Felix Chan

Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (18)44.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Weight loss has been considered predictive of early mortality in nursing home residents. Lower body mass index, irrespective of weight loss, has also been considered detrimental for survival in community-dwelling older persons. We examined which of the 2 is more important for survival in nursing home residents and at what body mass index (BMI) cut-offs survival benefits are gained or lost. Prospective study. Nursing homes. One thousand six-hundred fourteen nursing home residents. Minimum Data Set at baseline and mortality status assessed at 6 months, 1, 2, 4, and 9 years later. Relationship between mortality and significant weight loss (≥5% over 30 days or ≥10% over 180 days), and BMI, was studied by Cox regression with both variables in the same model, adjusted for age, sex, medical conditions (cancer, renal failure, heart disease, dementia, hip fracture, diabetes mellitus), tube-feeding, 25% food left uneaten, swallowing problem, and the activities of daily living hierarchy scale. One thousand six-hundred fourteen residents (69.5% female) with mean age 83.7 ± 8.4 years and mean BMI 21.7 ± 4.8 were studied. Mortality rates were 6.3% (6-month), 14.3% (1-year), 27.1% (2-year), 47.3% (4-year), and 78.1% (9-year). Significant weight loss was not associated with higher mortality at all follow-up durations, whereas higher BMI was significantly protective: mortality reduction per 1 unit increase in BMI were 9% at 6 months, 10% at 1 year, 9% at 2 years, 7% at 4 years, and 5% at 9 years, all at P < .001. Having ≥25% of food left uneaten (51.2% of participants) had no relationship to survival at all follow-up durations. At 9 years, compared with those with BMI < 18.5kg/m(2), the normal weight (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off), overweight (BMI 23-25 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off) and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off) had significantly lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.65, 0.62, and 0.47, respectively, all P < .001). Significant weight loss as defined by the Minimum Data Set was not associated with short- or long-term survival in Chinese nursing home residents. BMI, however, is predictive of short- and long-term survival irrespective of weight loss in this population. Low BMI, detectable at a single point of time, may be another readily available alternative trigger point for possible interventions in reducing mortality risk. Obese residents had the lowest mortality compared with those with normal weight.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 02/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has been reported, but there are few studies examining the association between BMI and cause-specific mortality and hospitalization. We carried out a longitudinal study to examine these associations in Chinese older adults with multiple comorbidities, which could provide a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. From 2004 to 2013, a retrospective cohort of Chinese older adults was selected from a geriatric day hospital in Hong Kong. They were divided into groups according to their BMI: BMI <16; BMI 16-18; BMI 18.1-20; BMI 20.1-22; BMI 22.1-24; BMI 24.1-26; BMI 26.1-28; BMI 28.1-30 and BMI >30. Other assessments included medical, functional, cognitive, social and nutritional assessment. A total of 1747 older adults (mean age 80.8 ± 7.1 years, 44.1% male, 46.1% living in nursing homes, Charlson Comorbidity Index 2.0 ± 1.6) with a median follow up of 3.5 years were included. Older adults with BMI 24-28 had the lowest all-cause, infection-related and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and hazard ratio for all-cause and infection-related mortality in both nursing home and community-dwelling older adults. The rate of all-cause hospitalization was lower in older adults with BMI 22-28 (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between the odds ratio of recurrent hospitalization and BMI. Chinese older adults with BMI 24-28 had lower all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality and all-cause hospitalization. This study provides a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; ●●: ●●-●●.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care (CHLCC). This is a methodological study with a sample of 262 patients 65 years of age and older who had chronic illnesses. Pearson's correlation, independent sample t tests, and analyses of variance were used. The CHLCC showed a significant positive correlation with Chinese literacy levels (r = 0.80; p < .001) but was negatively correlated with age (r =-0.31; p <.001). Respondents who were male (t =4.34; p <.001) and who had reached Grade 12 or higher in school (F = 51.80; p <.001) had higher CHLCC scores than did their counterparts. Individuals with high levels of health literacy had fewer hospitalizations than did their counterparts (β =-0.31; incidence rate ratio = 0.73; p <.05). The CHLCC also displayed good internal reliability (Cronbach'sα =0.91) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.77; p <.01). The CHLCC is a valid and reliable measure for assessing health literacy among Chinese patients with chronic illness. The scale could be used by practitioners before implementing health promotion and education.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):205-222. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  There is little data regarding the prevalence and associated comorbidities of anemia in Chinese nursing home older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated comorbidities of anemia in Chinese nursing home older adults. Methods:  We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study in nine nursing homes in Hong Kong. The hemoglobin (Hb) level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum creatinine and comorbidities data of residents were examined. Older adults were regarded as anemic according to the World Health Organization criteria (Hb <13g/dL for men and <12g/dL for women). The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD [Chinese-adjusted]) equation. Patients with chronic renal impairment were defined as having eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Results:  A total of 812 residents were included (mean age 86.0 ± 7.6 years). The mean hemoglobin was 12.0 ± 1.8g/dL in men and 11.4 ± 1.6g/dL in women. The mean eGFR was 75.1 ± 31.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . A total of 67.0% of residents had anemia (70.5% in men and 65.2% in women). Anemic older adults were older and had a higher prevalence of renal impairment than non-anemic older adults (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the prevalence of other comorbidities. When stratified into different age groups, there were significant correlations between anemia and renal impairment in all subgroups (age ≤80 years, P < 0.05; age 81-90 years, P < 0.01; age >90 years, P < 0.05). The same correlation was found between normocytic anemia and renal impairment. Conversely, when stratified according to eGFR (≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), we did not observe a significant correlation between anemia and age group. Conclusion:  In conclusion, anemia is prevalent in Chinese nursing home residents and is strongly associated with renal impairment. Further studies of early identification and management of anemia with renal impairment are recommended in this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; ••: ••-••.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a predictor of mortality and hospitalization in Chinese nursing homes older residents. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Nine nursing homes in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home older adults (812 total; 271 men and 571 women), mean age 86.0 ± 7.6. MEASUREMENTS: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (Chinese-adjusted), and participants were stratified into different severity of renal impairment according to the modified version of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI): stage 1 CKD: GFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2); stage 2 CKD: 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m(2); stage 3A CKD: 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2); stage 3B CKD: 30-44 mL/min/1.73m(2); stage 4/5: <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The outcome measures were the all-cause, infection-related, and cardiovascular-related mortality and hospitalizations. RESULTS: Older adults with stage 3B and stage 4/5 CKD had higher all-cause, infection-related, and cardiovascular-related mortality than those with earlier stages of CKD. After multivariate analysis, stage 3B and stage 4/5 CKD were independent predictors of all-cause mortality (stage 3B, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.33, P = .01; stage 4/5, HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00, P = .001) and infection-related mortality (stage 3B, HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.08-2.30, P = .019; stage 4/5, HR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.13-3.23, P = .016), but not cardiovascular-related mortalities. The all-cause, infection-related, and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations were significantly higher in older nursing home adults with stage 3B and stage 4/5 CKD. CONCLUSION: In Chinese nursing home older adults, stage 3B and stage 4/5 CKD are independent predictors of all-cause and infection-related mortality. They also predict increased risks of all-cause, infection-related, and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 09/2012; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  Rehabilitation using interactive virtual reality Wii (Wii-IVR) was shown to be feasible in patients with different medical problems, but there was no study examining its use in a geriatric day hospital (GDH). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of Wii-IVR in GDH. Methods:  It was a clinical trial with matched historic controls. Patients of a GDH were recruited to participate in Wii-IVR by playing "Wii Fit". Participants used a Wii controller to carry out movements involved in an arm ergometer. Each participant received eight sessions of Wii-IVR in addition to conventional GDH rehabilitation. Feasibility was assessed by the total time receiving Wii-IVR, the percentage of maximal heart rate reserve (%MHR) and Borg perceived exertion scale (BS) after participating in Wii-IVR. %MHR and BS were compared with those after carrying out an arm ergometer for the same duration. Acceptability was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Efficacy was assessed by comparing improvements in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) between participants and matched historic controls, who received conventional GDH rehabilitations only. Results:  A total of 30 patients completed the study. Participants completed a total of 1941 min of event-free Wii-IVR. The mean %MHR was 15.9% ± 9.9% and the mean BS was 7.9 ± 2.3. There was no significant difference in %MHR and BS between participating in Wii-IVR and arm ergometer. Most participants found Wii-IVR similar to the arm ergometer, and would like to continue Wii-IVR if they had Wii at home. Improvements in FIM of participants were significantly more than that of historic controls. Conclusions:  Wii-IVR in GDH was feasible and most participants accepted it. Participants had more improvements in FIM. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; ••: ••-••.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 04/2012; 12(4):714-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between cognitive function and geriatric day hospital (GDH) rehabilitation has not been explored. This study investigated this association in 547 older Chinese patients attended GDH. Cognitive status was assessed by Cantonese version of mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE). Functional independence measure (FIM) upon GDH admission and discharge were measured, with FIM gain = FIM discharge-FIM admission while FIM efficiency = FIM gain/by number of GDH visits. FIM discharge ≥ 90 was defined as satisfactory outcome of rehabilitation. Positive correlation was observed between C-MMSE admission and FIM discharge (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in the FIM admission and FIM discharge among the three C-MMSE groups, with lower discharge scores in low C-MMSE groups (p < 0.001). The FIM gain and FIM efficiency during GDH rehabilitation were not different among different C-MMSE groups. C-MMSE admission (p = 0.03) and FIM admission (p < 0.001) were both positive independent predictors for a satisfactory rehabilitation outcomes (FIM discharge ≥90). Cognitive function was not associated with FIM gain and efficiency. This suggested that selected patients with impaired cognition could still benefit from GDH rehabilitation.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 09/2011; 53(2):e144-8. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are increasing expectations on primary care doctors to shoulder a bigger share of care for patients with common geriatric problems in the community. This study aims to examine the outcomes of a postgraduate training course in geriatrics for primary care doctors. A questionnaire developed by the research team was sent to the course graduates (years 2001-2007). Ninety-eight replies were received with a response rate of 52.4% (98/187). Difference in the ratings by the respondents before and after taking the course was analyzed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Most respondents felt more rewarding and had participated more in geriatric care, and the majority had improvement in their communication skills with elderly patients after taking the course. Moreover, the graduates are more confident in diagnosing and managing common geriatric problems, and deciding to which specialty to refer the elderly patients. Of the referrals, there was a significant increase to private geriatricians and a significant reduction to other specialists. The average number of elderly patients seen per day had also increased. However, little change was observed about making nursing home visits, the frequency of which remained low. Many graduates expressed difficulties in conducting nursing home visits.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 01/2011; 52(3):350-6. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the 12-month institutionalization rate and to identify the associated predictors among functionally impaired elders with or without cognitive impairment. A cohort of Hong Kong community-dwelling elders aged 65 or older with functional and/or cognitive impairments was recruited and interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Twelve months after the baseline interview, the family caregivers or elders were interviewed to update the residence status of the elders. Logistic regressions were used to examine the association between institutionalization and the baseline variables. Eighty elders (of 749 respondents) had been institutionalized within 12 months from baseline. The institutionalization rates were 6.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.0%-8.5%) for elders with functional impairment only and 17.3% (95% CI: 13.0%-21.6%) for elders with both functional and cognitive impairments. Stepwise multiple logistic regressions found that more usage of community services was the single predictor to institutionalization in 1 year for the elders with functional impairment only. The risk was doubled (odd ratio = 2.166, 95% CI: 1.286-3.647) for usage in 1 more community service. For elders with both functional and cognitive impairments, the institutionalization risk was reduced by about 70% with employment of a domestic helper (odd ratio = 0.268, 95% CI: 0.120-0.598), despite increased risk being associated with advancing age of caregiver, caregiver being male, and deteriorating functional status of the elder. Among the functionally impaired elders, more usage of community services predicted increased institutionalization, whereas among the functionally and cognitively impaired elders, employment of a domestic helper predicted reduced institutionalization. Innovative services and care models are needed to prevent unnecessary institutionalization and to postpone premature institutionalization. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the long term care needs of the elders from the perspective of both the elders and their caregivers.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10/2010; 13(2):169-75. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 06/2010; 16(3):235-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined factors associated with increased use of emergency room (ER) and hospitalization of Chinese nursing home residents. A cross-sectional study. The setting was 14 nursing homes in Hong Kong. Participants were 1820 Chinese nursing home residents. Data on facility factors and resident factors were collected. Resident factors were mainly collected by the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument 2.0 (MDS-RAI 2.0). Residing in a for-profit home (OR=6.51), having less than one third of time spent in activities (OR=1.84), having had recent fall (OR=3.81), having renal failure (OR=3.17), having had recent initiation of new medications (OR=1.42), and having had recent physician visit (OR=1.67) were factors associated with increased use of ER. Male gender (OR=1.49), having a body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m(2) (OR=1.51), being more functionally dependent (OR=1.18 per 1-point increment in the ADL Hierarchy Scale), having higher burden of illness (OR=1.29 per 1-point increment in the CHESS score), having a feeding tube (OR=3.07), having an indwelling urinary catheter (OR=2.75), having had recent fall (OR=1.94), having respiratory tract infection (OR=2.05), having Parkinson's disease (OR=1.55), having anemia (OR=1.70), having had recent initiation of new medications (OR=2.08), and having had recent physician visit (OR=1.83) were factors associated with increased risk of hospitalization. Although some of the associated factors reflect frailty characteristics of residents, differences in association between for-profit and not-for-profit institutions provide evidence of overreliance on the ER, perhaps as a result of inadequate primary care support.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 06/2010; 11(5):325-32. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mentally incapacitated 82-year-old man with no relatives was managed by a geriatrician-led multidisciplinary team when medical staff realised he was at risk of being exploited. They initiated a series of protective measures including an emergency guardianship application. The Guardianship Board appointed the Director of Social Welfare as his public guardian. This case illustrates that hospital staff should be alert to potential elder abuse to ensure timely protection of potential victims.
    Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 07/2009; 15(3):213-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the predictive factors of preference for residential care in cognitively intact and impaired elders and their family caregivers. It was hypothesized that disagreement in preference for residential care between the elders and their caregivers was greater in the cognitively impaired. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during June 2007 to March 2008 in Hong Kong, and 707 community-dwelling elders aged 65 and above and 705 family caregivers were interviewed. Cognitively impaired elders were over-sampled to give reliable estimates for that sub-group. A structural questionnaire was used to collect data on preference for residential care and potential factors. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors. More cognitively impaired elder-caregiver dyads (37.4%) had disagreement in preference for residential care than cognitively intact elder-caregiver dyads (20.5%) (p < .001). From the elders' perspective, less preference for residential care was associated with cognitive impairment, whereas greater preference was associated with depression (for cognitively intact elders), more usage of community service and functional impairment. From the caregivers' perspective, greater preference for residential care was associated with greater caregiver burden, or care-recipients having cognitive or functional impairment, or more usage of community services. Cognitively intact elders were more likely to indicate preference for residential care than cognitively impaired elders. Elders, both cognitively intact and impaired, were less likely than their caregivers to indicate preference for residential care. Disagreement in preference for residential care between the elders and their caregivers was larger for the cognitively impaired group than the cognitively intact group.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2009; 25(1):46-54. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the intention to aid planning for elderly focused public health and residential care needs in rapidly aging societies, a simple model using only age, gender and three Minimum Data Set (MDS) subscales (MDS-ADL Self-Performance Hierarchy, MDS-Cognitive Performance and the MDS-Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs scales) was used to estimate long-term survival of older people moving into nursing homes. A total of 1820 nursing home residents were assessed by the MDS 2.0 and their mortality status 5 years later was used to develop a survival prediction model. In December 2006, 54.2% of subjects were dead. Older age at nursing home admission (HR = 1.036 per 1-year increment, 95% CI 1.028-1.045), men (HR = 1.895, 95% CI 1.651-2.175), higher impairment level according to the MDS-ADL (HR = 1.135 per 1-unit increment, 95% CI 1.099-1.173) and MDS-CPS (HR = 1.077 per 1-unit increment, 95% CI 1.033-1.123), and more frail on the MDS-CHESS (HR = 1.150 per 1-unit increment, 95% CI 1.042-1.268), were all independent predictors of shorter survival after nursing home admission in multivariate analysis. Survival function was derived from the fitted Cox regression model. Survival time of nursing home residents with different combinations of risk factors were estimated through the survival function. The MDS-ADL, MDS-CPS and MDS-CHESS scales, in addition to age and gender, provide prognostic information in terms of survival time after institutionalization. The model may be useful for health care and residential care planning in an ageing community.
    The European Journal of Public Health 03/2009; 19(3):308-12. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify factors associated with falls in non-bedridden nursing home residents in Hong Kong, and to examine whether restraints are protective against falls. Cross-sectional survey of 1710 nursing home residents, examining factors associated with falls and use of restraints, as documented in the RAI questionnaire. Vision impairment is highly associated with falls (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29-2.34), whereas older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), dementia (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04), and intake of psychotropics (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.17) were moderately associated. Women were less likely to fall (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.90). Walking with aids and taking more medications were not associated with falls in this population. Restraints were used in 68%. The use of any type of restraint was marginally associated with fewer falls (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.00). Men, those with impaired vision, dementia or taking psychotropic drugs were more likely to fall. Restraints are very commonly used in Hong Kong nursing homes. Although their use was associated with fewer falls, their effect on preventing falls could not be established in this cross-sectional study.
    Aging clinical and experimental research 11/2008; 20(5):447-53. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction in predicting the development of active tuberculosis (TB). A follow-up study. Old age homes. Three thousand six hundred five residents who took part in a screening program for TB and had two-step TST using two units of the tuberculin PPD-RT23. Rate of development of active TB in these residents over an average follow-up period of 2.5+/-1.25 years. After one-step and two-step testing, 46.3% and 69.6% of residents, respectively, had positive TST reactions (> or =10 mm). Thirty-four residents developed active TB (323 per 100,000 person-years) during follow-up. The only significant risk factors associated with development of active TB were positive TST according to one-step testing (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.26-6.74) and a BMI less than 18.5 (adjusted OR=3.15, 95% CI=1.45-6.86). Residents with a BMI less than 18.5 and a negative TST also had greater risk of active TB than residents with a BMI greater than 18.5 and negative TST (adjusted OR=4.36, 95% CI=1.04-18.3), whereas those with a positive TST had the highest risk (adjusted OR=10.2, 95% CI=2.63-39.4). Two-step testing increased the sensitivity but reduced the specificity of TST in identifying active TB on follow-up. In the elderly population, interpretation of TST should take into consideration the BMI of the individual. A positive TST according to one-step but not two-step testing was useful in predicting the development of active TB on follow-up.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2007; 55(10):1592-7. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of tuberculous infection and active tuberculosis (TB) in old age homes in Hong Kong and to determine whether there is institutional transmission in these homes. Cross-sectional. Old age homes. Total of 2,243 residents, representing 84.6% of all residents in 15 old age homes; 1,698 were women, and 545 were men, with an average age of 82. All residents had a questionnaire-based interview, medical record review, two-stage tuberculin testing using two units purified protein derivative-RT23, and a chest x-ray. Those with radiological abnormalities had sputum examined for acid-fast bacilli. The estimated prevalence rate of active TB in this population was 669 per 100,000, significantly higher in men than in women (1,101 per 100,000 vs 530 per 100,000). The proportion with positive tuberculin reactivity (> or =10 mm induration) after two-stage testing was 68.6%, significantly higher in men than in women. There was no evidence of active transmission of disease in these old age homes, with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis performed on five cases of active pulmonary TB in the home with the highest rate of TB showing unique RFLP patterns. The rate of active TB and TB infection in old age homes in Hong Kong is still high. Because treatment for latent TB carries a high risk for liver dysfunction in this population, clinicians and other healthcare workers need a high index of suspicion and to diagnose and treat this disease as early as possible to prevent transmission.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 09/2006; 54(9):1334-40. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2004; 59(9):M921. · 4.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

70 Citations
44.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Hong Kong Hospital Authority
      • Department of Medicine and Geriatrics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2012
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2008–2009
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine and Therapeutics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong