David H Lau

Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (8)49.62 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Left ventricular pacing (LVP) in canine heart alters ventricular activation, leading to reduced transient outward potassium current (I(to)), loss of the epicardial action potential notch, and T-wave vector displacement. These repolarization changes, referred to as cardiac memory, are initiated by locally increased angiotensin II (AngII) levels. In HEK293 cells in which Kv4.3 and KChIP2, the channel subunits contributing to I(to), are overexpressed with the AngII receptor 1 (AT1R), AngII induces a decrease in I(to) as the result of internalization of a Kv4.3/KChIP2/AT1R macromolecular complex. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that in canine heart in situ, 2h LVP-induced decreases in membrane KChIP2, AT1R, and I(to) are prevented by blocking subunit trafficking. METHODS: We used standard electrophysiological, biophysical, and biochemical methods to study 4 groups of dogs: (1) Sham, (2) 2h LVP, (3) LVP + colchicine (microtubule-disrupting agent), and (4) LVP + losartan (AT1R blocker). RESULTS: The T-wave vector displacement was significantly greater in LVP than in Sham and was inhibited by colchicine or losartan. Epicardial biopsies showed significant decreases in KChIP2 and AT1R proteins in the membrane fraction after LVP but not after sham treatment, and these decreases were prevented by colchicine or losartan. Colchicine but not losartan significantly reduced microtubular polymerization. In isolated ventricular myocytes, AngII-induced I(to) reduction and loss of action potential notch were blocked by colchicine. CONCLUSIONS: LVP-induced reduction of KChIP2 in plasma light membranes depends on an AngII-mediated pathway and intact microtubular status. Loss of I(to) and the action potential notch appear to derive from AngII-initiated trafficking of channel subunits.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 07/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In depolarized myocardial infarct epicardial border zones, the cardiac sodium channel is largely inactivated, contributing to slow conduction and reentry. We have demonstrated that adenoviral delivery of the skeletal muscle Na(+) channel (SkM1) to epicardial border zones normalizes conduction and reduces induction of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. We now studied the impact of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) in delivering SkM1. cMSCs were isolated and transfected with SkM1. Coculture experiments showed cMSC/SkM1 but not cMSC alone and maintained fast conduction at depolarized potentials. We studied 3 groups in the canine 7d infarct: sham, cMSC, and cMSC/SkM1. In vivo epicardial border zones electrograms were broad and fragmented in sham, narrower in cMSCs, and narrow and unfragmented in cMSC/SkM1 (P<0.05). During programmed electrical stimulation of epicardial border zones, QRS duration in cMSC/SkM1 was shorter than in cMSC and sham (P<0.05). Programmed electrical stimulation-induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation was equivalent in all groups (P>0.05). cMSCs provide efficient delivery of SkM1 current. The interventions performed (cMSCs or cMSC/SkM1) were neither antiarrhythmic nor proarrhythmic. Comparing outcomes with cMSC/SkM1 and viral gene delivery highlights the criticality of the delivery platform to SkM1 antiarrhythmic efficacy.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 06/2012; 5(4):831-40. · 5.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reentry accounts for most life-threatening arrhythmias, complicating myocardial infarction, and therapies that consistently prevent reentry from occurring are lacking. In this study, we compare antiarrhythmic effects of gene transfer of green fluorescent protein (GFP; sham), the skeletal muscle sodium channel (SkM1), the liver-specific connexin (Cx32), and SkM1/Cx32 in the subacute canine infarct. Immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending artery, viral constructs were implanted in the epicardial border zone (EBZ). Five to 7 days later, efficient restoration of impulse propagation (narrow QRS and local electrogram duration) occurred in SkM1, Cx32, and SkM1/Cx32 groups (P< 0.05 vs. GFP). Programmed electrical stimulation from the EBZ induced sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in 15/22 GFP dogs vs. 2/12 SkM1, 6/14 Cx32, and 8/10 SkM1/Cx32 (P< 0.05 SkM1 vs. GFP). GFP, SkM1, and SkM1/Cx32 had predominantly polymorphic VT/VF, whereas in Cx32 dogs, monomorphic VT predominated (P< 0.05 for Cx32 vs. GFP). Tetrazolium red staining showed significantly larger infarcts in Cx32- vs. GFP-treated animals (P< 0.05). Whereas SkM1 gene transfer reduces the incidence of inducible VT/VF, Cx32 therapy to improve gap junctional conductance results in larger infarct size, a different VT morphology, and no antiarrhythmic efficacy.
    Cardiovascular Research 02/2012; 94(3):450-9. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biological pacing has been proposed as a physiologic counterpart to electronic pacing, and the sinoatrial node (SAN) is the general standard for biological pacemakers. We tested the expression of SAN pacemaker cell activity when implanted autologously in the right ventricle (RV). We induced complete heart block and implanted electronic pacemakers in the RV of adult mongrel dogs. Autologous SAN cells isolated enzymatically were studied by patch clamp to confirm SAN identity. SAN cells (400,000) were injected into the RV subepicardial free wall and dogs were monitored for 2 weeks. Pacemaker function was assessed by overdrive pacing and IV epinephrine challenge. SAN cells expressed a time-dependent inward current (I(f)) activating on hyperpolarization: density = 4.3 ± 0.6 pA/pF at -105 mV. Four of the six dogs demonstrated >50% of beats originating from the implant site at 24 h. Biological pacemaker rates on days 7-14 = 45-55 bpm and post-overdrive escape times = 1.5-2.5 s. Brisk catecholamine responsiveness occurred. Dogs implanted with autologous SAN cells manifest biological pacing properties dissimilar from those of the anatomic SAN. This highlights the importance of cell and substrate interaction in generating biological pacemaker function.
    Cell Transplantation 01/2011; 20(11):1907-14. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biological pacemakers based on the HCN2 channel isoform respond to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation, suggesting a capacity to respond to autonomic input. The purpose of this study was to investigate autonomic response to emotional arousal in canines implanted with murine HCN2-based biological pacemakers using gene therapy. An electronic pacemaker was implanted with its lead in the right ventricular apical endocardium (VVI 35 bpm). An adenoviral HCN2/GFP construct (Ad-HCN2, n = 7) or saline (control, n = 5) was injected into the left bundle branch on day 2 after radiofrequency ablation of the atrioventricular node to induce complete atrioventricular block. Emotional arousal was achieved by presenting food following an overnight fast. Autonomic control was evaluated with Poincaré plots of R-R(N) against R-R(N+1) intervals to characterize heart rate variability (HRV) and with continuous RR interval assessment via 24-hour ambulatory ECG. The 24-hour ECG and Poincaré plot shape were analyzed. During day 1 after biological pacemaker implantation, Poincaré HRV parameters and RR intervals were unchanged with food presentation. However, on day 7, food presentation was accompanied by an increase in HRV (SD1, p < 0.07, and SD2, p < 0.05) and shortening of RR interval (P < .05) in dogs with Ad-HCN2 but not in controls. This is the first demonstration that biological pacemakers are capable of responding to natural arousal stimuli to elicit appropriate chronotropic responses, a potential advantage over electronic pacemakers.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12/2010; 7(12):1835-40. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle sodium channel (Nav1.4) expression in border zone myocardium increases action potential upstroke velocity in depolarized isolated tissue. Because resting membrane potential in the 1-week canine infarct is reduced, we hypothesized that conduction velocity (CV) is greater in Nav1.4 dogs compared with in control dogs. The purpose of this study was to measure CV in the infarct border zone border in dogs with and without Nav1.4 expression. Adenovirus was injected in the infarct border zone in 34 dogs. The adenovirus incorporated the Nav1.4- and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (Nav1.4 group, n = 16) or only GFP (n = 18). After 1 week, upstroke velocity and CV were measured by sequential microelectrode recordings at 4 and 7 mM [K(+)] in superfused epicardial slabs. High-density in vivo epicardial activation mapping was performed in a subgroup (8 Nav1.4, 6 GFP) at three to four locations in the border zone. Microscopy and antibody staining confirmed GFP or Nav1.4 expression. Infarct sizes were similar between groups (30.6% +/- 3% of left ventricle mass, mean +/- standard error of the mean). Longitudinal CV was greater in Nav1.4 than in GFP sites (58.5 +/- 1.8 vs. 53.3 +/- 1.2 cm/s, 20 and 15 sites, respectively; P <.05). Transverse CV was not different between the groups. In tissue slabs, dV/dt(max) was higher and CV was greater in Nav1.4 than in control at 7 mM [K(+)] (P <.05). Immunohistochemical Nav1.4 staining was seen at the longitudinal ends of the myocytes. Nav1.4 channels in myocardium surviving 1 week infarction increases longitudinal but not transverse CV, consistent with the increased dV/dt(max) and with the cellular localization of Nav1.4.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 04/2010; 7(8):1104-10. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular pacing (LVP) to induce cardiac memory (CM) in dogs results in a decreased transient outward K current (I(to)) and reduced mRNA and protein of the I(to) channel accessory subunit, KChIP2. The KChIP2 decrease is attributed to a decrease in its transcription factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB). This study sought to determine the mechanisms responsible for the CREB decrease that is initiated by LVP. CM was quantified as T-wave vector displacement in 18 LVP dogs. In 5 dogs, angiotensin II receptor blocker, saralasin, was infused before and during pacing. In 3 dogs, proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, was injected into the left anterior descending artery before LVP. Epicardial biopsy samples were taken before and after LVP. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were incubated with H(2)O(2) (50 micromol/l) for 1 hour with or without lactacystin. LVP significantly displaced the T-wave vector and was associated with increased lipid peroxidation and increased tissue angiotensin II levels. Saralasin prevented T-vector displacement and lipid peroxidation. CREB was significantly decreased after 2 hours of LVP and was comparably decreased in H(2)O(2)-treated NRCM. Lactacystin inhibited the CREB decrease in LVP dogs and H(2)O(2)-treated NRCM. LVP and H(2)O(2) both induced CREB ubiquitination, and the H(2)O(2)-induced CREB decrease was prevented by knocking down ubiquitin. LVP initiates myocardial angiotensin II production and reactive oxygen species synthesis, leading to CREB ubiquitination and its proteasomal degradation. This sequence of events would explain the pacing-induced reduction in KChIP2, and contribute to altered repolarization and the T-wave changes of cardiac memory.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 03/2010; 7(7):964-70. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In depolarized myocardial infarct epicardial border zones, the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) is largely inactivated, contributing to low action potential upstroke velocity (V(max)), slow conduction, and reentry. We hypothesized that a fast inward current such as the skeletal muscle sodium channel (SkM1) operating more effectively at depolarized membrane potentials might restore fast conduction in epicardial border zones and be antiarrhythmic. Computer simulations were done with a modified Hund-Rudy model. Canine myocardial infarcts were created by coronary ligation. Adenovirus expressing SkM1 and green fluorescent protein or green fluorescent protein alone (sham) was injected into epicardial border zones. After 5 to 7 days, dogs were studied with epicardial mapping, programmed premature stimulation in vivo, and cellular electrophysiology in vitro. Infarct size was determined, and tissues were immunostained for SkM1 and green fluorescent protein. In the computational model, modest SkM1 expression preserved fast conduction at potentials as positive as -60 mV; overexpression of SCN5A did not. In vivo epicardial border zone electrograms were broad and fragmented in shams (31.5 +/- 2.3 ms) and narrower in SkM1 (22.6 +/- 2.8 ms; P=0.03). Premature stimulation induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation >60 seconds in 6 of 8 shams versus 2 of 12 SkM1 (P=0.02). Microelectrode studies of epicardial border zones from SkM1 showed membrane potentials equal to that of shams and V(max) greater than that of shams as membrane potential depolarized (P<0.01). Infarct sizes were similar (sham, 30 +/- 2.8%; SkM1, 30 +/- 2.6%; P=0.86). SkM1 expression in injected epicardium was confirmed immunohistochemically. SkM1 increases V(max) of depolarized myocardium and reduces the incidence of inducible sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation in canine infarcts. Gene therapy to normalize activation by increasing V(max) at depolarized potentials may be a promising antiarrhythmic strategy.
    Circulation 12/2008; 119(1):19-27. · 15.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

74 Citations
49.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2011
    • Changhai Hospital, Shanghai
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Heart Failure Research Center
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands