[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial impediment to progress in trials of new therapies in neuromuscular disorders is the absence of responsive outcome measures that correlate with patient functional deficits and are sensitive to early disease processes. Irrespective of the primary molecular defect, neuromuscular disorder pathological processes include disturbance of intramuscular water distribution followed by intramuscular fat accumulation, both quantifiable by MRI. In pathologically distinct neuromuscular disorders, we aimed to determine the comparative responsiveness of MRI outcome measures over 1 year, the validity of MRI outcome measures by cross-sectional correlation against functionally relevant clinical measures, and the sensitivity of specific MRI indices to early muscle water changes before intramuscular fat accumulation beyond the healthy control range.
The Lancet Neurology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00242-2 · 21.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune diseases characterised by muscle weakness and extramuscular manifestations such as skin rashes and interstitial lung disease. We genotyped 2566 IIM cases of Caucasian descent using the Immunochip; a custom array covering 186 established autoimmune susceptibility loci. The cohort was predominantly comprised of patients with dermatomyositis (DM, n=879), juvenile DM (JDM, n=481), polymyositis (PM, n=931) and inclusion body myositis (n=252) collected from 14 countries through the Myositis Genetics Consortium.
The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and PTPN22 regions reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10(-8)). Nine regions were associated at a significance level of p<2.25×10(-5), including UBE2L3, CD28 and TRAF6, with evidence of independent effects within STAT4. Analysis of clinical subgroups revealed distinct differences between PM, and DM and JDM. PTPN22 was associated at genome-wide significance with PM, but not DM and JDM, suggesting this effect is driven by PM. Additional suggestive associations including IL18R1 and RGS1 in PM and GSDMB in DM were identified. HLA imputation confirmed that alleles HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-B*08:01 of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1AH) are most strongly associated with IIM, and provides evidence that amino acids within the HLA, such as HLA-DQB1 position 57 in DM, may explain part of the risk in this locus. Associations with alleles outside the 8.1AH reveal differences between PM, DM and JDM.
This work represents the largest IIM genetic study to date, reveals new insights into the genetic architecture of these rare diseases and suggests different predominating pathophysiology in different clinical subgroups.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2015; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208119 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe recent developments in the genetics of sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM).
Genes located within major histocompatibility complex regions remain the strongest genetic association with sIBM. The rs10527454 polymorphism in the TOMM40 gene seems to have a disease modifying effect on sIBM by delaying the onset of symptoms, and this effect may be enhanced by the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype. Rare variants in the VCP and SQSTM1 genes have been identified in sIBM patients in two studies using targeted next-generation sequencing and whole-exome sequencing. Two studies have confirmed the correlation between the amount of cytochrome c oxidase -deficient fibres and the proportion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in sIBM. Some rare variants in mtDNA-related nuclear genes have also been reported.
There have been advances in the genetics of sIBM over the past 2 years facilitated by the use of next-generation sequencing. Genes that cause hereditary IBM, which has clinical or pathological features resembling sIBM, have provided clues to the genetic basis of sIBM. To date, genes located in major histocompatibility complex regions and genes involved in protein homeostasis or mtDNA maintenance have been implicated in sIBM. Whole-exome sequencing-association studies, RNA sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing in large sIBM cohorts will be key tools to unravel the genetics of sIBM and its contribution to disease aetiopathogenesis.
Current opinion in rheumatology 09/2015; 27(6). DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000213 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease.
Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters.
Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3°, controls 49.3°, p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures.
MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation.
• Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common clinical manifestation of mitochondrial disease. • Existing extra-ocular muscle MRI data in CPEO reports variable radiological findings. • MRI confirmed EOM atrophy and characteristic signal changes in CPEO. • EOM T2 was significantly elevated in CPEO and correlated negatively with ocular movements. • EOM T2 represents a potential quantitative measure of disease severity in CPEO.
European Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3801-5 · 4.01 Impact Factor