[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is an adipokine secreted by adipocytes and associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Different chemerin fragments with pro- or anti-inflammatory action can be produced, depending on the class of proteases predominating in the microenvironment. Chemerin binds to three receptors, especially to chemR23, expressed on various cells, as dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells, regulating chemotaxis towards the site of inflammation and activation status. Recently, the chemerin/chemR23 axis has attracted particular attention for the multiple roles related to the control of inflammation, metabolism and cancerogenesis in different organs and systems as lung (allergy and cancer), skin (psoriasis, lupus, cancer, wound repair), cardiovascular system (lipid profile and atherosclerosis), reproductive apparatus (polycystic ovary syndrome, follicular homoeostasis), and digestive tract (inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer). This pathway may regulate immune responses by contributing both to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and to the resolution of acute inflammation. Thus, chemerin-derived peptides or other substances that may affect the chemerin/chemR23 axis could be used in the future for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer at different sites.
Inflammation Research 12/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1007/s00011-014-0792-7 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:
This Report intends to estimate the total number of people still alive in 2010 after cancer diagnosis in Italy, regardless of the time since diagnosis, and to project these estimates to 2015. This study is also aimed to estimate the number of already cured cancer patients, whose mortality rates have become undistinguishable from that of the general population of the same age and sex.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study took advantage of the information from the AIRTUM database, which included 29 Cancer Registries (covering 21 million people, 35% of the Italian population). A total of 1,624,533 cancer cases diagnosed between 1976 and 2009 contributed to the study. For each registry, the observed prevalence was calculated. Prevalence for lengths of time exceeding the maximum duration of the registration and of the complete prevalence were derived by applying an estimated correction factor, the completeness index. This index was estimated by means of statistical regression models using cancer incidence and survival data available in registries with 18 years of observation or more. For 50 types or combinations of neoplasms, complete prevalence was estimated at 1.1.2010 as an absolute number and as a proportion per 100,000 inhabitants by sex, age group, area of residence, and years since diagnosis. Projections of complete prevalence for 1.1.2015 were computed under the assumption of a linear trend of the complete prevalence observed until 2010. Validated mixture cure models were used to estimate: the cure fraction, that is the proportion of patients who, starting from the time of diagnosis, are expected to reach the same mortality rate of the general population; the conditional relative survival (CRS), that is the cumulative probability of surviving some additional years, given that patients already survived a certain number of years; the time to cure, that is the number of years necessary so that conditional survival in the following five years (5-year CRS) exceeds the conventional threshold of 95% (i.e., mortality rates in cancer patients become undistinguishable compared to those of the general population); the proportion of patients already cured, i.e., people alive since a number of years exceeding time to cure.
As of 1.1.2010, it was estimated that 2,587,347 people were alive after a cancer diagnosis, corresponding to 4.4% of the Italian population. A relevant geographical heterogeneity emerged, with a prevalence above 5% in northern registries and below 4% in southern areas. Men were 45% of the total (1,154,289) and women 55% (1,433,058). In the population aged 75 years or more, the proportions of prevalent cases were 20% in males and 13% in females, 11% between 60 and 74 years of age in both sexes. Nearly 600,000 Italian women were alive after a breast cancer diagnosis (41% of all women with this neoplasm), followed by women with cancers of the colon rectum (12%), corpus uteri (7%), and thyroid (6%). In men, 26% of prevalent cases (295,624) were patients with prostate cancer, 16% with either bladder or colon rectum cancer. The projections for 1.1.2015 are of three million (3,036,741) people alive after a cancer diagnosis, 4.9% of the Italian population; with a 20% increase for males and 15% for females, compared to 2010. The cure fractions were heterogeneous according to cancer type and age. Estimates obtained as the sum of cure fractions for all cancer types showed that more than 60% of patients diagnosed below the age of 45 years will reach the same mortality rate of the general population. This proportion decreased with increasing age and it was <30% for cancer diagnosed after the age of 74 years. It was observed that 60% of all prevalent cases (1,543,531 people or 2.6% of overall Italian population) had been diagnosed >5 years earlier (long-term survivors). Time to cure (5-year CRS>95%) was reached in <10 years by patients with cancers of the stomach, colon rectum, pancreas, corpus and cervix uteri, brain, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Mortality rates similar to the ones reported by the general population were reached after approximately 20 years for breast and prostate cancer patients. Five-year CRS remained <95% for >25 years after cancer diagnosis in patients with liver and larynx cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukaemia. Time to cure was reached by 27% (20% in men and 33% in women) of all people living after a cancer diagnosis, defined as already cured.
The study showed a steady increase over time (nearly +3% per year) of prevalent cases in Italy. A quarter of Italian cancer patients alive in 2010 can be considered as already cured. The AIRTUM Report 2014 describes characteristics of cancer patients and former-patients for 50 cancer types or combinations by sex and age. This detailed information promotes the conduction of studies aimed at expanding the current knowledge on the quality of life of these patients during and after the active phase of treatments (prevalence according to health status), on the long-term effects of treatments (in particular for paediatric patients), on the cost profile of cancer patients, and on rare tumours. All these observations have a high potential impact on health planning, clinical practice, and, most of all, patients' perspective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in many countries. Colorectal carcinogenesis is a stepwise process which, from normal mucosa leads to malignancy. Many factors have been shown to influence this process, however, at present, several points remain obscure. In recent years some hypotheses have been considered on the mechanisms involved in cancer development, expecially in its early stages. Tissue injury resulting from infectious, mechanical, or chemical agents may elicit a chronic immune response resulting in cellular proliferation and regeneration. Chronic inflammation of the large bowel (as in inflammatory bowel diseases), has been associated with the subsequent development of colorectal cancer. In this review we examine the inflammatory pathways involved in the early steps of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on colorectal. Firstly, we describe cells and proteins recently suggested as central in the mechanism leading to tumor development. Macrophages and neutrophils are among the cells mostly involved in these processes and proteins, as cyclooxygenases and resolvins, are crucial in these inflammatory pathways. Indeed, the activation of these pathways establishes an oxidative and anaerobic microenvironment with DNA damage to epithelial cells, and shifting from an aerobic to an anaerobic metabolism. Many cellular mechanisms, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy are altered causing failure to control normal mucosa repair and renewal.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2014; 20(29):9716-9731. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9716 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is a protein involved in various signaling, growth regulatory, and differentiation pathways, including development/function of some T cells. Here, we aimed at the detection of PLZF during colorectal carcinogenesis, using immunofluorescence, and at the evaluation of the colocalization of PLZF with CD2 and CD56 positive cells (T, γ δ , NK, and NKT cells), using confocal-microscopy, along colorectal carcinogenesis, since its earliest stages, that is, dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Furthermore, we analyzed PLZF in the normal colonic mucosa (NM) according to anthropometric parameters of the subject. NM exhibited strong CD56 fluorescent staining. This infiltration was lost in both ACF and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), while PLZF presence increased from NM to ACF and CRC. Strong association was found between CD56+ colonic mucosa cell infiltration and body mass index. Interestingly, an increased stromal PLZF-reactivity was present in NM of obese subjects. This study shows that overexpression of PLZF and exclusion of NK cells in dysplastic microenvironment are very early events in the stepwise sequence leading to CRC and that lower levels of CD56+ cells in NM, together with increased levels of PLZF+ cells, can be a reflection of colon cancer risk due to obesity.
The Scientific World Journal 11/2013; 2013:630869. DOI:10.1155/2013/630869 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine whether BCL6 is expressed during malignant transformation of the large bowel and to assess whether, and to what extent, immunoreactivity is related to the different stages of neoplastic progression. Samples of normal colorectal mucosa (n=22), microadenomas (n=22) and colorectal cancer (n=22), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our results clearly outlined the marked increase occurring in both intensity and density of BCL6 protein expression in the normal mucosa-microadenoma-carcinoma sequence. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses showed that BCL6 is expressed at low levels in normal mucosa and increases in microadenoma and in cancer with statistical significance. These results were confirmed by western blotting data. The increasing expression of BCL6 in human colorectal cancer development suggests the involvement of BCL6 in tumor progression, from the earliest stages of carcinogenesis with significant increase in cancer. The enhanced understanding of the biological role of BCL6, previously shown to exert a key role in lymphomagenesis, may lead to a re-evaluation of this protein and may highlight the importance of performing further studies in order to identify novel therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical features, including survival, of patients with colorectal malignancies developed at a very early age (≤40 years), together with possible factors involved in the pathogenesis of these rare neoplasms. The study took advantage of the existence of a specialized colorectal cancer Registry active from 1984. 57 patients met the criteria of early onset cancer; main epidemiological data, morphology, stage, familial aggregation, possible role of inheritance and survival were analyzed. Despite the relevant increase over time of all registered patients, joiningpoint analysis of crude incidence rate of early onset colorectal neoplasms revealed a certain stability of these tumors (EAPC: 2.4, CI 14-22) with a constant prevalence of the male sex. Stage at diagnosis did not show significant variations between early onset and maturity onset colorectal neoplasms. Hereditary as well as familial cases were significantly (P < 0.005 and 0.03) more frequent among patients with early onset tumors, although in the majority of them no specific etiological factor could be identified. Survival was more favorable in patients with early onset tumors, though this had to be attributed to the higher presence of some histological types in early onset cases. Survival was significantly more favorable for patients of all ages registered in the last decade. Incidence of early onset colorectal cancer was relatively stable between 1984 and 2008. A male preponderance was evident through the registration period. Hereditary and familial cases were significantly more frequent among early onset case. A well defined etiology could be observed in 16 % of the cases (versus 2-3 % in older individuals). Five-year survival showed a significant improvement over time.
Internal and Emergency Medicine 08/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.1007/s11739-013-0981-3 · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We purposed to evaluate the role of Th inducing POZ-Kruppel Factor (ThPOK), a transcriptional regulator of T cell fate, in tumour-induced immune system plasticity in colorectal carcinogenesis. The amounts of CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ and ThPOK+ cells infiltrate in normal colorectal mucosa (NM), in dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (microadenomas, MA), the earliest detectable lesions in colorectal carcinogenesis, and in colorectal carcinomas (CRC), were measured, and the colocalization of ThPOK with the above-mentioned markers of immune cells was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Interestingly, ThPOK showed a prominent increase since MA. A strong colocalization of ThPOK with CD4 both in NM and in MA was observed, weaker in carcinomas. Surprisingly, there was a peak in the colocalization levels of ThPOK with CD8 in MA, which was evident, although to a lesser extent, in carcinomas, too. In conclusion, according to the data of the present study, ThPOK may be considered a central regulator of the earliest events in the immune system during colorectal cancer development, decreasing the immune response against cancer cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54488. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054488 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 37-year-old man was hospitalised because of anaemia and fatigue due to an infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the Treitz angle (duodenum), together with gastric, duodenal and colorectal polyps. After the operation, removal of colorectal lesions revealed the presence of ganglioneuromatosis of the large bowel. Further investigations showed lack of MLH1 protein expression and microsatellite instability in the duodenal neoplasm, while the gene was normally expressed in the polyps. MLH1 sequence and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probes Amplification analysis (from constitutional DNA) were normal. Analysis of the PTEN gene revealed the presence of a constitutional mutation (c.510 T>A; p.Ser170Arg) which had been associated with the Cowden phenotype. Further detailed clinical investigations revealed macrocephaly (63cm), melanotic spots of the penis, small angiomas, millimetric trichilemmomas in the nose and multiple lipomas, which led to the diagnosis of Cowden/Bannayan disease. The unusual appearance of a duodenal carcinoma as the first symptom rendered the identification of the syndrome extremely difficult.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) is characterized by the presence of 10-99 colorectal adenomas. The disease may be associated with mutations in either APC or MUTYH genes. We purposed to evaluate the contribution of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and MutY homologue (MUTYH) germline alterations to the AFAP phenotype and to identify genotype/phenotype correlations.
During counselling for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 91 probands (and 107 affected individuals) who met the criteria of AFAP were identified. Eighty-two families were screened for constitutional mutations of the APC and MUTYH genes.
MUTYH mutations were detected in 21 families (25.6 % of the 82 tested), and APC mutations in 7 (8.5 %). Overall, constitutional alterations were found in 34.1 % of the probands. Patients with APC mutations were younger at cancer onset and had a higher mean number of polyps (48.5 ± 33.0 in APC+ individuals vs. 35.7 ± 24.9 in MUTYH+ individuals, and 33.2 ± 18.4 in the "no mutation" group). Clinical features rendered the "no mutation" group closer to MUTYH+ than to the APC+ group. Colorectal cancer at diagnosis was detected in 40 % of AFAP individuals.
AFAP is a new clinical entity with its frequency in the general population still undefined. The number of adenomas varies greatly, with an average of 30-40 lesions. The molecular basis of AFAP can be established in approximately 1/3 of the patients. Both MUTYH and APC genes are implicated in AFAP, though the role of MUTYH is of considerably greater relevance.
Techniques in Coloproctology 09/2012; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s10151-012-0887-5 · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been well characterized for their ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins and, thus, they have been studied to elucidate their involvement in both tumor development and progression. In the present study, attention was focused on MMP-15 and MMP-19, two less known members of the MMP family. The expression profile of MMP-15 and -19 was assayed in samples of normal colorectal mucosa, microadenomas and cancer using confocal analysis, western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that MMP-15 and MMP-19 appeared to be upregulated during colorectal tumorigenesis, with different expression patterns: MMP-15 expression level increases from normal mucosa to microadenomas, with a reduced level in cancer with respect to microadenomas; the semiquantitative immunofluorescence analysis showed a stromal localization of this protein in the early phases of neoplastic transformation. Increasing amount of MMP-19 mRNA and protein levels were observed in the progression of colonic lesions; MMP-19 staining increased in the normal mucosa-microadenoma-carcinoma sequence. Such different expression patterns, are probably due to the different roles played in colorectal tumorigenesis by these two molecules. Conflicting data on the role of these proteins in tumor progression have been reported, thus, an improved understanding of the biological roles of MMPs, in particular the lesser known members such as MMP-15 and 19, in colorectal cancer may lead to a re-evaluation of the use of MMP inhibitors and suggests the need of integrated translational studies on MMP expression patterns.
International Journal of Oncology 07/2012; 41(1):260-6. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2012.1441 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report we describe the case of a young woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who developed metastatic rectal cancer during pregnancy. At diagnosis, we decided to perform a transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy, because of the high risk of bowel obstruction, and to define the origin of the adrenal gland lesion, suspected to be primary on the basis of imaging results. The histological specimen showed a collision tumor between an adrenal metastasis of a rectal tumor and a primary adrenal gland carcinosarcoma. The peculiarity of the case is due not only to its clinical presentation during pregnancy, but also to the presence of this uncommon adrenal collision tumor. A particular challenge for the clinician is to define the priority between these two tumors: the presence of two distinct and colliding aggressive neoplasms poses a problem in the choice of the best therapeutic approach, also given the impossibility to biopsy all metastatic sites. However, we decided to treat the patient as having a metastatic rectal cancer, because we had a solid histological confirmation of metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer can be a painful event, generally associated with changes in lifestyle for many patients. We studied the quality of life of the patients operated for colorectal malignancies 5 years after the diagnosis. Using detailed questionnaires, we investigated 220 patients of both sexes (mean age 66.5 years) 5 years (or more) after a curative operation for cancer of the large bowel. The short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire took into consideration several aspects concerning work activity, physical activity, psychological attitude, alimentation, familial relationships, and other relevant components of lifestyle. Moreover, we compared the perception of the so-called SF-36 score between our patients and a comparison group in the general population. Both univariate and multivariate analysis were used. The obtained results revealed that familial and social relations were equally unchanged or tended to improve. Sexual activity declined in only 61(31.3%) subjects. Rather surprisingly (because of the average age at diagnosis), work activity remained unchanged in about half of the patients. Using the SF-36 questionnaire, the main differences from the general Italian population were seen in bodily pain (especially in the few individuals in whom a permanent stoma was necessary), social functioning and general physical health. In conclusion the results seem to suggest that the majority of patients who survive for more than 5 years after an operation for colorectal malignancy return to an almost normal life. The awareness among individuals about their disease, the improvements in surgical techniques and medical treatments are among the factors responsible for these positive results.
Internal and Emergency Medicine 04/2011; 6(6):529-35. DOI:10.1007/s11739-011-0590-y · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although patients with Stage I colorectal cancer show an excellent prognosis, a few of them die of metastatic disease. In this subgroup of individuals, the search of occult metastasis might reveal that early dissemination of tumor cells could be the cause of cancer progression.
Through a Cancer Registry, we selected all patients with Stage I disease who died of metastatic tumor; a total of 32 patients were identified and in 25 of them paraffin-embedded material was available. The group was matched to 70 Stage I patients with favorable prognosis (controls). In cases and controls resected lymph nodes were cut, and micrometastases were searched using pan-cytokeratin antibodies.
Micrometastases were detected in 18 of 25 (72%) Stage I patients who died of the disease, while they were almost absent among controls (1 of 70, p < 0.001 by χ(2) test). Vascular invasion and tumor budding were more frequent among Stage I patients with an unfavorable prognosis than in controls. By regression analyses, micrometastases (HR 12.3, CI 4.8-32) and vascular invasion (HR 3.5, CI 1.4-8.5) maintained an independent association with prognosis (cancer-specific survival).
Micrometastasis in the lymph nodes can be revealed in the majority of patients with early colorectal cancer who die of tumor progression, while they appear extremely rare in Stage I individuals with good prognosis. The selection of patients through histology (vascular invasion) and search of occult metastatic cells might represent a way to identify individuals who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its rarity, infliximab-related hepatitis constitutes a cutting edge and challenging problem. In December 2004, a drug warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration to alert healthcare professionals to the risk of hepatotoxicity in course of infliximab therapy. Subsequently, several reports of probable infliximab hepatitis have been published and interest is growing in trying to elucidate the impact of these events on clinical practice. After discussing our case report, the main characteristics of infliximab-mediated liver injury are analyzed, coupled with a review of the medical literature. Infliximab seems to provoke both immunomediated and a direct liver injury, but how this latter happens remains unclear. Moreover, infliximab immunomediated liver dysfunction resembles that of autoimmune hepatitis type I, with elevation of antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-double-strand DNA antibodies, and a clear preference for female sex. Finally, a flow chart is proposed with the purpose to help clinicians in the management of patients who develop signs of liver dysfunction during treatment with infliximab.
Internal and Emergency Medicine 06/2010; 5(3):193-200. DOI:10.1007/s11739-009-0342-4 · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human colorectal microadenomas are considered the earliest detectable premalignant lesions in the colon. They can be identified as aggregates of enlarged crypts with thicker epithelial linings and elongated luminal openings on the colonic mucosal surface after methylene blue staining and observation under a dissecting microscope. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a central role in neoplastic development is played by the inhibition of apoptosis, followed by disruption of DNA repair. Understanding the early mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis may help develop new approaches of colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. The aim of the present study was to quantify poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1)-positive cells and to evaluate apoptotic control mechanisms through Caspase-3 active and Bcl-2 protein expression in human microadenomas and in normal colorectal mucosa using immunofluorescence techniques coupled with confocal microscopy and immunoblot experiments. The mean percentage of PARP-1-positive epithelial cells was 3.0 +/- 0.37% (SD) and 15.67 +/- 0.40% in microadenoma and in normal mucosa, respectively. Proteins involved in programmed cell death were differently expressed in microadenoma and in normal mucosa. Indeed, by semiquantitative immunofluorescence analysis, confirmed by Western blot, microadenoma showed low levels of Caspase-3 active and high levels of Bcl-2 expression, whereas the opposite was true for normal colorectal mucosa [corrected]. In the stroma of normal colorectal mucosa, fibroblast-like cells and neutrophils were the cells that underwent apoptosis to a greater extent. In conclusion, malfunction of the control mechanisms of programmed cell death seems present in the early stages of colorectal cancer development.