[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/MpJ mice of substrains MRL/MpJ-fas(+)/fas(+) (MRL/+) and MRL/MpJ-fas(lpr)/fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) spontaneously develop autoimmune dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis and are a model for the human disorder Sjögren syndrome. The dacryoadenitis in both substrains appears to be Th2 in nature, with little IFN-gamma and substantial IL-4 at the site of lacrimal gland inflammation.
MRL/MpJ mice with a defective IL-4 gene-both MRL/+-IL-4(tm)/IL-4(tm) (MRL/+/IL-4(tm)) and MRL/lpr-IL-4(tm)/IL-4(tm) (MRL/lpr-IL-4(tm))-that resulted in a loss of IL-4 production were bred and evaluated for dacryoadenitis.
MRL/+/IL-4(tm) and MRL/lpr/IL-4(tm) mice developed dacryoadenitis of similar onset, appearance, and severity as found in MRL/MpJ mice with an intact IL-4 gene. Immunohistochemistry examination revealed a substantially greater number of inflammatory cells staining for IFN-gamma than for IL-13 in the dacryoadenitis of IL-4-deficient MRL/MpJ mice (MRL/+/IL-4(tm), 66% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.001; MRL/lpr/IL-4(tm), 67% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.002). Real-time PCR demonstrated greater amounts of IFN-gamma than IL-13 mRNA relative transcripts in lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr/IL-4(tm) mice (mean difference, 28.6; P = 0.035). Greater CD86 (B7-2) than CD80 (B7-1) expression was present in MRL/+/IL-4(tm) mice (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.003) and MRL/lpr/IL-4(tm) mice (10% vs. 3%, P = 0.002).
These results suggest that a Th2 autoimmune process can be converted to a Th1 process in the absence of IL-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/MpJ-fas(+)/fas(+) (MRL/+) and MRL/MpJ-fas(lpr)/fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice are congenic substrains of mice that have spontaneously developing lacrimal and salivary gland inflammation and are models for the human disorder Sjögren's syndrome. Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are proinflammatory and potential mediators of tissue damage. The presence of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which catalyzes the production of NO, and the presence TNF-alpha in the lacrimal glands of MRL/MpJ mice were assessed.
Lacrimal glands from MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice, at ages 1 through 9 months, were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR for iNOS and TNF-alpha mRNA and by immunohistochemistry for the presence of iNOS and of TNF-alpha. Age-matched BALB/c lacrimal glands were used as the control.
By quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), mRNA for iNOS was detected in the lacrimal glands in significantly greater amounts in both MRL/+ (median, normalized to 18S rRNA, 2.90; P < 0.0003) and MRL/lpr mice (median 6.84, P < 0.001) than in BALB/c mice (median 0.34). By qPCR, mRNA for TNF-alpha in the lacrimal glands was detected in significantly greater amounts in aged MRL/+ mice than in BALB/c mice (median, normalized to actin, 221.8 vs. 77.8, P = 0.011) and in MRL/lpr mice than in BALB/c mice (median 136.7 vs. 72.5, P = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated both iNOS and TNF-alpha in scattered mononuclear cells throughout the lacrimal glands and in mononuclear cells at the junction of the focal inflammatory infiltrates and normal acinar tissue in both MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice.
As demonstrated by the greater presence of iNOS and TNF-alpha in the lacrimal glands of MRL/MpJ mice than in control glands, both NO and TNF-alpha are potential mediators of lacrimal gland damage in these murine models of Sjögren's syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/MpJ-fas+/fas+ (MRL/+) and MRL/MpJ-fas(lpr)/fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice undergo spontaneous development of inflammation of the lacrimal and salivary glands, similar to that in the human disorder Sjögren's syndrome. Previous work has shown that these lesions appear to be largely T helper (Th)-2-driven, as evidenced by the substantially greater expression of IL-4 than interferon-gamma. The relative contributions of selected chemokines associated with Th1 and Th2 immune responses were assessed.
Lacrimal glands from MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice, at ages 1.5 through 9 months were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (also known as chemokine ligand [CCL]-2), MCP-5 (CCL12), thymus activation regulated chemokine (TARC; or CCL17), and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC; or CCL22). Additional lacrimal glands were tested by real-time RT-PCR for chemokines MCP-1 and -5, which are associated with Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively.
By immunohistochemistry a significantly greater proportion of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the lacrimal gland lesions stained for MCP-1 (29%-48% depending on age) compared with MCP-5 (1%-3% depending on age) both in MRL/+ (mean difference 34.2%, P < 0.001) and MRL/lpr (mean difference 33.6%, P < 0.001) substrains. Real-time RT-PCR studies showed higher transcript levels of MCP-1 compared with MCP-5, in both MRL/+ (median difference, 37.3; P < 0.0001) and MRL/lpr (median difference, 77.1; P < 0.0001) mice. Relative transcripts of MCP-1 increased with age in both MRL/+ mice (P = 0.02) and MRL/lpr mice (P = 0.03). Staining for TARC was present on lacrimal gland ductular cells but not on the infiltrating lymphocytes, and staining for MDC was present on scattered individual cells throughout the lacrimal gland, but not on infiltrating lymphocytes.
The predominant expression of a Th2-associated chemokine in the lacrimal gland lesions in this murine model of Sjögren's syndrome may contribute to the predominantly Th2-type lymphoid infiltrate in these tissues.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/MpJ-+/+ (MRL/+) and MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice show spontaneous development of a T-cell-driven lacrimal gland inflammation that is a model for Sjögren syndrome. The lacrimal gland lesions in these mice were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR for selected cytokine mRNA for the relative contributions of T-helper (Th)1 versus Th2 immune responses and by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for the contribution of the interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) autocrine pathway.
RNA was isolated from lacrimal glands of MRL/+ mice ages 1 to 9 months and from MRL/lpr mice ages 1 through 5 months, and competitive RT-PCR was used to quantify mRNA for the cytokines IL-2, -4, -10, and -12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Frozen sections of lacrimal glands from MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice ages 2 through 5 months were stained for the IL-2R.
IL-2 and -12 mRNA transcripts were below the limit of detection (<10(-3) fg/pg hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; HPRT) in both MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice of all ages. When detectable, IFN-gamma transcripts were present in low amounts and were below the limit of detection in most samples. IL-4 transcripts were present in 100- to 1000-fold greater amounts than IFN-gamma transcripts. IL-10 transcripts were detectable in both MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice. IL-2R typically was detected on less than 10% of lymphocytes infiltrating lacrimal gland lesions in both substrains.
On the basis of RT-PCR for cytokine mRNA, autoimmune lacrimal gland lesions in MRL/+ and MRL/lpr mice appear to be largely Th2-mediated. There does not appear to be a direct role for the IL-2/IL-2R autocrine pathway within the microenvironment of the lacrimal gland.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/MpJ mice spontaneously develop lacrimal gland inflammation and are a model for the human disorder Sjögren's syndrome. MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) and MRL/Mp-+/+ (MRL/+) mice are congenic substrains, which differ only by a single autosomal recessive gene, the lpr mutation. This mutation results in defective Fas protein, defective lymphocytic apoptosis, and accelerated autoimmune lacrimal gland disease in MRL/lpr mice. We evaluated apoptosis in the lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice.
Inflammatory cells in the lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice were evaluated for apoptosis with TUNEL staining and Fas and Fas ligand expression with immunohistochemistry.
MRL/lpr mice had a greater percentage of the lacrimal gland replaced by inflammatory infiltrate (30.3% +/- 7.0%) than did MRL/+ mice (13.0% +/- 3.0%, P = 0.02). However, similar amounts of lymphocytic apoptosis were present in the lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice. The mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of inflammation was 23.8 +/- 2.4 in MRL/lpr mice and 24.6 +/- 6.0 in MRL/+ mice (P = 0.91). Fas expression was absent on lymphocytes in MRL/lpr mice but was present on lymphocytes in MRL/+ mice. Fas ligand expression was present on epithelial structures in both substrains.
The accelerated lacrimal gland disease inflammation in MRL/lpr mice does not appear to be due to decreased apoptosis in the microenvironment of the lacrimal gland of MRL/lpr mice. It appears that in MRL/lpr mice there is defective extrathymic lymphoid apoptosis, permitting a relatively greater expansion of autoreactive T cells, which subsequently invade the lacrimal gland.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) and MRL/Mp-+/+ (MRL/+) mice, a T-cell-driven lacrimal gland inflammation spontaneously develops that is a model for Sjögren's syndrome. The lacrimal gland lesions in these mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the relative contributions of T-helper (Th)1 versus Th2 immune responses.
Frozen sections of lacrimal glands from MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice ages 1 through 5 months were stained with monoclonal antibodies to the cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)4 and to the cell surface costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2, which are associated with Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively.
The median proportion of cells staining for IL-4 ranged from 30% to 67% over time for MRL/lpr mice and from 30% to 55% for MRL/+ mice. The median proportion of cells staining for IFN-gamma ranged from 1% to 5% for MRL/lpr mice and from 0% to 3% for MRL/+ mice. The proportion of cells staining positively for IL-4 was significantly greater than for IFN-gamma in both MRL/lpr (mean difference, 33%; P = 0.0001) and MRL/+ mice (mean difference, 42%; P = 0.0002). The median proportion of cells staining positively for B7-2 ranged from 20% to 38% for MRL/lpr mice and from 16% to 34% for MRL/+ mice. The median proportion of cells staining for B7-1 ranged from 2% to 10% for MRL/lpr mice and from 2% to 5% for MRL/+ mice. The proportion of cells staining positively for B7-2 was significantly greater than for B7-1 for both MRL/lpr mice (mean difference, 15%; P = 0.001) and for MRL/+ mice (mean difference, 19%; P = 0.006).
On the basis of immunohistochemistry for cytokines and costimulatory molecules, inflammatory lacrimal gland lesions in MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice appear to be a largely Th2 phenomenon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice (MRL/lpr) spontaneously develop an autoimmune disease, including lacrimal gland lesions, which are a model for Sjögren's syndrome. Target organ lesions in MRL/lpr mice are composed largely of CD4+ T cells, and treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CD4 improves in the systemic autoimmune disease but not the lacrimal gland inflammation. In anti-CD4 mAb-treated MRL/lpr mice, the lacrimal gland lesions are composed largely of CD8+ T cells. The effects of depletion of: (1) all T cells; (2) both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and (3) only CD8+ T cells on the lacrimal gland disease were investigated.
MRL/lpr mice underwent neonatal thymectomy and were treated with weekly injections of 6 mg of anti-Thy 1 mAb from age one week until sacrifice at age five months. Control nonthymectomized mice underwent similar treatment with either saline or normal rat immunoglobulin (rIg) injections. In a second experiment, MRL/lpr mice were treated with weekly injections of either: (1) 2 mg anti-CD4 mAb and 5 mg anti-CD8; or (2) 5 mg anti-CD8 alone. Control mice underwent similar treatment with either saline or rIg injections.
Combined treatment with neonatal thymectomy and anti-Thy 1 mAb was effective in reducing the lacrimal gland disease in both frequency (50% > or = grade 3 vs. 100% in controls, P < 0.002) and extent (median 0% of lacrimal gland area involved by inflammation vs. 14.8% in controls; P = 0.01). Combined anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 therapy also was effective in reducing the lacrimal gland disease in terms of frequency (25% grade 3 vs. 93% in controls; P = 0.002) and extent (median 0% of lacrimal gland involved by inflammation vs. 12.9% in controls; P = 0.0005). Treatment with anti-CD8 mAb therapy alone was ineffective. The systemic autoimmune disease was also improved by T cell depletion and by combined anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAb therapy but not by anti-CD8 mAb therapy alone.
Suppression of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is required to suppress lacrimal gland inflammation in MRL/lpr mice.
Current Eye Research 09/1997; 16(9):909-16. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A vaccine developed by using a genus-specific antigen (Ag) of Chlamydia trachomatis would elicit a wide range of protection against various chlamydial infections. We have produced an anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) in guinea pigs which, in rabbits, mimics the immunogenicity of a genus-specific exoglycolipid Ag (GLXA) of C trachomatis. Furthermore, the Ab2 fulfills the functional criteria of an 'internal image' of the nominal Ag: it inhibits the binding of the idiotypic (Id) monoclonal Ab (mAb1) to GLXA, and it induces in rabbits anti-anti-Id antibody (Ab3) which recognizes both the affinity-purified nominal Ag GLXA and whole organisms. Moreover, Ab3 induced by immunization of rabbits with guinea pig Ab2 neutralizes infectious heterologous chlamydiae and prevents in vitro and in vivo infection. Taken together, these results demonstrate functional and biochemical mimicry of the Ab2 for the chlamydial GLXA and suggest that anti-idiotypic Ab to GLXA is a potential candidate vaccine against chlamydia-related diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause worldwide of preventable infectious blindness (trachoma) and sexually transmitted disease, including nongonoccocal urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. To date, no effective vaccine against C. trachomatis infection has been identified. A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) to the chlamydial exoglycolipid antigen (GLXA) was tested in a murine model of ocular chlamydial infection for its ability to induce systemic immunity, which reduces microbiologic and clinical disease. The anti-Id to GLXA, delivered either systemically in soluble form or orally after encapsulation in poly(lactide) microspheres, induced significant protective immunity against ocular challenge of mice with a human biovar of C. trachomatis. Protection was associated with induction of anti-GLXA antibody and anti-chlamydial neutralizing antibody.
Nature Medicine 11/1996; 2(10):1116-21. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate corneal reepithelialization and wound healing following annular excimer keratectomy. Two sets of experiments were performed on 35 rabbit eyes. In the first set of experiments, experiment I, deep Fresnel excimer keratectomy was performed, with a 6-mm outer and 3-mm inner diameter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 12, and 16 weeks, and corneas were examined by light and electron microscopy. In experiment II, the central epithelium was left intact, and superficial and deep mid-peripheral excimer annular keratectomies were performed measuring 6 mm in outer and 3 mm in inner diameter. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week, and corneas were examined by light microscopy. Following deep Fresnel excimer keratectomy (experiment I), corneas showed stromal edema in the central 3-mm zone. Intrastromal islands of epithelial cells with PAS positive basement membrane-like structures were seen histologically at 1 week. Electron microscopy showed loss of stromal collagen in areas adjacent to epithelial islands; in areas distant from the epithelial islands, the stromal collagen appeared normal. The overlying central stroma sloughed after 5 weeks. Anterior stromal scarring was observed. In experiment II (mid-peripheral annular keratectomy), intrastromal epithelial accretion was present in corneas with deep annular keratectomy but not in superficial annular keratectomy. Intrastromal epithelial accretion follows deep excimer annular keratectomy and is associated with adjacent stromal degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, autoantibody production, and ocular and lacrimal gland inflammation. Lacrimal gland lesions in MRL/lpr mice are a model for the human disorder Sjögren's syndrome. The target organ lesions in MRL/lpr mice, including those in the eye and lacrimal gland, are composed largely of CD4+ T cells, with lesser numbers of CD8+ T cells and B cells. Cyclosporine therapy was evaluated for its effect on the autoimmune disease, particularly in the eye and lacrimal gland.
MRL/lpr mice were administered cyclosporine intraperitoneally at a dosage of 2 mg daily from age 1 to 5 months. Animals were killed at 5 months and evaluated for the presence of autoimmune disease. Control groups consisted of animals given daily injections with either saline or the cyclosporine diluent.
Cyclosporine therapy was effective in reducing the ocular and lacrimal gland disease. Intraocular inflammation was present in 73% of control animals but in only 15% of cyclosporine-treated animals (P < 0.003). Multifocal lacrimal gland inflammatory infiltrates were present in 100% of controls but in only 23% of cyclosporine-treated animals (P < 0.0001). Mean percent area involved by lacrimal gland inflammation was reduced from 19.7% to 4.7% by cyclosporine therapy (P = 0.0003). Systemic autoimmune disease manifestations, including lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and serologic abnormalities, also were improved.
Chronic cyclosporine therapy, started at an early age, is effective in controlling the autoimmune disease in MRL/lpr mice, including the ocular and lacrimal gland lesions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice (MRL/lpr) spontaneously develop lacrimal gland inflammatory lesions and are a model for the human disease Sjögren's syndrome. Therapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CD4 ameliorates the autoimmune renal, vasculitic, and intraocular inflammatory lesions in MRL/lpr mice. The effect of anti-CD4 mAb therapy on lacrimal gland immunopathology was evaluated.
From 1 to 5 months of age, MRL/lpr mice were treated with weekly intraperitoneal injections of 2 mg anti-CD4 mAb, after which they were killed and their lacrimal glands were removed for histologic evaluation and immunocytochemistry. Control mice were administered weekly intraperitoneal injections of either saline or normal rat immunoglobulin.
Anti-CD4 mAb treatment produced no reduction in lacrimal gland inflammation but did change its morphology. In control mice, there were multiple sharply delineated foci of inflammatory cells in the lacrimal gland, whereas in anti-CD4 mAb-treated mice, there was a more diffuse inflammation surrounding ill-defined foci that spread throughout the gland. Immunocytochemistry revealed that in control mice, lesions were composed predominantly of CD4+ T cells, but in anti-CD4 mAb-treated mice, CD8+ T cells predominated.
Although anti-CD4 mAb therapy of MRL/lpr mice eliminated autoimmune renal disease, autoantibody formation, and ocular inflammatory disease, it had a paradoxic effect on lacrimal gland lesions. Lacrimal gland lesions in the anti-CD4 mAb-treated mice were not decreased, but they had a different morphology and a different immunocytochemical profile.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A human biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was used to develop a murine model of ocular chlamydial infection. The inbred mouse model will allow detailed immunologic studies during ocular infection, and use of a human biovar for infection may aid in identification of appropriate vaccine strategies against chlamydial infections.
BALB/c, C3H/HeN, and C57B1/6J mice (n = 5 to 10 mice/group) were topically infected in the conjunctiva with C serovar of C. trachomatis. The effects were tested of single and repeated infection with 5000 inclusion-forming units (IFU) in 5 microliters and different inoculum doses. Conjunctival surfaces of both eyes were swabbed for microbiologic signs (isolation culture or direct fluorescent antibody staining) of infection over 4 to 6 weeks. Conjunctivae were removed for histopathologic study, and lymphocytes from draining cervical lymph nodes and spleens were tested for chlamydia-specific proliferative responses. Serum was obtained from all mice and tested for anti-chlamydial antibodies.
BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice developed dose-dependent microbiologic, histopathologic, and immunologic evidence of ocular infection. Eyes of mice were culture-positive from day 7 through at least day 21, with the peak of infection at days 10 to 14 after infection. Histopathologically, the development of conjunctival subepithelial mononuclear infiltration, exudate, and loss of goblet cells occurred within 1 week. Dose-dependent lymphoproliferative responses to whole chlamydial elementary bodies were observed; anti-chlamydial antibody was detected by immunoblotting only in infected mice.
Several strains of inbred mice are susceptible to human chlamydial biovars and may provide a useful alternative disease model in which to study the immunopathogenesis of ocular chlamydial infection and test of vaccine candidates derived from clinically relevant human biovars.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As shown in infected humans and in animal models of chlamydial infection, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis is immunogenically potent. The purpose of this investigation was to test in the cynomolgus monkey model of trachoma a new extract of MOMP as a candidate vaccine against ocular chlamydial infection.
The nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D glucopyranoside (OGP) was used to extract MOMP from purified C. trachomatis (serovar C) elementary bodies. Protective immunization with OGP-MOMP by mucosal and systemic routes was compared in the cynomolgus monkey model of trachoma. All control and immunized monkeys were challenged by topical application of infectious C. trachomatis to the conjunctivae 35 days after the initiation of immunization.
Immunization with OGP-extracted MOMP successfully induced chlamydia-specific local and systemic immunity to MOMP and to whole organism before challenge and early clearance of infection by systemically immunized monkeys. Although ocular disease was not significantly reduced in either immunized group compared to control animals, the lowest clinical and microbiologic disease scores developed in two animals in the mucosal group with the highest immunoglobulin A tear antibody titers at day 0 to 14, whereas higher tear and serum immunoglobulin G correlated with reduced disease in the systemically immunized group.
These data demonstrate that despite evidence of vigorous MOMP-specific and other chlamydia-specific serologic and cell-mediated immunity, as well as anamnestic serologic responses to chlamydia, vaccination with OGP-MOMP was only partially protective against chlamydial ocular disease. The partial protection correlated best with tear immunoglobulin A responses after mucosal immunization and with local and systemic immunoglobulin G responses after peripheral immunization, suggesting that alternative chlamydial antigens may have to be considered in future vaccine development to induce more effective protective immunity and that evaluation of efficacy must be appropriate to route of immunization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice spontaneously develop a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by vasculitis, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, and autoantibody formation, with target organ inflammatory lesions composed largely of CD4+ (helper) T cells. Previous reports have demonstrated that anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment of MRL/lpr mice from 1 to 5 months of age resulted in a dramatic reduction in both the frequency and the severity of autoimmune disease. In order to investigate the effects of early, short-course and late, short-course anti-CD4 mAb therapy on the autoimmune disease in MRL/lpr mice, groups of 12 to 15 animals were treated with weekly intraperitoneal injections according to one of four regimens: (i) anti-CD4 mAb from age 1 to 5 months (continuous treatment); (ii) anti-CD4 mAb from age 1 to 3 months (early treatment); (iii) anti-CD4 mAb from age 3 to 5 months (late treatment); and (iv) either normal saline or rat immunoglobulin (control treatment). Continuous treatment resulted in a dramatic reduction of both frequency and severity of the autoimmune disease, as demonstrated histologically and serologically. Early treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in autoimmune disease, while late treatment had little effect. Glomerulonephritis was detected in none of the animals in the continuously treated group (P < 0.05), 38% of those in the early-treated group (P = < 0.05), 92% of the late-treated group, and 100% of controls. The titer of antinuclear antibodies, of anti-dsDNA antibodies, and total immunoglobulin levels were all significantly reduced in the continuous-treatment and early-treatment groups, but not in the late-treatment group. Murine antibodies to rat anti-CD4 mAb were present in the late-treatment group. These results indicate that early short-course anti-CD4 mAb treatment of MRL/lpr mice is effective in ameliorating the autoimmune disease in this model, while late-treatment is ineffective, probably due to the induction of antibody directed against anti-CD4 mAb itself.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune MRL/lpr, MRL/+, and NZB/W mice all develop lacrimal gland inflammatory lesions, which consist of focal mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates. Each strain has a different immunocytochemical profile, which appears to be related to the underlying immunologic defects present in that mouse. The appearance of these lesions parallels the evolution of the systemic autoimmune disease. The lesions are dynamic over time with the early appearance of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) for each strain. Subsequently, there is an accumulation of B cells over time in MRL/+ and NZB/W mice. In the two more rapidly evolving mouse models, MRL/lpr and NZB/W, there is a progressive decline in the percentage of CD8+ cells. Conversely, in the slowly evolving MRL/+ lacrimal gland lesions, there is a persistent and unchanging percentage of CD8+ T cells (suppressor/cytotoxic T cells). Autoimmune mice provide models for the human disorder Sjögren's syndrome and a mechanism for better understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune lacrimal gland disease.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1994; 350:623-30. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia-specific antibody-secreting cells have been identified in conjunctiva and draining cervical lymph nodes by an ELISPOT assay in a cynomolgus monkey model of trachoma. These local sites contained numbers of chlamydia-specific B cells that were higher than those in distant inguinal lymph nodes and peripheral blood. The numbers of chlamydia-specific immunoglobulin G-secreting B cells observed were 5 to 57 per 10(6) cells in conjunctiva and 24 to 996 per 10(6) cells in cervical lymph nodes during conjunctival infection or after challenge of immune monkeys with the chlamydial 57-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60). These studies demonstrate a large chlamydia-specific B-cell component in the conjunctiva during ocular chlamydial infection. These results are similar to our findings for chlamydia-specific T-cell responses.
Infection and Immunity 01/1993; 60(12):5294-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice spontaneously develop systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by vasculitis, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, and autoantibody formation. The target organ inflammatory lesions are composed largely of CD4+ "helper" T cells, while the massively enlarged lymph nodes are composed primarily of CD3+ CD4- CD8- TCR alpha/beta + "double-negative" T cells. In this study we investigated the effect of treatment of MRL/lpr mice with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb); control groups consisted of animals treated with normal saline or rat immunoglobulin (Ig). Anti-CD4 mAb treatment, which was started at 4 weeks and continued through 20 weeks of age, resulted in a dramatic reduction of both the frequency and severity of the autoimmune disease, as demonstrated histologically and serologically. Anti-CD4 mAb therapy markedly reduced the frequency of glomerulonephritis and eliminated vasculitis of the major renal arterial branches. Glomerulonephritis was detected in 9 of 9 saline-treated, 9 of 9 rat Ig-treated, but in only 1 of 9 anti-CD4 mAb-treated mice; vasculitis was detected in 6 of 9 saline-treated, 7 of 9 rat Ig-treated, but in none of 9 anti-CD4 mAb-treated mice. The frequency of antinuclear antibodies, titer of anti-dsDNA antibodies, and total Ig levels were all significantly reduced by anti-CD4 mAb therapy. These data support the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells play a central role in the disease process in this autoimmune strain.