[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of overall cancer has increased over time. The incidence of top-ranking cancers has changed in the 1990s and the 2000s. However, few studies have evaluated the trends in metastatic skin cancers during this period. We evaluated the recent trends in incidence, peak age and location of metastatic skin cancers from 1991 to 2010. This 20-yr survey was divided into two decades to determine the trends by comparing the statistics. Out of 694,466 outpatients (1991-2010), 174 (0.025%) were diagnosed with metastatic skin cancer. The incidence of metastatic skin cancer increased significantly from 20.64 per 100,000 outpatients in the 1990s to 28.70 per 100,000 outpatients in the 2000s (P = 0.030). The peak age of skin metastasis shifted from the 40s to the 50s in women, and from the 50s to the 60s in men. The percentage of metastatic skin cancers originating from intra-abdominal organs increased from 10% in the 1990s to 23.1% in the 2000s (P = 0.027). The percentage of metastatic skin cancers located on the abdomen increased from 7.1% in the 1990s to 15.4% in the 2000s (P = 0.011). The higher proportion of metastatic skin cancers located on the abdomen may be related to the increase in skin metastases from intra-abdominal organs.
Journal of Korean medical science 07/2013; 28(7):1083-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder which poses substantial therapeutic challenge. Combined therapy may be beneficial in Asians, where mixed type melasma is dominant. Objective: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd: YAG (1064 QSNY) and a nonablative 1550 nm erbium-doped fractional photothermolysis (NFP) treatment in Asian melasma. Methods: This was a split face study, in which 26 patients were treated with the 1064 QSNY (6 mm spot size, 1.2-1.4 J/cm(2) fluence) for 10 sessions at 2-week intervals to the entire face, and with the NFP (dynamic mode, pulse energy 6-8 mJ/microthermal zone (MTZ); total density 300 MTZs/cm(2)) for five sessions at 4-week intervals to the experimental side of the face. Efficacy variables were modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI), the physician's global assessment (PhGA), and patient's subjective global assessment (PGA). Safety was evaluated through the reporting of adverse events. Results: The percentage of subjective improvement was virtually identical on both sides. The mMASI corroborated the patients' subjective estimate, both in terms of the degree of improvement and the lack of difference between the 1064 QSNY + NFP and the 1064 QSNY treated sides. No serious side effects were reported in either side. Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis of NFP providing a substantial benefit in treating the melasma when compared with the lone treatment of the 1064 QSNY.
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 04/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia cutis (LC) is defined as a neoplastic leukocytic infiltration of the skin. Few clinical studies are available on recent trends of LC in Korea. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and prognosis of LC in Korea and to compare findings with previous studies. We performed a retrospective study of 75 patients with LC and evaluated the patients' age and sex, clinical features and skin lesion distribution according to the type of leukemia, interval between the diagnosis of leukemia and the development of LC, and prognosis. The male to female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age at diagnosis was 37.6 yr. The most common cutaneous lesions were nodules. The most commonly affected site was the extremities in acute myelocytic leukemia and chronic myelocytic leukemia except for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Compared with previous studies, there was an increasing tendency in the proportion of males and nodular lesions, and LC most often occurred in the extremities. The prognosis of LC was still poor within 1 yr, which was similar to the results of previous studies. These results suggest that there is a difference in the clinical characteristics and predilection sites according to type of leukemia.
Journal of Korean medical science 04/2013; 28(4):614-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractional photothermolysis has become popular in the recent years and is currently widely used for the treatment of scars and for photo-rejuvenation purposes. The fractional photothermolysis is to thermally alter a 'fraction' of the skin, leaving intervening areas of normal skin untouched, which rapidly repopulate the altered columns of tissue. Fractional photothermolysis is subdivided into non-ablative and ablative fractional resurfacing. Ablative fractional resurfacing uses fractional CO2 or Er:YAG lasers to create deeper columns of thermal damage.Few studies have compared fractional CO2 and Er:YAG lasers on scars and cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. In this pilot study, we have compared the effects, down time, postprocedure erythema, pain of CO2 and Er:YAG fractional lasers using analysis of clinical photographs, dermoscopic findings and patient's rate of satisfaction.
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 03/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blending of the crystalline organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene), with amorphous polymers exhibits not only excellent solution processability, but also superior performance characteristics in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). To understand the inkjet-printing behavior of TIPS pentacene/polymer blends, we use amorphous polycarbonate (APC), which is structurally beneficial to the facile phase separation of TIPS pentacene crystals due to the strong segregation strength estimated by the Flory–Huggins interaction parameter. The various inkjet-printing behaviors of TIPS pentacene/APC inks, which depend on the TIPS pentacene/APC compositions, ink viscosities, and different solvent mixtures, are investigated. These behaviors can ultimately determine the phase separation, morphology, shape, and orientation of the TIPS pentacene crystals in OTFT films. Flory–Huggins phase separation theory is applied, and various analytical methods, such as polarized optical microscopy, 3D surface profile, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), are utilized to explain these relationships. By controlling these inkjet-printing conditions, it is possible to easily regulate the optimal inkjet-printing process for TIPS-pentacene/polymer systems, which can derive the desirable stripe-shaped and vertically phase-separated TIPS pentacene crystals with the proper orientation and enhanced surface morphology. The resultant inkjet-printed films from the TIPS pentacene with APC show excellent device stability and an average mobility of 0.53 cm2 V−1 s−1. Furthermore, the inkjet-printed flexible OTFT array with an average mobility of 0.27 cm2 V−1 s−1 sustains the application of TIPS pentacene/APC in the field of flexible printed electronics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temperature sensing behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin film was investigated at the temperature range of −20 °C to 60 °C. PEDOT thin films were fabricated by in situ polymerization, where 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and ferric p-toluene sulfonate (FTS) were used as a monomer and an oxidant, respectively. The monomer and the oxidant solutions in 1-butanol were prepared separately and mixed just before in situ polymerization. The mixed solution was cast on a substrate and polymerization was carried out at 70 °C for 30 min, followed by washing with methanol and drying under vacuum.
Resistance change of PEDOT film with temperature was monitored using two probe method. It was observed that resistance of PEDOT film monotonically decreased with increasing temperature, confirming a typical temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of semiconductors with negative temperature coefficient (NTC). However, resistance of PEDOT thin film was not stable with repeated heating and cooling. Resistance at the same temperature increased with repeated heating and cooling cycles. We found that stability of PEDOT thin film could be significantly improved by heat treatment of PEDOT film at 150 °C for 1 h and sealing the PEDOT thin film. Temperature-dependent resistance of the stabilized PEDOT thin film could be fitted to the Steinhart–Hart equation from −20 °C to 60 °C range even after repeated cycles, suggesting its potential application as a flexible thin film thermistor.
Synthetic Metals 01/2013; s 185–186:52–55. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening 11/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a rare, life-threatening, autoimmune, mucocutaneous blistering disease associated with neoplasia. Both humoral and cellular immunity are involved in the pathogenesis of PNP. Characteristically, PNP has a diverse spectrum of clinical and immunopathological features. We retrospectively analyzed 12 Korean patients with PNP who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2011. We performed analysis of the clinical features, clinical outcomes, underlying neoplasia, histological features and laboratory findings. All of the patients except one had severe mucosal involvement. Two patients had only mucosal lesions but no cutaneous involvement was observed. Erythema multiforme or lichen planus-like eruptions rather than bullous lesions were more commonly observed skin rashes. The most common histological features were interface dermatitis and apoptotic keratinocytes. There were associated hematological-related neoplasms in 11 patients, with Castleman's disease (n = 4) as the most frequent. Twelve patients were followed for 5-148 months (mean, 43.0). The prognosis depended on the nature of the underlying neoplasm. Six patients died due to respiratory failure (n = 3), postoperative septicemia (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 1) and sarcomatosis (n = 1). The 2-year survival rate was 50.0%, and the median survival period after diagnosis was 21.0 months. Immunoblotting was performed in 12 patients and autoantibodies to plakins were detected in 11 patients. The results of this study demonstrated the clinical, histological and immunological diversity of PNP. Widely accepted diagnostic criteria that account for the diversity of PNP are needed.
The Journal of Dermatology 09/2012; · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blending of crystalline organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) with amorphous polymers exhibits not only excellent solution processibility but also superior performance characteristics in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). To understand the inkjet printing behavior of polymer/TIPS pentacene blends, we synthesized triarylamine-based polymers with various polarities, which were obtained by changing the fluorine content in the polymer structure. The variation of segregation strength of the polymer domains in the blends can be induced depending on the different polarities of the polymers, which can ultimately determine the shape and orientation of the TIPS pentacene crystals in OTFT films. This relationship was explained by the Flory–Huggins phase separation theory according to the measured TFT performance. Polarized optical microscopy, 3D surface profile, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the crystal orientation, surface morphology, and crystallinity of the polymer/TIPS pentacene thin films. The experimental results suggest that the phase separation behavior between the polymer and TIPS pentacene plays a significant role in the formation of crystal structure of TIPS pentacene in the film. The moderate segregation of the polymers from the TIPS pentacene crystal domains effectively derives the desirable stripe-shaped crystals with the proper orientation and enhanced surface morphology. The resultant inkjet-printed films from the triarlyamine-based polymers with TIPS pentacene showed excellent mobility of 0.14–0.19 cm2 V−1 s−1, which are among the highest values obtained by inkjet printing reported to date.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pigmentary demarcation lines are abrupt transition lines between the areas of deeper pigmentation and the areas of lighter, normal pigmentation. Type B pigmentary demarcation lines involve the posterior medial portion of the lower extremities and are more commonly associated with pregnancy. We present a case of pigmentary demarcation lines of pregnancy with erythematous changes, involving both the anterior and posterior aspects of the lower extremities.
Annals of Dermatology 08/2012; 24(3):348-50. · 0.61 Impact Factor