Chih-Hsiang Leng

National Health Research Institutes, Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (41)153.68 Total impact

  • OncoImmunology 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1095433 · 6.27 Impact Factor
  • Chih-Hsiang Leng · Shih-Jen Liu · Hsin-Wei Chen · Pele Chong ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant bacterial lipoproteins (RLP) with built-in immuno-stimulating properties for novel subunit vaccine development are reviewed. This platform technology offers the following advantages: easily converts antigens into highly immunogenic RLP using a fusion sequence containing lipobox; the lipid moiety of RLP is recognized as the danger signals in the immune system through the Toll-like receptor 2, so both innate and adaptive immune responses can be induced by RLP; serves as an efficient and cost-effective bioprocess for producing RLP in Escherichia coli and the feasibility and safety of this core platform technology has been successfully demonstrated in animal model studies including meningococcal group B subunit vaccine, dengue subunit vaccine, novel subunit vaccine against Clostridium difficile-associated diseases and HPV-based immunotherapeutic vaccines.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1091732 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen responsible for opportunistic infections in hospitals worldwide and is the main cause of antibiotic-associated pseudo-membranous colitis and diarrhea in humans. Clostridial toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) specifically bind to unknown glycoprotein(s) on the surface of epithelial cells in the host intestine, disrupting the intestinal barrier and ultimately leading to acute inflammation and diarrhea. The C-terminal receptor-binding domain (RBD) of TcdA, which is responsible for the initial binding of the toxin to host glycoproteins, has been predicted to contain 7 potential oligosaccharide-binding sites. To study the specific roles and functions of these 7 putative lectin-like binding regions, a consensus sequence of TcdA RBD derived from different C. difficile strains deposited in the NCBI protein database and three truncated fragments corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-411), middle (residues 296-701), and C-terminal portions (residues 524-911) of the RBD (F1, F2 and F3, respectively) were designed and expressed in Escherichia coli. In this study, the recombinant RBD (rRBD) and its truncated fragments were purified, characterized biologically and found to have the following similar properties: (a) are capable of binding to the cell surface of both Vero and Caco-2 cells; (b) possess Toll-like receptor agonist-like adjuvant activities that can activate dendritic cell maturation and increase the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and (c) function as potent adjuvants in the intramuscular immunization route to enhance immune responses against weak immunogens. Although F1, F2 and F3 have similar repetitive amino acid sequences and putative oligosaccharide-binding domains, they do not possess the same biological and immunological properties: (i) TcdA rRBD and its fragments bind to the cell surface, but only TcdA rRBD and F3 internalize into Vero cells within 15 min; (ii) the fragments exhibit various levels of hemagglutinin (HA) activity, with the exception of the F1 fragment, which demonstrates no HA activity; and (iii) in the presence of alum, all fragments elicit various levels of anti-toxin A-neutralizing antibody responses, but those neutralizing antibodies elicited by F2 did not protect mice against a TcdA challenge. Because TcdA rRBD, F1 and F3 formulated with alum can elicit immune protective responses against the cytotoxicity of TcdA, they represent potential components of future candidate vaccines against C. difficile-associated diseases.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0135045. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135045 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Opportunistically nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients are often related to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) due to disruption of the intestinal micro-flora by antibiotic therapies during hospitalization. Clostridial exotoxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) specifically bind to unknown glycoprotein(s) in the host intestine, disrupt the intestinal barrier leading to acute inflammation and diarrhea. The C-terminal receptor binding domain of TcdA (A-rRBD) has been shown to elicit antibody responses that neutralize TcdA toxicity in Vero cell cytotoxicity assays, but not effectively protect hamsters against a lethal dose challenge of C. difficile spores. To develop an effective recombinant subunit vaccine against CDI, A-rRBD was lipidated (rlipoA-RBD) as a rational design to contain an intrinsic adjuvant, a toll-like receptor 2 agonist and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified rlipoA-RBD was characterized immunologically and found to have the following properties: (a) mice, hamsters and rabbits vaccinated with 3 μg of rlipoA-RBD produced strong antibody responses that neutralized TcdA toxicity in Vero cell cytotoxicity assays; furthermore, the neutralization titer was comparable to those obtained from antisera immunized either with 10 μg of TcdA toxoid or 30 μg of A-rRBD; (b) rlipoA-RBD elicited immune responses and protected mice from TcdA challenge, but offered insignificant protection (10 to 20 %) against C. difficile spores challenge in hamster models; (c) only rlipoA-RBD formulated with B-rRBD consistently confers protection (90 to 100 %) in the hamster challenge model; and (d) rlipoA-RBD was found to be 10-fold more potent than A-rRBD as an adjuvant to enhancing immune responses against a poor antigen such as ovalbumin. These results indicate that rlipoA-RBD formulated with B-rRBD could be an excellent vaccine candidate for preclinical studies and future clinical trials.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 08/2015; 22(1):65. DOI:10.1186/s12929-015-0171-x · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Pele Chong · Jui-Hsin Huang · Chih-Hsiang Leng · Shih-Jen Liu · Hsin-Wei Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: A core platform technology for high production of recombinant lipoproteins with built-in immunostimulator for novel subunit vaccine development has been established. This platform technology has the following advantages: (1) easily convert antigen into lipidated recombinant protein using a fusion sequence containing lipobox and express high level (50-150mg/L) in Escherichia coli; (2) a robust high-yield up- and downstream bioprocess for lipoprotein production is successfully developed to devoid endotoxin contamination; (3) the lipid moiety of recombinant lipoproteins, which is identical to that of bacterial lipoproteins is recognized as danger signals by the immune system (Toll-like receptor 2 agonist), so both innate and adaptive immune responses can be induced by lipoproteins; and (4) successfully demonstrate the feasibility and safety of this core platform technology in meningococcal group B subunit vaccine, dengue subunit vaccine, novel subunit vaccine against Clostridium difficile-associated diseases, and HPV-based immunotherapeutic vaccines in animal model studies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    06/2015; 99:55-74. DOI:10.1016/bs.apcsb.2015.03.003
  • Kuan-Yin Shen · Li-Sheng Chang · Chih-Hsiang Leng · Shih-Jen Liu ·
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of therapeutic HPV vaccines is the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunity against HPV-associated cancers. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides have high safety profiles but low immunogenicity, which limits their efficacy when used in a vaccine. Self-adjuvanting lipid moieties have been conjugated to synthetic peptides or expressed as lipoproteins to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine candidates. Mono-, di- and tri-palmitoylated peptides have been demonstrated to activate dendritic cells and induce robust cellular immunity against infectious diseases and cancer. Recently, a platform technology using the high-yield production of recombinant lipoproteins with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist activity was established for the development of novel subunit vaccines. This technology represents a novel strategy for the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines. In this review, we describe recent progress in the design of therapeutic HPV vaccines using lipoimmunogens.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014; 14(3):1-12. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.966696 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Shih-Jen Liu · Li-Sheng Chang · Yi-Chen Yeh · Chih-Hsiang Leng ·

    Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(19 Supplement):637-637. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-637 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-presentation is a key function of dendritic cells (DCs), which present exogenous Ags on MHC class I molecules to prime CTL responses. The effects of TLR triggering on the cross-presentation of exogenous Ags by DCs remain unclear. In this study, we used synthetic dipalmitoylated peptides and TLR2 agonist-conjugated peptides as models to elucidate the mechanisms of TLR2-mediated cross-presentation. We observed that the internalization of dipalmitoylated peptides by bone marrow-derived DCs was facilitated by TLR2 via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The administration of these dipalmitoylated peptide-pulsed bone marrow-derived DCs eliminated established tumors through TLR2 signaling. We further demonstrated that the induction of Ag-specific CTL responses and tumor regression by dipalmitoylated peptides was TAP independent. In addition, presentation of dipalmitoylated peptides by MHC class I molecules was blocked in the presence of an endosomal acidification inhibitor (chloroquine) or a lysosomal degradation inhibitor (Z-FL-COCHO). The endocytosed dipalmitoylated peptide also passed rapidly from early endosome Ag-1-positive endosomes to RAS-related GTP-binding protein 7 (Rab7)-associated late endosomes compared with their nonlipidated counterparts. Furthermore, we found that dipalmitoylated peptide-upregulated Rab7 expression correlated with Ag presentation via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway. Both JNK and ERK signaling pathways are required for upregulation of Rab7. In summary, our data suggest that TLR2-mediated cross-presentation occurs through the upregulation of Rab7 and a TAP-independent pathway that prime CTL responses.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; 192(9). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302850 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a major role in eradicating cancer cells during immunotherapy, the cancer-associated immunosuppressive microenvironment often limits the success of such therapies. Therefore, the simultaneous induction of cancer-specific CTLs and reversal of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may be more effectively achieved through a single therapeutic vaccine. A recombinant lipoprotein with intrinsic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist activity containing a mutant form of E7 (E7m) and a bacterial lipid moiety (rlipo-E7m) has been demonstrated to induce robust CTL responses against small tumors. This treatment in combination with other TLR agonists is able to eliminate large tumors. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were employed to determine the synergistic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon combination of rlipo-E7m and other TLR agonists. Antigen-specific CTL responses were investigated using immunospots or in vivo cytolytic assays after immunization in mice. Mice bearing various tumor sizes were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of the formulation. Specific subpopulations of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor infiltrate were quantitatively determined by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that a TLR9 agonist (unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, CpG ODN) enhances CTL responses and eradicates large tumors when combined with rlipo-E7m. Moreover, combined treatment with rlipo-E7m and CpG ODN effectively increases tumor infiltration by CTLs and reduces the numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. These findings suggest that the dramatic anti-tumor effects of the recombinant lipoprotein together with CpG ODN may reflect the amplification of CTL responses and the repression of the immunosuppressive environment. This promising approach could be applied for the development of additional therapeutic cancer vaccines.
    Molecular Cancer 03/2014; 13(1):60. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-60 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic lipopeptides have been widely used as vaccine adjuvants to enhance immune responses. The present study demonstrated that the tryptic N-terminal fragment of the lipoprotein rlipo-D1E3 (lipo-Nter) induces superior antitumor effects compared to a synthetic lipopeptide. The lipo-Nter was purified and formulated with protein or peptide vaccines to determine if lipo-Nter could be used as a novel adjuvant and could induce antitumor immunity in a cervical cancer model. Purified lipo-Nter activated the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), leading to the secretion of TNF- α through TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2. A recombinant mutant HPV16 E7 (rE7m) protein was mixed with lipo-Nter to immunize the mice; the anti-E7 antibody titers were increased, and the T helper cells were skewed toward the Th1 fate (increased IL-2 and decreased IL-5 secretion). Single-dose injection of rE7m and lipo-Nter inhibited tumor growth, but the injection of rE7m alone did not. Accordingly, lipo-Nter also enhanced the antitumor immunity of the E7-derived peptide but not the synthetic lipopeptide (Pam3CSK4). We demonstrated that the lipo-Nter of a bacterial-derived recombinant lipoprotein is a novel adjuvant that could be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines.
    03/2014; 2014:349783. DOI:10.1155/2014/349783
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of recombinant protein antigens with an immunostimulator has the potential to greatly increase the immunogenicity of recombinant protein antigens. In the present study, we selected the dengue-4 envelope protein domain III as a dengue vaccine candidate and expressed the protein in lipidated form using an Escherichia coli-based system. The recombinant lipidated dengue-4 envelope protein domain III folded into the proper conformation and competed with the dengue-4 virus for cellular binding sites. Mice immunized with lipidated dengue-4 envelope protein domain III without exogenous adjuvant had higher frequencies of dengue-4 envelope protein domain III-specific B cells secreting antibodies than mice immunized with the nonlipidated form. Importantly, lipidated dengue-4 envelope protein domain III-immunized mice demonstrated a durable neutralizing antibody response and had reduced viremia levels after challenge. The study demonstrates that lipidated dengue-4 envelope protein domain III is immunogenic and may be a potential dengue vaccine candidate. Furthermore, the lipidation strategy can be applied to other serotypes of dengue virus.
    Vaccine 01/2014; 32(12). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.041 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    Wei-Lin Chen · Shih-Jen Liu · Chih-Hsiang Leng · Hsin-Wei Chen · Pele Chong · Ming-Hsi Huang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccine adjuvant is conferred on the substance that helps to enhance antigen-specific immune response. Here we investigated the disintegration characteristics and immunotherapy potency of an emulsified delivery system comprising bioresorbable polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PEG-PLA), phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and metabolizable oil squalane. PEG-PLA-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions show good stability at 4 °C and at room temperature. At 37 °C, squalane/PEG-PLA/PBS emulsion with oil/aqueous weight ratio of 7/3 (denominated PELA73) was stable for 6 weeks without phase separation. As PEG-PLA being degraded, 30% of free oil at the surface layer and 10% of water at the bottom disassociated from the PELA73 emulsion were found after 3 months. A MALDI-TOF MS study directly on the DIOS plate enables us to identify low molecular weight components released during degradation. Our results confirm the loss of PLA moiety of the emulsifier PEG-PLA directly affected the stability of PEG-PLA-stabilized emulsion, leading to emulsion disintegration and squalane/water phase separation. As adjuvant for cancer immunotherapeutic use, an HPV16 E7 peptide antigen formulated with PELA73 plus immunostimulatory CpG molecules could strongly enhance antigen-specific T-cell responses as well as anti-tumor ability with respected to non-formulated or Alum-formulated peptide. Accordingly, these advances may be a potential immunoregulatory strategy in manipulating the immune responses induced by tumor-associated antigens.
    Biomaterials 11/2013; 35(5). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.11.004 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PELC is a novel emulsion-type adjuvant that contains the bioresorbable polymer poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PLACL), Span®85 and squalene. To investigate whether PELC is able to enhance CTL responses of antigens for treating tumor, peptide or protein antigen derived from HPV16 E7 were formulated with PELC nanoparticles and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. We identified that PELC formulation could delay release of antigens in vittro and in vivo. We assessed the immunogenicity of an H-2D(b)-restricted CTL epitope RAHYNIVTF (RAH) formulated with PELC or PELC/CpG and investigated the ability of these formulations to promote tumor regression. Following a single-dose subcutaneous injection in mice, we found that the RAH peptide formulated with PELC/CpG (RAH/PELC/CpG) resulted in increased numbers of IFN-γ-secreting cells and RAH-specific CD8(+) T cells and an enhanced cytotoxic T cell response compared with RAH formulated with PELC or CpG alone. The tumor-bearing mice received a single-dose injection of RAH/PELC/CpG, which induced complete tumor regression. These results demonstrated that peptide antigen formulated with PELC/CpG nanoparticles is feasible for cancer immunotherapy.
    Journal of Controlled Release 10/2013; 173(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.10.027 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause self-limiting dengue fever, severe life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The existence of four serotypes of dengue virus has complicated the development of an effective and safe dengue vaccine. Recently, a clinical phase 2b trial of Sanofi Pasteur's CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine revealed that the vaccine did not confer full protection against dengue-2 virus. New approaches to dengue vaccine development are urgently needed. Our approach represents a promising method of dengue vaccine development and may even complement the deficiencies of the CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine. Two important components of a vaccine, the immunogen and immunopotentiator, were combined into a single construct to generate a new generation of vaccines. We selected dengue-2 envelope protein domain III (D2ED III) as the immunogen and expressed this protein in lipidated form in Escherichia coli, yielding an immunogen with intrinsic immunopotentiation activity. The formulation containing lipidated D2ED III (LD2ED III) in the absence of exogenous adjuvant elicited higher D2ED III-specific antibody responses than those obtained from its nonlipidated counterpart, D2ED III, and dengue-2 virus. In addition, the avidity and neutralizing capacity of the antibodies induced by LD2ED III were higher than those elicited by D2ED III and dengue-2 virus. Importantly, we showed that after lipidation, the subunit candidate LD2ED III exhibited increased immunogenicity while reducing the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in mice. Our study suggests that the lipidated subunit vaccine approach could be applied to other serotypes of dengue virus and other pathogens.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 09/2013; 7(9):e2432. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002432 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many attempts have focused on the use of either immunomodulators or antigen delivery systems to obtain an efficacious vaccine. Here, we report a novel approach that combined an immunomodulator and delivery system to enhance antigen association and induce robust immunity. We expressed a recombinant lipidated dengue-1 envelope protein domain III (LD1ED III) and its non-lipidated form, D1ED III, in an Escherichia coli system. The LD1ED III contains a bacterial lipid moiety, which is a potent immunomodulator. We demonstrated that LD1ED III possesses an inherent immunostimulation ability that can activate RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by up-regulating their expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC II, whereas D1ED III could not induce the up-regulation of these molecules. Moreover, combining LD1ED III with a multiphase emulsion system (called PELC) increased the antigen association more than either combining D1ED III with PELC or the antigen alone. Enhanced antigen association has been shown to correlate with stronger T cell responses, greater antibody avidity and improved neutralizing capacity. Our results demonstrate that combining recombinant lipoproteins with PELC improved both the intensity and the quality of the immune response. This approach is a promising strategy for the development of subunit vaccines that induce robust immunity.
    Microbes and Infection 06/2013; 15(10-11). DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2013.06.002 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with a subunit dengue vaccine containing a consensus envelope domain III with aluminum phosphate elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of dengue virus in mice. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the subunit dengue vaccine in non-human primates. After vaccination, monkeys that received the subunit vaccine with aluminum phosphate developed a significantly strong and long-lasting antibody response. A specific T cell response with cytokine production was also induced, and this correlated with the antibody response. Additionally, neutralizing antibodies against serotype 2 were detected in two of three monkeys. The increase in serotype-2-specific antibody titers and avidity observed in these two monkeys suggested that a serotype-2-biased antibody response occurs. These data provide evidence that a protective neutralizing antibody response was successfully elicited in non-human primates by the dengue subunit vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant.
    Archives of Virology 03/2013; 158(7). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1639-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) is an ideal target for developing immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV-associated tumors. However, because protein-based immunogens alone are poor elicitors of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, they have been difficult to exploit for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we report that a recombinant lipoprotein consisting of inactive E7 (E7m) biologically linked to a bacterial lipid moiety (rlipo-E7m) induces the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), skews the immune responses toward the Th1 responses and induces E7-specific CTL responses. We further studied the ability of rlipo-E7m to provide protection against a TC-1 tumor cell challenge in an animal model. Mice prophylactically immunized with two 10-µg doses of rlipo-E7m were found to be free of TC-1 tumor growth. Experiments in a therapeutic immunization model showed that the tumor volume in mice receiving a single dose of rlipo-E7m was less than 0.01 cm(3) on day 40, whereas the tumor volume in mice treated with rE7m was 2.28±1.21 cm(3). The tumor volume of the entire control group was over 3 cm(3). In addition, we demonstrated that the CD8+ T cells play a major role in anti-tumor immunity when administration of rlipo-E7m. These results demonstrate that rlipo-E7m could be a promising candidate for treating HPV-associated tumors.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40970. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040970 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease. Infection of dengue virus can cause clinical manifestations ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to potentially life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. In recent years, dengue has spread to most tropical and subtropical areas, making it a global health concern. Specific approaches for dengue therapy do not exist; the development of a dengue vaccine would represent a major advance in the control of the disease. Currently, no licensed dengue vaccine is available. Subunit vaccines provide a great safety strategy for developing dengue vaccine. However, the major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Here we employed dengue-1 envelope protein domain III as a model vaccine candidate and described a newly developed water-in-oil-in water multiphase emulsion system to overcome the inherent defect of subunit vaccines. We showed that emulsification of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically broadened immune responses and potentiated the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III. These results provide valuable information for development of recombinant protein based vaccination against dengue virus and future clinical studies.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 05/2012; 6(5):e1645. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001645 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Chi-Ling Tseng · Chih-Hsiang Leng ·
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipoproteins are crucial antigens for protective immunity against bacterial pathogens. Expression of exogenous lipoproteins in Escherichia coli at high levels is thought to be an extremely difficult endeavor because it frequently results in incomplete or absent lipid modification. Previously, we identified a fusion sequence (D1) from a Neisseria meningitidis lipoprotein that induced a non-lipidated protein, E3 (the domain III of the dengue virus envelope protein), to become lipidated. However, without optimizing the growth conditions, some of the D1-fusion proteins were not lipidated. Here, we report the influence of medium components on the expression of recombinant lipoproteins in E. coli. For high-level expression of mature lipoproteins in the C43 (DE3) strain, M9 medium was better than M63 and the rich medium. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of other media factors (including nitrogen and carbon sources, phosphate, ferrous ions, calcium, magnesium, and pH) on the levels of lipoprotein expression. The results showed that excess nitrogen sources and phosphate in M9 medium could increase the amount of immature lipoproteins, and glucose was a better carbon source than glycerol for expressing mature lipoproteins. We also found that lipoproteins tended to be completely processed in the alkaline environment, even in the nutrient-rich medium. Additional constructs expressing different immunogens or lipid signal peptides as targets were also utilized, demonstrating that these targets could be expressed as completely mature lipoproteins in the M9 medium but not in the rich medium. Our results provide the useful information for expressing mature exogenous lipoproteins in E. coli.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2011; 93(4):1539-52. DOI:10.1007/s00253-011-3516-8 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To protect against dengue viral infection, a novel lipidated dengue subunit vaccine was rationally designed to contain the consensus amino acid sequences derived from four serotypes of dengue viruses. We found that the lipidated consensus dengue virus envelope protein domain III (LcED III) is capable of activating antigen-presenting cells and enhancing cellular and humoral immune responses. A single-dose of LcED III immunization in mice without extra adjuvant formulation is sufficient to elicit neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of dengue viruses. In addition, strong memory responses were elicited in mice immunized with a single-dose of LcED III. Quick, anamnestic neutralizing antibody responses to a live dengue virus challenge were elicited at week 28 post-immunization. These results demonstrate the promising possibility of a future successful tetravalent vaccine against dengue viral infections that utilizes one-dose vaccination with LcED III.
    PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e23319. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023319 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

526 Citations
153.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • National Health Research Institutes
      • National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2014
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2011-2014
    • China Medical University (ROC)
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Biological Chemistry
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan