[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancers generally become androgen-independent and resistant to hormone therapy with progression. To understand the underlying mechanisms and facilitate the development of novel treatments for androgen-independent prostate cancer, we have investigated plasma membrane-associated sialidase (NEU3), the key enzyme for ganglioside hydrolysis participating in transmembrane signaling. We have discovered NEU3 to be upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with non-cancerous tissue, correlating with the Gleason score. NEU3 silencing with siRNA in prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells resulted in increased expression of differentiation markers and in cell apoptosis, but decrease in Bcl-2 as well as a progression-related transcription factor, early growth response gene (EGR-1). In androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells, forced overexpression of NEU3 significantly induced expression of EGR-1, androgen receptor (AR) and PSA both with and without androgen, the cells becoming sensitive to androgen. The NEU3-mediated induction was abrogated by inhibitors for PI-3 kinase and MAP kinase and more specifically by their silencing in the absence of androgen, being confirmed by increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in NEU3 overexpressing cells. NEU3 siRNA introduction caused reduction of cell growth of an androgen-independent PC-3 cells in culture and of transplanted tumors in nude mice. These data suggest that NEU3 regulates tumor progression through AR signaling, and thus be a potential tool for diagnosis and therapy of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Cell death and differentiation 06/2011; 19(1):170-9. · 8.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two regimens of treatment consisted of either cisplatin and gemcitabine or methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin(M-VAC), which has been widely adopted for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. But because of its potential toxicity, its tolerability has been troublesome, especially for very elderly patients. Herein, we report a bladder cancer case with multiple metastases which were controlled by low-dose UFT. At the same time, the chemosensitivity of 5-FU combined with uracylor 5-chloro-2, 4-dihydroxypyridine(CDHP). Four invasive bladder cancer cell lines were evaluated with a collagen gel droplet embedded drug sensitivity test(CD-DST). Three of four cell lines showed an increasing sensitivity to 5-FU with the combination of uracilor CDHP. Examinations with CD-DST may provide important scientific evidence for determining suitable chemotherapy for patients with advanced bladder cancer.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 06/2011; 38(6):1029-33.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No previous study has reported the numbers of prostate cancer (PC) patients existing among a normal Japanese population with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 4 ng/ml. The aim of this study was to elucidate the performance of %free PSA as a screening tool for a normal Japanese population with PSA of 2-4 ng/ml and to examine the characteristics of cancer detected using this criterion.
We conducted a prospective, multi-center study to evaluate the performance of %free PSA among a normal Japanese population. We decided on a %free PSA cutoff value of 12% according to the preliminary results. A total of 5548 consecutive screening volunteers aged 50-79 years were enrolled in the project. Men with total PSA > 4 ng/ml, or men with total PSA of 2-4 ng/ml and %free PSA of < or =12% were indicated to undergo 12 core biopsies.
There were 826 (14.9%) men with PSA of 2-4 ng/ml. Among them, those with %free PSA of < or =12% numbered 100 (12.1%). Forty-nine out of 100 men (49%) received biopsy, and 16 PC patients were detected. Among 10 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, seven were associated with extra-prostatic extension (pT3) or high-grade cancer (Gleason score > or = 8).
We confirmed the ability of %free PSA and demonstrated that there are considerable numbers of PC patients among the normal Japanese population with PSA of 2-4 ng/ml. We ascertained that cancers detected in this study had a variety of tumor characteristics, including those of an aggressive nature.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2008; 38(12):844-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Height and early-life environments have received attention as risk factors for prostate cancer. However, the evidence is sparse in Japan. To elucidate the associations of height and early-life factors with prostate cancer risk in Japanese men, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study. In addition, to investigate whether the associations vary between prostate cancer and other major cancers, we conducted a comparative study within the same case-control study.
Study subjects consisted of 282 prostate cancer cases, 584, 461, 231, and 156 male stomach, lung, colon and rectal cancer cases, respectively, and 1730 male hospital controls, aged 50 and over admitted to a single hospital in Miyagi Prefecture from 1997 to 2003. Information on height and early-life factors including birthplace and stature at 12 years was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for each exposure variable.
A significant positive association was found between height and prostate cancer risk (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.00-2.31, between the highest and lowest quartiles; P for trend = 0.03). A significant association of urban-born with prostate cancer risk was also found (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.13). Analyses by stage revealed that height might be more strongly associated with the risk of advanced prostate cancer. For other major cancers, no significant association with height and early-life factors was observed.
Height and early-life factors were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with other major cancers, these associations were specific to prostate cancer.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2008; 38(3):205-13. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneal space is rare. We report a case of retroperitoneal tumor, diagnosed as SFT. A 69-year-old woman presented with right lower abdominal swelling, and was referred to our hospital with suspicion of right renal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) showed a mass (about 15 x 14 x 10 cm) in the right abdomen. The tumor was thought to be right renal rumor, and right radical nephrectomy was performed. In the excised specimen the tumor was not connected to gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, or right kidney. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimen revealed SFT. The tumor has malignant potential with partially increased mitotic activity and cellularity in the histological examination. The patient is healthy and without evidence of recurrence or metastasis 26 months from surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No previous studies have reported the longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We compared HRQOL after IMRT with that after conventional and after conformal radiation therapy (XRT).
A total of 110 patients underwent XRT (34 patients underwent conventional radiation therapy and 76 underwent conformal radiation therapy) and 30 underwent IMRT for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2000 and 2002. We measured the general and disease-specific HRQOL using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey and University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index, respectively.
There were no significant differences in the preoperative characteristics and HRQOL scores of the two groups. Repeated measure analyses of variance revealed significantly different patterns of alteration in several general HRQOL domains between XRT and the IMRT groups. In the urinary domain, there was no difference in the alteration patterns between the two groups. The XRT group suffered worse bowel function at 3 and 6 months than the IMRT group (P < 0.05). In the XRT group, sexual function decreased at 3 months and remained substantially lower than the baseline level. However, the IMRT group showed no significant difference from the baseline level at any of the observation periods. At 18 months the XRT group showed worse sexual function than the IMRT group.
The two approaches showed different longitudinal profiles regarding general and disease-specific HRQOL during the first 2 years after treatment. The IMRT approach produced little impairment in bowel and sexual function.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2006; 36(4):224-30. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the measurement of serum zinc may improve the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men who had total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels higher than 4.1 ng/mL.
A mass screening for PCa of 3940 men over 50 years old was undertaken using total serum PSA. Of the 190 men (4.8%) with elevated PSA, 143 (3.6%) underwent a transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate, and 42 men (1% of total and 29.3% of men undergoing biopsy) were found to have cancer. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUC) were used to compare the diagnostic power of cancer detection by means of serum zinc, and free PSA/total PSA ratio (f/t).
The men with levels of serum zinc that ranged from 40 ng/mL-60 ng/mL, had an age-adjusted odds ratios(OR) of 5.0. A cutoff value of 100 microg/mL for serum zinc concentration provided a sensitivity of 90.5% and a specificity of 32.7% in elevated PSA range, and a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 27.1% in gray zone, respectively. In the gray zone ranges of 4.1 ng/mL-10.0 ng/mL, the ROC-AUC for zinc was 73.0% higher than 62.7% of f/t PSA ratio and 56.7% of total PSA.
PCa displays a lower serum zinc concentration. The measurement of zinc levels improves PCa detection in the gray zone compared with the f/t PSA ratio and total PSA.
Asian Journal of Andrology 10/2005; 7(3):323-8. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a 2 year longitudinal survey of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer.
We measured 112 patients who underwent RP with SF-36 and University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index before and 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after surgery.
Patients who underwent RP showed problems in some domains of general HRQOL, but these problems diminished over time. Mental health significantly improved throughout the follow-up period. The urinary function substantially declined at 3 months and continued to recover gradually but never returned to the baseline. Urinary bother at 3 months showed a significant decrease, but at 6 months it returned to baseline. The data of sexual function and bother showed a substantially lower score after RP. Patients lost their sexual desire significantly throughout the post-operative period. After 12 months, the nerve sparing group had significantly better improvement in sexual function than the non-nerve sparing group and this improvement continued up to 2 years after operation.
Despite reports of problems with sexuality and urinary continence, general HRQOL was mostly unaffected by RP after 6 months. RP had a favorable impact on mental health. Although urinary function did not completely return to the baseline level even at 2 years after RP, recovery from urinary bother was rapid. RP had serious consequences on libido, erectile function and sexual activity. In the second year, the sexual function of those who underwent RP with bilateral nerve sparing procedure continued to improve.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2005; 35(9):551-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA).
A total of 12027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen tPSA test (by Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was > 4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA).
Of the 12027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were 4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA < 4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.
This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.
Asian Journal of Andrology 06/2005; 7(2):159-63. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with that after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP).
A total of 45 patients who underwent LRP alone and 121 who underwent RRP alone were prospectively enrolled in an HRQOL survey. We measured the general and disease-specific HRQOL with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form and University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index, respectively. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaires before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery.
No significant differences were found in the preoperative characteristics of the two groups. Repeated measures of analyses of variance revealed significantly different patterns of alteration in the several general HRQOL domains between the RRP and LRP groups. The LRP group tended to have a more delayed recovery than the RRP group in the domain of urinary function and bother. The sexual function and bother of both groups showed a substantially lower score throughout the postoperative period. When the LRP group was divided into two groups according to the surgical period, an apparent improvement in HRQOL was observed in the most recent LRP series.
The two approaches showed different patterns of alteration regarding general HRQOL for 1 year after surgery. The LRP group reported delayed recovery of urinary and sexual function, which seemed to affect their general HRQOL. LRP appears to be still an evolving procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine how well various definitions of continence outcome after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) corresponded with each other, using published health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaires.
In all, 198 patients undergoing RP alone were enrolled in a study between November 2000 and June 2003. The baseline interview was conducted before RP and 3, 6 and 12 months afterward. The disease-specific HRQoL was assessed using the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index; the correspondence among definitions of incontinence was investigated.
The urinary function score substantially declined at 3 months, continued to recover at 6 and 12 months, but remained lower than at baseline (P < 0.001). The correspondence among definitions of continence varied widely; 97% of men who did not have urine leakage at all claimed to use no pads, but only 63% of those claiming no use of pads had no urine leakage at all. Interestingly, this concordance rate progressively changed from 46% at 3 months to 60% at 12 months, whereas it was 82% at baseline.
Based on self-reported questionnaire data, different definitions of continence gave different results when applied to the same patients at the same time. The correspondence among definitions may vary with time after RP. No single question adequately assesses the urinary HRQoL outcome after treatment for prostate cancer.
BJU International 04/2005; 95(4):530-3. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients who underwent prostatectomy (RP) with or without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT).
A total of 72 patients undergoing direct RP (DRP group) and 26 patients receiving neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT group) were enrolled in the present study. The baseline interview was conducted before RP (not initiation of therapy). Follow-up interviews were conducted in person at scheduled study visits of 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. We measured general and disease specific HRQOL with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form and University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, respectively.
At baseline, the NHT group scored statistically lower for not only sexual function (P < 0.001), but also the general HRQOL, such as role limitations due to physical problems (P = 0.007), social function (P = 0.045) and mental health (P = 0.034), than the DRP group. The NHT group reported lower scores in social function and mental health at 3 months (P = 0.040 and 0.006, respectively). Patients who received NHT for more than 3 months continued to show significantly lower scores for some HRQOL domains 12 months later.
Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy may decrease not only sexual function, but also general HRQOL before surgery. The recovery of HRQOL appeared to be further prolonged in patients who received long-term NHT.
International Journal of Urology 03/2005; 12(2):173-81. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late relapse of testicular tumor is rare. We report a case of recurrence of seminoma at left inguinal lymph node 18 years after initial treatment. A 63-year-old man had a left orchiectomy for left testicular tumor (T1N0M0) in February 1985, with no past history of scrotal or inguinal surgery. Histological examination revealed seminoma (pT1), and prophylactic radiotherapy (34.2 Gy) to para-aortic and left hemi-pelvic regions was perfomed. In November 2003, the patient presented with left inguinal swelling, and was referred to our hospital with suspicion of metastasis to left inguinal lymph nodes. Serum markers (AFP, hCG, hCGbeta and LDH) were normal. Computerized tomography (CT) showed three masses in the left inguinal region, but no other abnormal mass was detected at chest, abdomen or pelvis. Lymphoidectomy of the left inguinal region was perfomed in January 2004, and the mass revealed to be metastasis of seminoma by histological examination.
Nippon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology 02/2005; 96(1):21-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a longitudinal survey of health related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer.
The present study started with self-reported HRQOL assessments provided by 72 patients who received only RP. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey and the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index were administered before and 3, 6 and 12 months after RP.
Patients who underwent RP showed problems in some domains of general HRQOL, but these problems diminished over time. Urinary function declined substantially at 3 months and continued to recover at 6 and 12 months, but scored lower than the baseline. Urinary bother at 3 months had a significant decrease, but at six months it turned out to be the same as the baseline. The data of sexual function and bother showed a substantially lower score after RP. The sexual bother score of the younger men was significantly worse than that of the older men. Those who underwent nerve sparing procedures experienced significantly better recovery of urinary and sexual functions than the non-nerve sparing group.
Despite reports of problems with sexuality and urinary continence, general HRQOL was mostly unaffected by RP after 6 months. Although there was a substantial decrease in urinary function, recovery from urinary bother was rapid. Deterioration of the sexual domain was remarkable throughout the postoperative period. Therefore, careful attention should be given to preoperative counseling, especially for younger patients.
International Journal of Urology 10/2004; 11(9):742-9. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective survey of general and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (XRT) in Japanese men.
A total of 186 patients underwent RP and 78 underwent XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2000 and 2002. We measured the general and disease specific HRQOL with the MOS 36-Item Health Survey and the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, respectively. Each treatment group was further divided into four subgroups according to the time scale.
Patients from the RP group were significantly younger than those from the XRT group. The tumor characteristics differed significantly in their distributions among the treatment groups. Patients undergoing XRT had low scores in most of the general measures of HRQOL just after treatment, but after 6 months there were no differences between the treatment groups, except for the physical domains. The RP group was associated with worse urinary function, whereas the XRT group had worse bowel function and bother during the first 6 months after treatment. Thereafter, however, urinary and bowel domain did not differ between the groups. Both groups reported poor sexual function, although the RP group scored lower sexual bother.
The patients who underwent RP had significantly worse urinary and better bowel function than those treated with XRT. Both treatment groups had decrements in sexual function throughout the post-treatment period; careful attention should be paid to this side-effect in preoperative counselling, especially in younger patients, regardless of the primary treatments.
International Journal of Urology 09/2004; 11(8):619-27. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the 1-year charges in the group of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and the changes in hospital costs and resource use following implementation of a clinical care path. A total of 69 consecutive men treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Hospital and outpatient records were analyzed for each patient in regard to preoperative, operative and postoperative charges of a 12-month period. Parameters included number of encounters, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, hospitalization and operative charges, and follow-up visits, diagnostic tests and interventions for 1 year. The mean first-year cost of treatment with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer was 144 x 10(4) yen. The increases in the first-year cost with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) level for the diagnosis level appeared to primarily be associated with increased inpatient resource use and greater use of hormonal therapy. Length of the stay in a hospital significantly influenced the first-year cost. After implementation of the radical prostatectomy care path hospital costs decreased by 30% (66 x 10(4) yen vs 46 x 10(4) yen), total costs decreased 40% (190 x 10(4) yen vs 113 x 10(4) yen) and length of hospital stay decreased by 56% (37.0 vs 16.6). The first-year costs with radical prostatectomy are influenced greatly by the hormonal therapy and the number of hospital days. By standardizing preoperative and postoperative management for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, significant savings can be achieved toward shorter hospital stays and lower hospital costs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mass screening of prostate cancer in China had not been studied until now. To clarify the incidence of prostate cancer among the population of aged men in Changchun City of China, we performed a mass screening program for prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA).
Men aged more than 50 years were examined by PSA, with a cut-off values 4.1 ng/ml. Subjects, whose serum PSA concentration was more than 4.1 ng/ml, were recommended to secondary examination of transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsy examination (TRUS-guided biopsy).
Between April 1998 and December 2000, in the urban area of Changchun City 4218 men over 50 years old were screened. As 190 men were found to have elevated PSA and 116 men underwent a TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate, of whom 29 men were found to have cancer. In all, the age-adjusted PSA positive rate was 4.80%, cancer detection rate was 0.74%. The age-adjusted cancer detection rate was 0.78%. After adjusted for secondary examination rate, the cancer detection rate reached 1.28%. The cases of stage B with limited cancer within the prostate gland, accounted for 62% of 29 cancer cases. Stage B was much more detected (accounted for 60%) in the PSA range of 4.1-10.0 ng/ml. Stage C and D were much more detected (accounted for 85.71%) in the PSA range over 10.1 ng/ml, with a significant difference by Fisher exact test (P < 0.05). A significant correlation of age-adjusted PSA positive rate and age-adjusted cancer detection rate adjusted by secondary examination rate was showed in six groups of Community and Army, Factory, Corporation, Post and Telecom Office, Government and Academy, and University and Technical School (r = 0.898, P < 0.01). Both of the age-adjusted PSA positive rate and age-adjusted cancer detect rate of "Universities and Technical Schools" were significantly higher than that of "Factories" (chi2 test P < 0.05).
The prevalence of prostate cancer was not so low in Chinese people as expected. For 50 years or older men, cancer detection rate was 0.74%, The age-adjusted cancer detect rate was 0.78%. Much more early stage cancer could be detected in the screening using serum PSA. For the different company the detection rate of prostate cancer varied each other among the groups. Age-adjusted cancer detection rate in "Universities and Technical Schools" were significantly higher than in "Factories", suggesting environment factor or diet might be associated with the prostate cancer.
International Urology and Nephrology 01/2004; 36(4):541-8. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated retrospectively health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer.
The study was based on self-reported HRQOL of 280 patients. Patients were divided into seven groups: time 0 (T0), baseline before operation; T1, 1-3 months after RP; T2, 4-6 months after RP; T3, 7-12 months after RP; T4, 13-24 months after RP; T5, 25-36 months after RP; and T6, more than 36 months after RP. We measured the general and disease-specific HRQOL using the RAND 36-item Health Survey 1.0 (SF-36) and the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA PCI).
The general HRQOL of the postoperative groups was assessed by SF-36. The postoperative groups showed almost the same or higher scores than those of the baseline group. Urinary function scores decreased substantially after surgery. In contrast, there was no difference in urinary bother between the baseline and postoperative groups. Sexual function deteriorated substantially in all postoperative groups. Similarly, the sexual bother score significantly deteriorated after RP. The sexual bother score of men aged 65-years or younger was significantly worse than that of their counterparts in the T1-2 groups.
Despite reports of problems with sexual activity and urinary continence, general HRQOL was mostly unaffected by RP. Although there was a substantial decrease in urinary function, recovery from urinary bother was rapid. Since the deterioration of sexual function was marked through the postoperative period, careful attention should be paid to this issue during preoperative counseling, especially for younger patients.
International Journal of Urology 01/2004; 10(12):643-50. · 1.73 Impact Factor