Annemarie Larkin

Dublin City University, Dublin, L, Ireland

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Publications (23)68.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.
    Molecular BioSystems 12/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-Loss of 1 copy of chromosome 3 is considered a significant indicator of metastatic dissemination in uveal melanoma. Fresh or paraffin-embedded tumor tissue is most commonly used for current cytogenetic techniques for determining chromosome 3 status in uveal melanoma and often requires referral to an external specialist laboratory for analysis. Objectives.-To assess the chromogenic in situ hybridization assay for detecting chromosome 3 alterations using frozen tumor imprints and to compare the results obtained with those obtained by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization or single-nucleotide polymorphism array techniques. Design.-Chromogenic in situ hybridization was performed on 52 frozen uveal melanoma tumor imprints. The genetic status of 26 of the 52 cases had been determined previously by fluorescence in situ hybridization (group 1); the status of 26 cases had been determined using single-nucleotide polymorphism array (group 2). Results.-Chromogenic in situ hybridization was successfully performed on 48 of 52 tumor imprints. Chromogenic in situ hybridization showed excellent agreement in all 24 cases determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (100% concordance; κ = 1; P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 100%-100%), and disagreed in 4 of the 24 cases previously studied by single-nucleotide polymorphism array (83% concordance; κ = 0.67; P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 95%-39%). All 4 discordant cases were classified as disomic for chromosome 3 by chromogenic in situ hybridization and monosomic by SNP array. On histologic examination, the 4 discordant cases corresponded to 2 mixed cell tumors and 2 spindle cell tumors. Conclusions.-Chromogenic in situ hybridization using tumor imprints is a reliable technique for determining chromosome 3 status in uveal melanoma. Furthermore, it can also be easily integrated into a routine histopathology laboratory.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 05/2014; 138(5):664-670. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of more effective therapeutic strategies for cancers of high unmet need requires the continued discovery of disease-specific protein targets for therapeutic antibody targeting. In order to identify novel proteins associated with cancer cell invasion/metastasis, we present here an alternative to antibody targeting of cell surface proteins with an established role in invasion; our functional antibody screening approach involves the isolation and selection of MAbs that are primarily screened for their ability to inhibit tumour invasion. A clonal population of the Mia PaCa-2, a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line, which displays a highly invasive phenotype, was used to generate MAbs with the objective of identifying membrane targets directly involved in cancer invasion. Selected MAb 7B7 can significantly reduce invasion in a dose-responsive manner in Mia PaCa-2 clone 3 and DLKP-M squamous lung carcinoma cells. Using immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analysis, the target antigen of anti-invasive antibody, 7B7, was determined to be the heterodimeric Ku antigen, Ku70/80, a core protein composed of the Ku70 and Ku80 subunits which is involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Ku70 and Ku80 resulted in a marked decrease in the invasive capacity of Mia PaCa-2 clone 3 and DLKP-M cells, indicating that Ku70/Ku80 is functionally involved in pancreatic and lung cancer invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated Ku70/Ku80 immunoreactivity in 37 PDAC tumours, indicating that this heterodimer is highly expressed in this aggressive cancer type. This study demonstrates that a functional MAb screening approach coupled with immunoprecipitation/proteomic analyses can be successfully applied to identify functional anti-invasive MAbs and potential novel targets for therapeutic antibody targeting.
    Tumor Biology 04/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling is implicated in resistance to trastuzumab. However, the benefit of co-targeting HER2 and IGF1R has not been extensively studied, and the relationship between activated IGF1R and clinical response to trastuzumab has not been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the combination of trastuzumab with IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in a panel of HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines, and to examine the relationship between IGF1R expression and activation and response to trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. The anti-proliferative effects of trastuzumab combined with IGF1R TKIs BMS-536924 or NVP-AEW541 were measured in nine HER2-positive cell lines. IGF1R and phosphorylated IGF1R/insulin receptor (pIGF1R/IR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in 160 tumour samples from trastuzumab-treated patients (ICORG 06-22). The HER2-positive cell lines displayed varying sensitivity to IGF1R TKIs alone (IC(50)s: 0.7 to >10 μM). However, when combined with trastuzumab, a significantly enhanced effect was observed in five cell lines treated with BMS-536924, and three with NVP-AEW541. While IGF1R levels correlated with reduced response to NVP-AEW541 alone, neither IGF1R nor pIGF1R were predictive of response to BMS-536924 or NVP-AEW541 in combination with trastuzumab. Low HER2 levels correlated with response to BMS-536924 in combination with trastuzumab. Akt levels correlated with improved response to trastuzumab and NVP-AEW541 (P = 0.039). Cytoplasmic IGF1R staining was observed in all tumours, membrane IGF1R was detected in 13.8 %, and pIGF1R/IR was detected in 48.8 %. Although membrane IGF1R staining was associated with larger tumour size (P = 0.041), and lower tumour grade (P = 0.024), no association between IGF1R or pIGF1R/IR and patient survival was observed. In conclusion, while neither IGF1R expression nor activation was predictive of response to trastuzumab, these pre-clinical data provide evidence that co-targeting HER2 and IGF1R may be beneficial in some HER2-amplified breast cancers.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lapatinib, a selective inhibitor of EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinases, on pancreatic cancer cell lines both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Two cell lines, BxPc-3 and HPAC, displayed the greatest sensitivity to lapatinib (IC(50) < 2 μM). Lapatinib also demonstrated some activity in three K-Ras mutated pancreatic cancer cell lines which displayed resistance to erlotinib. Drug effect/combination index (CI) isobologram analysis was used to study the interactions of lapatinib with gemcitabine, cisplatin and 5'deoxy-5'fluorouridine. Concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effects of lapatinib in combination with chemotherapy were observed. To evaluate the potential effect of lapatinib in pancreatic cancer tumours, and to identify a subset of patient most likely to benefit from lapatinib, expression of EGFR and HER2 were investigated in 72 pancreatic cancer tumour specimens by immunohistochemistry. HER2 membrane expression was observed in only 1 % of cases, whereas 44 % of pancreatic tumours expressed EGFR. Based on our in vitro results, lapatinib may provide clinical benefit in EGFR positive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    Investigational New Drugs 10/2012; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the proteomic profiles of two categories of primary uveal melanoma tissue samples; those from patients who have subsequently developed metastatic disease and those who have not. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was performed on 25 uveal melanoma tissue specimens (minimum follow-up of 7 years) comparing nine uveal melanoma tumors from patients who developed metastatic disease and 16 from those who did not. Most of the tumors which metastasized also exhibited chromosome 3 monosomy. Selected differentially expressed proteins were further followed up by immunohistochemistry and functional validation in vitro using siRNA. Proteomic analysis revealed 14 statistically significant differentially expressed proteins, with nine showing increased expression (PDIA3, VIM/HEXA, SELENBP1, ENO1, CAPZA1, ERP29, TPI1, PARK7, and FABP3) and five showing decreased expression (EIF2S, PSMA3, RPSA, TUBB, and TUBA1B) in uveal melanomas that subsequently metastasized compared with those that did not. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for six of the differentially expressed proteins and gave similar results to the 2D DIGE study for two of these proteins, fatty acid-binding protein, heart-type (FABP3) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1). siRNA knockdown in the 92.1 uveal melanoma cell line confirmed a functional role for FABP3 and TPI1 in invasion in vitro. Proteomic analysis identified proteins differentially expressed in uveal melanoma that will subsequently metastasize, some of which appear to have a functional role in invasion. These results may contribute to better predictive tests (along with genetic analysis) and to the identification of new therapeutic targets.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2012; 53(8):4634-43. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.
    Cancer letters 04/2011; 306(2):180-9. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Renal cell carcinoma patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understood and the specific contribution of ABC transporter proteins which have been implicated in the chemoresistance of various cancers has not been fully defined in this disease. Methods: In this retrospective study the expression of two of these transporter efflux pumps, namely MDR-1 P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP-1 (ABCC1) were studied by immunohistochemistry in archival material from 95 renal cell carcinoma patients. Results: In the first study investigating MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 protein expression patterns in renal cell carcinoma patients, high levels of expression of both efflux pumps are observed with 100% of tumours studied showing MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 positivity. Conclusion: Although these findings do not prove a causal role, the high frequency of tumours expressing these efflux pumps suggests that they may be important contributors to the chemoresistance of this tumour type.
    BMC Urology 07/2009; 9. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance mediated by ATP-binding cassette trans-membrane protein pumps is an important cause of cancer treatment failure. Sulindac has been shown to be a competitive substrate for the clinically important resistance protein, multi-drug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1), and thus might enhance the anti-cancer activity of substrate chemotherapeutic agents, e.g. anthracyclines. We conducted a dose-escalating, single arm, prospective, open label, non-randomised phase I trial of epirubicin (75 mg/m(2)) in combination with escalating oral doses of sulindac (0-800 mg) in patients with advanced cancer to identify an appropriate dose of sulindac to use in future resistance studies. Anthracycline and sulindac pharmacokinetics were studied in cycles 1 and 3. Seventeen patients (8 breast, 3 lung, 2 bowel, 1 melanoma, 1 renal, 1 ovarian and 1 of unknown primary origin, 16/17 having had prior chemotherapy) were enrolled. Eight patients received a full six cycles of treatment; 14 patients received three or more cycles. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in two patients at 800 mg sulindac (1 renal impairment, 1 fatal haemoptysis in a patient with advanced lung cancer), and sulindac 600 mg was deemed to be the maximum tolerated dose. Sulindac had no effect on epirubicin pharmacokinetics. Among 15 patients with evaluable tumour, two partial responses were seen (malignant melanoma and breast cancer). Four others had prolonged stable disease. Epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) and sulindac 600 mg are the recommended doses for phase II studies for these agents in combination.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2007; 59(1):79-87. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), both inherent and acquired, is a serious problem in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of expression of genes encoding drug efflux pumps, MDR1 and MRP-1, at both the mRNA and protein levels, in this type of cancer. Tumour specimens (38 cases) were analysed using immunohistochemistry and, where possible (30 cases), also using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The results from this analysis indicated that either, or both, drug efflux pumps were frequently expressed in NSCLC. Expression of mrp1 was found to be predominant over mdr1 at the mRNA level, while MDR1 P-gp was more frequently detected than MRP-1 protein. In some cases, proteins encoding pumps were detected without corresponding mRNAs--possibly due to differing sensitivities of the analysis techniques. Future studies of mdr1 and mrp1 using increased-sensitivity qPCR techniques, in parallel with protein analysis, in larger cohorts of cases may help to elucidate the role of drug efflux pumps in NSCLC multiple drug resistance.
    Anticancer research 01/2007; 27(3A):1325-30. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide a powerful tool for the identification of novel tumour associated antigens. In an attempt to identify such an antigen, MAbs were generated by immunization with paraffin wax-embedded formalin-fixed invasive ductal breast tumour tissue from a patient who relapsed following an initial response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Extensive immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of a range of cell lines and tissues including a series of pre- and post-chemotherapy treated invasive ductal breast carcinomas, with one of these MAbs, antibody 5C3, indicated that the 5C3 reactive antigen displayed a wide spectrum of reactivity amongst various human tumours. A reduced level of 5C3 expression was observed in non-cancerous archival breast tissues and breast cell lines and normal murine tissues compared to the expression observed in infiltrating breast tumour cells. Immunoprecipitation studies using the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line, ZR-75-1 resulted in the isolation of a 175 kDa reactive band which was excised from an SDS-PAGE gel and subjected to internal sequencing. Sequencing analysis and database searching revealed that this 175 kDa band represented a cytokeratin heteropolymer, composed of type I cytokeratin 9 and type II cytokeratin 6. Further studies confirmed that antibody 5C3 recognised this heteropolymer of cytokeratin 9 and 6 but not the individual cytokeratins. This novel method of MAb generation may facilitate the isolation of further potentially interesting cellular antigens. Characterisation of these novel antigens may identify specific disease targets with possible prognostic or predictive significance.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 09/2005; 303(1-2):53-65. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of breast cancer treatment is limited by the development of resistance to various chemotherapeutic agents. We conducted a retrospective study of the expression of 2 drug resistance efflux pumps, MRP-1 and MDR-1 Pgp, in 177 invasive breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of these proteins was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics as well as relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) times. MDR-1 Pgp was associated strongly with higher histologic grade (grade III). A highly significant association was shown between MDR-1 Pgp and MRP-1 expression (p < 0.01), 47.4% of patients expressing both proteins; MRP-1 was expressed in approximately 61% of patients and MDR-1, in approximately 66% of patients. No association was shown in the overall group between either MDR-1 Pgp or MRP-1 and any of the other clinicopathologic features. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that in a subset of patients with either high-grade (grade III) stage 1 (node-negative) or stage 2 (node-positive) tumours who were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, MRP-1 expression in <25% of tumour cells at diagnosis was significantly associated with improved RFS (p < 0.02) and OS (p < 0.02). Using multivariate analysis, MRP-1 expression in <25% of tumour cells at diagnosis was identified as an independent, significant prognostic factor for RFS (p < 0.01) and OS (p < 0.01) in this patient group but not in other groups. In this subgroup, no significant correlation was observed between expression of MDR-1 Pgp and MRP-1. While the number of patients with high-grade tumours treated with adjuvant chemotherapy was small and further confirmatory research is warranted, it appears that assessment of MRP-1 expression at diagnosis may offer useful prognostic information in subgroups of patients with stage 1 or stage 2 high-grade tumours who receive CMF-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Given the known substrate specificities of MRP-1, any mechanistic relationship between MRP-1 expression and CMF resistance remains unclear. No association was shown between MDR-1 Pgp expression and either RFS or OS time in any subgroup of patients.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/2004; 112(2):286-94. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), is associated with MDR in certain tumors. A number of MRP1-specific MAbs, which facilitate both clinical and experimental investigations of this protein, are available. To add to this panel of existing antibodies, we have now generated an additional MRP1-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), P2A8(6), which detects a unique heat stable epitope on the MRP1 molecule. Female Wistar rats were immunized via footpad injections with a combination of two short synthetic peptides corresponding to amino acids 235-246 (peptide A) and 246-260 (peptide B) of the MRP1 protein. Immune reactive B cells were then isolated from the popliteal lymph nodes for fusion with SP2/O-Ag14 myeloma cells. Resultant hybridoma supernatants were screened for MRP1-specific antibody production. Antibody P2A8(6) was characterized by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry on paired multidrug resistant (MRP1 overexpressing) and sensitive parental cell lines. The antibody detects a protein of 190 kDa in MRP1-expressing cell lines but not in MRP2- or MRP3-transfected cell lines. P2A8(6) stains drug-selected and MRP1-transfected cell lines homogeneously by immunocytochemistry and recognizes MRP1 by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue sections. Peptide inhibition studies confirm that P2A8(6) reacts with peptide B (amino acids 246-260), therefore recognizing a different epitope from that of all currently available MRP1 MAbs. This new MAb, chosen for its specificity to the MRP1 protein, may be a useful addition to the currently available range of MRP1-specific MAbs.
    Hybridoma and Hybridomics 02/2001; 20(5-6):333-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Failure of chemotherapy is frequently observed in patients previously treated with radiotherapy. To establish a cellular model for examining this resistance phenotype a series of mammalian tumor cell lines were exposed in vitro to fractionated X-irradiation and were then shown to express resistance to multiple antitumor drugs, including vincristine, etoposide and cisplatin. In these experiments the radiation was delivered as 10 fractions of 5 Gy (dose resulting in 1 log cell kill) given intermittently over several months. We now report that a comparable multidrug-resistance profile is expressed by human SK-OV-3 human ovarian tumor cells exposed in vitro to low dose (2 Gy) twice-daily fractions of X-rays given for 5 days on two consecutive weeks, essentially mimicking clinical practice, involving an overexpression of two MDR-associated proteins, P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), with the latter being readily detectable by immunocytochemistry.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 04/2000; 11(3):193-200. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MDR-3-encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is highly expressed in liver and is thought to function as a hepatic transporter of phospholipids into bile. However its role, if any, in other tissues remains undefined. Although transfection experiments have indicated that it may be unable to confer drug resistance, there is evidence that it may be involved in drug resistance in certain B-cell leukaemias. To date, most work on clinical samples has been performed at the mRNA level; limited work has been performed using polyclonal antibodies raised to MDR-3 and mdr-2 (the murine equivalent of MDR-3). We have generated a new monoclonal antibody, termed 6/1G, which specifically recognises the human MDR-3 gene-encoded product. Antibody 6/1G was produced by in vitro immunisation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice with a synthetic 12-amino acid peptide. Cells from MDR-3 transgenic mice showed consistent membranous staining with antibody 6/1G. Immunoblotting with 6/1G identified a band at 170 kDa on lysates of MDR-3 transgenic cells. Preliminary results with a range of B-cell leukaemias suggest that MDR-3 Pgp positivity may be a marker for a more malignant phenotype in B-CLL. Antibody 6/1G may be useful in defining a role for MDR-3 in malignancy and drug resistance, as well as in certain liver diseases such as progressive familial intracholeostasis.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/1999; 80(2):265-71. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoproteins (Pgps) belong to the family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. In humans two Pgp genes have been identified; mdr-1 and mdr-3. Classical Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) is associated with over expression of the mdr-1 gene product, P-170. No role for mdr-3 in MDR has yet been proven. However there is evidence that mdr-3 overexpression may be associated with drug resistance in certain B-cell lymphocytic leukaemias. In an immunocytochemical study we have looked at a selection of B-cell leukaemias for mdr-1 and mdr-3 encoded Pgp expression using monoclonal antibodies specific for the mdr-1 and mdr-3 encoded gene products. In B-CLL patients a differential pattern of MDR-3 positive staining was observed; suggesting that MDR-3 positivity may be associated with a more malignant phenotype in B-CLL. This pattern was not observed with MDR-1 positivity. We also observed MDR-3 positivity in an AML stage M5a patient which is the first report of MDR-3 Pgp expression being detected in AML; suggesting that MDR-3 Pgp expression may be limited to particular subtypes of this disease. Results from B-NHL cases were inconclusive with varying expression of MDR-1 and MDR-3 Pgps observed. Work is currently underway to further explain the significance of these findings.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1999; 457:65-70. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MDR-3-encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is highly expressed in liver and is thought to function as a hepatic transporter of phospholipids into bile. However its role, if any, in other tissues remains undefined. Although transfection experiments have indicated that it may be unable to confer drug resistance, there is evidence that it may be involved in drug resistance in certain B-cell leukaemias. To date, most work on clinical samples has been performed at the mRNA level; limited work has been performed using polyclonal antibodies raised to MDR-3 and mdr-2 (the murine equivalent of MDR-3). We have generated a new monoclonal antibody, termed 6/1G, which specifically recognises the human MDR-3 gene-encoded product. Antibody 6/1G was produced by in vitro immunisation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice with a synthetic 12-amino acid peptide. Cells from MDR-3 transgenic mice showed consistent membranous staining with antibody 6/1G. Immunoblotting with 6/1G identifed a band at 170 kDa on lysates of MDR-3 transgenic cells. Preliminary results with a range of B-cell leukaemias suggest that MDR-3 Pgp positivity may be a marker for a more malignant phenotype in B-CLL. Antibody 6/1G may be useful in defining a role for MDR-3 in malignancy and drug resistance, as well as in certain liver diseases such as progressive familial intracholeostasis. Int. J. Cancer 80:265–271, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/1999; 80(2):265-271. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study to determine the feasibility of using archival paraffin wax embedded tissue to generate monoclonal antibodies is described. Specifically, monoclonal antibodies were raised to paraffin wax embedded normal human kidney tissue to test the possibility of producing antibodies to such tissue samples prior to attempting generation of antibodies to valuable archival tissue. Multiple sections (10 x 5 microm) were pooled and dewaxed as for immunohistochemical procedures and combined with Freund's adjuvant for immunization of BALB/c mice in vivo. Immunized spleen cells were fused with SP2 myeloma cells and subsequent clones screened on paraffin wax embedded normal human kidney sections, a range of cell lines and normal mouse tissue. Supernatants from 11 wells (from a total of 90 wells screened) showed different staining patterns on sections of paraffin wax embedded kidney. One clone, 1/11C, (isotype IgG1) which exhibited strong staining on all kidney tubules by immunohistochemical studies (glomeruli interstitium and vessels were unstained) and identified a band at 52 kDa on immunoblots of dewaxed kidney tissue (as used for immunogen) was chosen for further characterization. Immunoblotting of five mammalian cell lines showed differential expression of this 52 kDa band (distinct expression on 3/5, weak expression on 2/5 cell lines) whereas, all cell lines displayed a band at 44 kDa and a third band at 70 kDa was observed on 2/5 cell lines. In mouse tissue extracts, the 52 kDa band was identified in kidney tissue only (not in the lung, liver or spleen) with the 44 kDa and 70 kDa bands weakly expressed in all tissues. This preliminary investigation of a novel approach to identifying possible new antigenic markers or producing monoclonal antibodies which react better to known antigens on sections of paraffin wax embedded tissue showed that this method is feasible. The need to have a comprehensive screening system in place and the ability to identify potentially useful clones after the initial screening is paramount due to the relative scarcity of screening material (archival tissue sections) and the tedious nature of the screening method.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 11/1998; 219(1-2):151-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Luminescence 01/1998; 80(1). · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The generation and characterisation of a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognises the mdr-1 encoded protein, P-glycoprotein (P-170), on routinely processed formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue sections. The monoclonal antibody, designated 6/1C, was produced following a combination of in vivo and in vitro immunisation regimens in Balb/c mice with a synthetic 12 amino acid peptide that corresponds to amino acids 21-32 (believed to be intracellularly located) of P-170 and has insignificant homology with the mdr-3 encoded P-170. Antibody 6/1C was characterised by western blotting and immunocytochemistry on cytospins of paired multidrug resistant or sensitive cell lines, including mdr-1 and mdr-3 transfected cells, and by immunohistochemistry on normal and malignant formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue sections. Antibody 6/1C showed a single band at 170 kDa on western blots of multidrug resistant cell lysates and mdr-1 transfected cell lysates that was absent on similar preparations of drug sensitive cells and mdr-3 transfected cells. Immunocytochemical studies on cytospins of multidrug resistant cells and mdr-1 transfected cells revealed strong inner plasma membrane/cytoplasmic staining. Staining was negligible on drug sensitive cells and cells transfected with the mdr-3 gene. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded normal adult kidney, liver, and breast tissue and a range of fetal tissues exhibited staining patterns of a variety of secretory surfaces consistent with documented mdr-1 specific staining. Specific staining of malignant cells in similarly treated sections of breast tumours was seen also with antibody 6/1C. Staining on paraffin wax embedded tissue with this antibody did not require any pretreatment of tissue sections. This new monoclonal antibody, chosen for its specificity with the mdr-1 encoded P-170 and its reactivity on routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue samples without pretreatment, appears to be useful for the investigation of P-170 in archival material. It is especially useful for retrospective studies on pretreatment and post-treatment tissue sections, and could help establish when and how rapidly mdr-1 associated drug resistance develops during chemotherapeutic regimens. Immunohistochemical assessment of P-170 expression in many cancers has potential for diagnostic purposes and may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of refractory tumours.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/1997; 50(6):465-71. · 2.44 Impact Factor