million people aged 15-49 years (range: 274-678 million) living with HSV-2 infection world-wide (11.3% global prevalence), of whom 267 million were women. We also estimate that in 2012, 19.2 million (range: 13.0-28.6 million) individuals aged 15-49 years were newly-infected (0.5% of all individuals globally). The highest burden was in Africa. However, despite lower prevalence, South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions also contributed large numbers to the global totals because of large population sizes. The global burden of HSV-2 infection is large, leaving over 400 million people at increased risk of genital ulcer disease, HIV acquisition, and transmission of HSV-2 to partners or neonates. These estimates highlight the critical need for development of vaccines, microbicides, and other new HSV prevention strategies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e114989. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114989 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo systematically assess risk of HIV acquisition by type of drug injected across different settings.MethodsA systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Databases were searched for studies of HIV incidence in people who inject different drugs (PWID). Pooled HIV incidence rate ratio (IRR) was used to compare HIV risk between injecting a given drug and not-injecting, when possible, or with those reported not to have injected the substance, otherwise. Pooled estimates of crude IRR were derived using random effects models. Variations in IRR were assessed in sub-group analyses, by drug and geographical region.ResultsOf 5779 studies screened, 15 were included. HIV incidence was reported for people injecting cocaine (8,North-America, Europe), amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (4,West- and Eastern-Europe, Asia), heroin (11,all settings), opiates-stimulants (4,North America, West-,Eastern-Europe) and opiates-sedatives (5, Europe, Asia). HIV risk in cocaine injectors was 3.6 times (95%CI: 2.8-4.7, I2=0%;N=4) that of non-injectors and 3.0 for ATS injectors (95%CI: 2.2-4.1, I2=0%;N=2). Higher sexual risk was reported in cohorts injecting stimulants. Compared to not-injecting, HIV IRR was 2.8 (95%CI: 1.7-4.7, I2=77%;N=6) for all heroin injectors and 3.5 (95%CI: 2.3-5.2, I2=40%;N=5) for heroin injectors in Asia and Europe.Conclusion The risk of HIV acquisition in people who inject drugs appears to vary by drug type but differences are not statistically significant, precluding conclusive grading of risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(4). DOI:10.1111/add.12846 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Hepatology 01/2015; 61(1). DOI:10.1002/hep.27194 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Avahan intervention promotes consistent (100%) condom use amongst men who have sex with men in southern India. We assessed how condom use varies with intervention exposure for men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Self-reported condom use and intervention exposure data were derived from a cross-sectional survey. Consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act with all, main, and casual male sex partners were assessed. Binary and continuous variables reflecting intervention exposure (including contact(s) with intervention staff, receiving condoms and seeing condom demonstrations) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between condom use with each type of partner and each exposure variable independently, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use or intervention exposure. Condom use with all partners was higher among those who had ever been contacted by, received condoms from, or seen a condom demonstration by intervention staff (adjusted odds ratio >2, p < 0.02 for all). Consistent condom use with all types of partner increased with the number of condom demonstrations seen in the last month (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1 per demonstration, p < 0.025), while condom use at last sex act with a casual (but not main) partner increased with the number of condoms received from the intervention (adjusted odds ratio = 1.4 per condom, p = 0.04). Direct contact with Avahan program staff is associated with increased reported condom use among men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Reported consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act are associated with contacts involving demonstrations of correct condom use, and with receiving condoms, respectively.
    BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1245. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1245 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Addiction 12/2014; 109(12). DOI:10.1111/add.12750 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although there is considerable evidence of the effectiveness of needle and syringe programme (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing HIV prevalence, most Central and Eastern European sub-regions still have low or no coverage of most or all of these interventions. Methods We conducted a modelling analysis to consider the potential impact on HIV incidence and prevalence of OST, NSP and ART in three illustrative epidemic scenarios: Russia (St. Petersburg); Estonia (Tallinn) and Tajikistan (Dushanbe). For each intervention, we consider the coverage needed of each intervention separately or in combination to: (1) achieve a 30% or 50% relative reduction in HIV incidence or prevalence over 10 years; and (2) reduce HIV incidence to below 1% or HIV prevalence below 10% after 20 years. A sensitivity analysis for St. Petersburg considered the implications of greater on no risk heterogeneity, none or more sexual HIV transmission, like-with-like mixing, different injecting cessation rates and assuming a lower HIV acute phase cofactor. Results For St. Petersburg, when OST, NSP and ART are combined, only 14% coverage of each intervention is required to achieve a 30% reduction in HIV incidence over 10 years. Similar findings are obtained for Tallinn and Dushanbe. In order to achieve the same reductions in HIV prevalence over 10 years, over double the coverage level is required relative to what was required to achieve the same reduction in HIV incidence in that setting. To either reduce HIV incidence to less than 1% or HIV prevalence to less than 10% over 20 years, with all interventions combined, projections suggest that very high coverage levels of 74-85% are generally required for the higher prevalence settings of Tallinn and St. Petersburg, whereas lower coverage levels (23-34%) are needed in Dushanbe. Coverage requirements are robust to increased sexual HIV transmission, risk heterogeneity and like-with-like mixing, as well as to assuming a lower HIV acute phase cofactor or different injecting cessation rate. Conclusion The projections suggest that high but achievable coverage levels of NSP can result in large decreases (30%) in HIV incidence in settings with high HIV prevalence among PWID. Required coverage levels are much lower when interventions are combined or in lower prevalence settings. However, even when all three interventions are combined, the targets of reducing HIV incidence to less than 1% or prevalence to less than 10% in 20 years may be hard to achieve except in lower prevalence settings.
    The International journal on drug policy 11/2014; 25(6):1163–1173. DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.09.013 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. Methods An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004–2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An ‘exposure analysis’ explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW’s empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. Findings The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004–2011). Over a 7-year period (2004–2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary - well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are cost saving. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CM and empowerment is, at worst, highly cost-effective and, at best, a cost-saving investment from an HIV programme perspective. CM and empowerment interventions should therefore be considered as core components of HIV prevention programmes for FSWs.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110562. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110562 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral treatment for people who inject drugs (PWID) could prevent onwards transmission and reduce chronic prevalence. We assessed current PWID treatment rates in seven UK settings and projected the potential impact of current and scaled-up treatment on HCV chronic prevalence. Data on number of PWID treated and sustained viral response rates (SVR) were collected from seven UK settings: Bristol (37–48% HCV chronic prevalence among PWID), East London (37–48%), Manchester (48–56%), Nottingham (37–44%), Plymouth (30–37%), Dundee (20–27%) and North Wales (27–33%). A model of HCV transmission among PWID projected the 10-year impact of (i) current treatment rates and SVR (ii) scale-up with interferon-free direct acting antivirals (IFN-free DAAs) with 90% SVR. Treatment rates varied from <5 to over 25 per 1000 PWID. Pooled intention-to-treat SVR for PWID were 45% genotypes 1/4 [95%CI 33–57%] and 61% genotypes 2/3 [95%CI 47–76%]. Projections of chronic HCV prevalence among PWID after 10 years of current levels of treatment overlapped substantially with current HCV prevalence estimates. Scaling-up treatment to 26/1000 PWID annually (achieved already in two sites) with IFN-free DAAs could achieve an observable absolute reduction in HCV chronic prevalence of at least 15% among PWID in all sites and greater than a halving in chronic HCV in Plymouth, Dundee and North Wales within a decade. Current treatment rates among PWID are unlikely to achieve observable reductions in HCV chronic prevalence over the next 10 years. Achievable scale-up, however, could lead to substantial reductions in HCV chronic prevalence.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/jvh.12338 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A70-1. DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.5130.abstract · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A161-2. DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.5336.abstract · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Avahan programme has provided HIV prevention activities, including condom promotion, to female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India since 2004. Evidence suggests Avahan averted 202,000 HIV infections over 4 years. For replicating this intervention elsewhere, it is essential to understand how the intervention’s impact could have been optimised for different budget levels. Methods Behavioural data were used to determine how condom use varied for FSWs with different levels of intervention intensity. Cost data from 64 Avahan districts quantified how district-level costs related to intervention scale and intensity. A deterministic model for HIV transmission amongst FSWs and clients projected the impact and cost of intervention strategies for different scale and intensity, and identified the optimal strategies that maximise impact for different budget levels. Results As budget levels increase, the optimal intervention strategy is to first increase intervention intensity which achieves little impact, then scale-up coverage to high levels for large increases in impact, and lastly increase intensity further for small additional gains. The cost-effectiveness of these optimal strategies generally improves with increasing resources, while straying from these strategies can triple costs for the same impact. Projections suggest Avahan was close to being optimal, and moderate budget reductions (≥20%) would have reduced impact considerably (>40%). Discussion Our analysis suggests that tailoring the design of HIV prevention programmes for FSWs can improve impact, and that a certain level of resources are required to achieve demonstrable impact. These insights are critical for optimising the use of limited resources for preventing HIV.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e107066. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107066 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A73. DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.5136.abstract · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A70. DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.5129.abstract · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We aimed to characterize the antiretroviral therapy (ART) cascade among female sex workers (FSWs) globally. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE in March 2014 to identify studies reporting on ART uptake, attrition, adherence, and outcomes (viral suppression or CD4 count improvements) among HIV-infected FSWs globally. When possible, available estimates were pooled using random effects meta-analyses (with heterogeneity assessed using Cochran's Q test and I2 statistic). Results 39 studies, reporting on 21 different FSW study populations in Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Central America and the Caribbean, were included. Current ART use among HIV-infected FSWs was 38% (95% CI: 29%–48%, I2 = 96%, 15 studies), and estimates were similar between high-, and low- and middle-income countries. Ever ART use among HIV-infected FSWs was greater in high-income countries (80%; 95% CI: 48%–94%, I2 = 70%, 2 studies) compared to low- and middle-income countries (36%; 95% CI: 7%–81%, I2 = 99%, 3 studies). Loss to follow-up after ART initiation was 6% (95% CI: 3%–11%, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) and death after ART initiation was 6% (95% CI: 3%–11%, I2 = 0%, 3 studies). The fraction adherent to ≥95% of prescribed pills was 76% (95% CI: 68%–83%, I2 = 36%, 4 studies), and 57% (95% CI: 46%–68%, I2 = 82%, 4 studies) of FSWs on ART were virally suppressed. Median gains in CD4 count after 6 to 36 months on ART, ranged between 103 and 241 cells/mm3 (4 studies). Conclusions Despite global increases in ART coverage, there is a concerning lack of published data on HIV treatment for FSWs. Available data suggest that FSWs can achieve levels of ART uptake, retention, adherence, and treatment response comparable to that seen among women in the general population, but these data are from only a few research settings. More routine programme data on HIV treatment among FSWs across settings should be collected and disseminated.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105645 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
761.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2015
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Social and Community Medicine
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • School of Population and Public Health
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2002–2015
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (CRDHB)
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      • • Department of Global Health and Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of London
      • The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Burnet Institute
      • Centre for Population Health
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006–2010
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
      Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2003
    • Laval University
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada