[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To explore the activity of pazopanib in solitary fibrous tumour (SFT).
Patients and methods
In a preclinical study, we compared the activity of pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, regorafenib, axitinib and bevacizumab in a dedifferentiated-SFT (DSFT) xenotransplanted into Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Antiangiogenics were administered at their reported optimal doses when mean tumour volume (TV) was 80 mm3. Drug activity was assessed as TV inhibition percentage (TVI%). From May 2012, six consecutive patients with advanced SFT received pazopanib, on a national name-based programme. In one case sunitinib was administered after pazopanib failure.
In the xenograft model, pazopanib showed the lowest antitumour activity (21%TVI), while regorafenib was the most active (95%TVI). Sorafenib, bevacizumab, sunitinib were markedly active (78/70/65%TVI). Axitinib was marginally active (51%TVI).
In the retrospective case-series, three patients carried malignant-SFT (MSFT), three DSFT. Best Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumour (RECIST) responses were: three stable disease (SD), all MSFT, three progressive disease (PD), all DSFT, corresponding to one partial response (PR), two SD, three PD by Choi criteria. Median-progression-free survival was 3 months (range 1–15). In one patient, sunitinib was started after pazopanib failure, with a response.
In dedifferentiated-SFT xenograft pazopanib induced a marginal antitumour activity, while regorafenib appeared the most active and promising agent. When administered in patients, pazopanib showed a modest activity in terms of tumour growth stabilisation, observed only in non-dedifferentiated cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014-0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77-26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.198.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Long-term complete remissions remain a rare exception in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) treated with IM (imatinib). To date the therapeutic relevance of surgical resection of metastatic disease remains unknown except for the use in palliative intent.
Patients and methods
We analyzed overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in consecutive patients with metastatic GIST who underwent metastasectomy and received IM therapy (n=239).
Complete resection (R0+R1) was achieved in 177 patients. Median OS was 8.7y for R0/R1 and 5.3y in pts with R2 resection (p=0.0001). In the group who were in remission at time of resection median OS was not reached in the R0/R1 surgery and 5.1y in the R2-surgery (p=0.0001). Median time to relapse/progression after resection of residual disease was not reached in the R0/R1 and 1.9 years in the R2 group of patients, who were resected in response. No difference in mPFS was seen in patients progressing at time of surgery. Conclusions: Our analysis implicates possible long-term survival in patients in whom surgical complete remission can be achieved. Incomplete resection, including debulking surgery does not seem to prolong survival. Despite the retrospective character and likely selection bias, this analysis may help in decision making for surgical approaches in metastatic GIST.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 01/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Preoperative imatinib therapy of locally advanced GIST may facilitate resection and decrease morbidity of the procedure. METHODS: We have pooled databases from 10 EORTC STBSG sarcoma centers and analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in 161 patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic GISTs who received neoadjuvant imatinib. OS was calculated from start of imatinib therapy for locally advanced disease until death or last follow-up (FU) after resection of the GIST. DFS was calculated from date of resection to date of disease recurrence or last FU. Median FU time was 46 months. RESULTS: The primary tumor was located in the stomach (55 %), followed by rectum (20 %), duodenum (10 %), ileum/jejunum/other (11 %), and esophagus (3 %). The tumor resection after preoperative imatinib (median time on therapy, 40 weeks) was R0 in 83 %. Only two patients have demonstrated disease progression during neoadjuvant therapy. Five-year DSS/DFS rates were 95/65 %, respectively, median OS was 104 months, and median DFS was not reached. There were 56 % of patients who continued imatinib after resection. Thirty-seven GIST recurrences were diagnosed (only 5 local relapses). The most common mutations affected exon 11 KIT (65 %). Poorer DFS was related to primary tumor location in small bowel and lack of postoperative therapy with imatinib. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis comprising the largest group of GIST patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib in routine practice indicates excellent long-term results of combined therapy in locally advanced GISTs.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors carry in about 85% of the cases activating mutations in KIT gene. Generally only one KIT mutation is found in primary tumors and the majority of mutations affecting KIT exon 11 is sensitive to Imatinib.
We report upon a GIST case harboring a double-mutant KIT gene at exon 11, which expresses a receptor bearing the known activating W557G mutation and a newly discovered missense Y578C alteration. The relative affinities for ATP and Imatinib of each single (W557G, Y578C) and double (W557G/Y578C) mutant KITs were predicted by in silico studies (computer-based molecular simulations), and compared with those obtained for known Imatinib sensitive and resistant KIT mutants. In parallel, biochemical analysis of the single and double KIT mutants expressed in mammalian cells was performed. Both the in-silico/in-vitro investigations showed constitutive activation and sensitivity to Imatinib of the yet mentioned Y578C mutation as well as of the double mutant, providing evidence that the concomitant presence of the W557G and Y578C mutations does not affect Imatinib response compare to the single mutations, in line with what observed in Imatinib treated patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors carry in about 85% of the cases activating mutations in KIT gene. Generally only one KIT mutation is found in primary tumors and the majority of mutations affecting KIT exon 11 is sensitive to Imatinib. We report upon a GIST case harboring a double-mutant KIT gene at exon 11, which expresses a receptor bearing the known activating W557G mutation and a newly discovered missense Y578C alteration. The relative affinities for ATP and Imatinib of each single (W557G, Y578C) and double (W557G/Y578C) mutant KITs were predicted by in silico studies (computer-based molecular simulations), and compared with those obtained for known Imatinib sensitive and resistant KIT mutants. In parallel, biochemical analysis of the single and double KIT mutants expressed in mammalian cells was performed. Both the in-silico/in-vitro investigations showed constitutive activation and sensitivity to Imatinib of the yet mentioned Y578C mutation as well as of the double mutant, providing evidence that the concomitant presence of the W557G and Y578C mutations does not affect Imatinib response compare to the single mutations, in line with what observed in Imatinib treated patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two basic mainstays of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) treatment are surgery and imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that allows achieving a stable or responding disease in about 80% of patients with unresectable/metastatic GIST. Response to imatinib mainly depends from KIT and PDGFRα mutational status. Nevertheless, some patients with a potentially responsive genotype do not respond, and others develop a pattern of resistance to imatinib which is not associated with secondary mutations. This emphasizes the presence of mechanisms of resistance other than the receptor-related genotype, and the need of biological predictors to select the optimal therapeutic strategy, particularly now that other potent inhibitors are available. We investigated a panel of 31 polymorphisms in 11 genes, potentially associated with the pharmacogenetics of imatinib, in a group of 54 unresectable/metastatic GISTs treated with imatinib 400mg daily as first line therapy. Included in this analysis were polymorphisms in the transporters' family SLC22, SLCO, ABC, and in the metabolizing genes CYP -3A4 and -3A5. Time to progression was significantly improved in presence of the C allele in SLC22A4 (OCTN1 rs1050152), and the two minor alleles (G) in SLC22A5 (OCTN2 rs2631367 and rs2631372). Importantly, multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, gender, KIT/PDGFRα mutational status, and tumour size, revealed that all the three genotypes maintained independent predictive significance. In conclusion, in this study we showed that SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 genotypes may be an important predictor of time to progression in GIST patients receiving imatinib therapy. Further investigations are required in an attempt to further personalize GIST therapy.
Pharmacological Research 11/2012; · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib was proven to be effective for the adjuvant treatment of localized, surgically excised, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Currently, there is proof that it is able to delay relapse and prolong survival. An effect on cure rate of localized GIST is still to be proven, given the shape of relapse-free survival curves, which apparently tend to overlap after 2-3 years from completion of the adjuvant period. Although observation for a longer follow-up is needed, attempts to prolong adjuvant therapy beyond the currently standard 3 years have been made and the results are awaited. However, the impact of more prolonged adjuvant intervals on secondary resistance is unknown, so that standard practice is still 3 years in most institutions. The adjuvant choice should be based on a rather precise identification of the relapse risk of the single patient, reserving treatment to the high-risk subgroups. The choice also should be personalized on the basis of genotype: generally, PDGFRA D842V mutated and wild-type GIST are excluded. Additional results from completed trials on a longer follow-up are awaited to further refine such "precision" decision-making. There are several instances in which part of the "adjuvant" treatment may be administered preoperatively, even on the face of a surgically resectable GIST, to make surgery more limited and/or safer.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology 06/2012; 13(3):277-84. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) mutations are found in approximately 5% to 7% of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We sought to extensively assess the activity of imatinib in this subgroup.
We conducted an international survey among GIST referral centers to collect clinical data on patients with advanced PDGFRA-mutant GISTs treated with imatinib for advanced disease.
Fifty-eight patients were included, 34 were male (59%), and median age at treatment initiation was 61 (range, 19-83) years. The primary tumor was gastric in 40 cases (69%). Thirty-two patients (55%) had PDGFRA-D842V substitutions whereas 17 (29%) had mutations affecting other codons of exon 18, and nine patients (16%) had mutation in other exons. Fifty-seven patients were evaluable for response, two (4%) had a complete response, eight (14%) had a partial response, and 23 (40%) had stable disease. None of 31 evaluable patients with D842V substitution had a response, whereas 21 of 31 (68%) had progression as their best response. Median progression-free survival was 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6-3.2] months for patients with D842V substitution and 28.5 months (95% CI, 5.4-51.6) for patients with other PDGFRA mutations. With 46 months of follow-up, median overall survival was 14.7 months for patients with D842V substitutions and was not reached for patients with non-D842V mutations.
This study is the largest reported to date on patients with advanced PDGFRA-mutant GISTs treated with imatinib. Our data confirm that imatinib has little efficacy in the subgroup of patients with D842V substitution in exon 18, whereas other mutations appear to be sensitive to imatinib.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2012; 18(16):4458-64. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors to develop in the digestive tract. These tumors are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and only the introduction of imatinib mesylate has improved the prognosis of patients. However, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors are inappropriate for assessing tumor response, and the histological/pathological response to imatinib is variable, heterogeneous, and does not associate with clinical response. The effects of imatinib on responding GISTs are still being explored, and few studies correlate the clinical response with the histological response after pharmacological treatment. Recently, apoptosis and autophagy were suggested as possible alternative mechanisms of pharmacological response.
Here, we used a proteomic approach, combined with other analyses, to identify some molecular stromal components related to the response/behavior of resected, high-risk GISTs after neoadiuvant imatinib therapy.
Our proteomic results indicate an elevated concentration of Stem Cell Growth Factor (SCGF), a hematopoietic growth factor having a role in the development of erythroid and myeloid progenitors, in imatinib-responsive tumor areas. SCGFα expression was detected by mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry and/or western blot and attributed to acellular matrix of areas scored negative for KIT (CD117). RT-PCR results indicated that GIST samples did not express SCGF transcripts. The recently reported demonstration by Gundacker et al. 1 of the secretion of SCGF in mature pro-inflammatory dendritic cells would indicate a potential importance of SCGF in tissue inflammatory response. Accordingly, inflammatory infiltrates were detected in imatinib-affected areas and the CD68-positivity of the SCGF-positive and KIT-negative areas suggested previous infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into these regions. Thus, chronic inflammation subsequent to imatinib treatment may determine monocyte/macrophage recruitment in imatinib-damaged areas; these areas also feature prominent tumor-cell loss that is replaced by dense hyalinization and fibrosis.
Our studies highlight a possible role of SCGFα in imatinib-induced changes of GIST structure, consistent with a therapeutic response.
Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2011; 9:158. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beside the well known "in vivo" and "in vitro" Imatinib resistant D842V mutation in PDGFRA receptor, very few are the information concerning the "in vivo" Imatinib activity with respect to the other PDGFRA mutations for which only "in vitro" data are available. Two patients carrying PDGFRA mutations in exons 18 (involving residues DIMH842-845) and 12 (V561D), respectively, were treated with Imatinib at a dose of 400 mg/day. According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, after a median treatment of 7 months both patients showed clinical partial response, and underwent surgery of the minimal residual disease. Tumor response was confirmed pathologically. In both patients, analyses of PDGFRA performed on pre- and/or post-treatment material were compared to affinity data of the mutated receptor towards the inhibitor. Molecular modeling evidence was found to be consistent with sensitivity of mutated PDGFRA receptors to Imatinib. Thus, the "in vivo" evidence that these two mutations of PDGFRA are sensitive to Imatinib was confirmed by a multidimensional approach comprising "in silico" experiments that, in association to molecular and biochemical analyses, constitutes a powerful tool to predict Imatinib sensitivity, clinically beneficial in the treatment of these tumors with molecularly targeted therapies.
International Journal of Cancer 02/2011; 128(4):983-90. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GISTs have become a model for the use of novel target therapies in solid tumors. Thanks to the constitutive activation of
KIT or PDGFRA receptor, due to oncogene mutations, they can be targeted effectively by anti-tyrosine kinase agents. Currently,
In the first-line therapy of advanced GISTs, imatinib has brought median survival from around one to 5 years. Tumor response
rate Is high and predictable through the mutational status of the disease. Indeed, different drugs may exert a different antitumor
effect against different muations. Patterns of tumor response are representative of the antltumor effect of target therapy
in solid tumors and In GISTs reflect a myxoid tissue degeneration. Imatinib Is administered Indefinitely, until progression
(or toxicity, which however Is usually limited). Secondary resistance is the limiting factor of target therapy. In GISTs,
It emerges after a median of 2 years from starting Imatinib, even though a proportion of advanced patients become long-term
progression-free survivors. Sunitinib Is the standard second-line therapy, and new agents are under study. It Is unknown whether
adjuvant complete surgery of responding residual metastases may impact the risk of secondary resistance. On the contrary,
there is evidence that Imatinib following surgery of localized disease delays recurrences in significant-risk GIST patients,
although it is still unknown if the relapse rate will decrease. The optimal duration of adjuvant therapy is unknown as well.
KeywordsGastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)–Imatinib–Sunitinib–Target therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib as a single agent or in combination with imatinib in patients with advanced imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
A phase I intercohort dose-escalation trial was done in patients who received either (a) single agent nilotinib 400 mg twice daily or (b) escalating doses of nilotinib (200 mg once daily, 400 mg qd, or 400 mg bid) plus imatinib 400 mg bid (10- and 14-hour interval daily), or (c) nilotinib 400 mg bid plus imatinib 400 mg qd. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and tumor assessments were done.
Oral clearance (CL/F) of nilotinib was similar across the combination groups (mean CL/F, 19.1-25.6 L/h), and lower than in the single-agent cohort (mean CL/F, 35.6 L/h). A linear relationship between nilotinib daily dose and peak concentration was observed in the combination cohorts. Observed adverse events (AE) were mostly nonhematologic. Frequently reported AEs were rash (40%), fatigue (38%), abdominal pain (36%), and nausea (36%). Severe AEs (grade 3 or 4) included abdominal pain (13%) and rash (9%), the latter mainly with the combination. Thirty-eight patients had stable disease and two patients achieved partial response with a median progression-free survival of 134 days for the entire group.
Nilotinib alone or in combination with imatinib was well tolerated overall and showed clinical activity in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. This phase I trial identified single-agent nilotinib 400 mg bid or combined with imatinib 400 mg qd as possible phase II doses for further evaluation.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2009; 15(18):5910-6. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L576P is a rare KIT mutation often reported in cancers other than gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In GISTs, it correlates with features linked to an aggressive phenotype, eventually resulting in secondary mutations. In vitro findings point out that L576P/KIT is constitutively activated, and shows poor imatinib sensitivity. In this work, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses, coupled with mutational-molecular analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, were applied to surgical specimens. In parallel, the affinities of wild-type, L576P/KIT, and Delta559/KIT for imatinib were estimated by in silico studies. Despite imatinib treatment and the apparent clinical-imaging response, the detected histological response was very low. KIT resulted, expressed and activated in absence of secondary mutations, BRAF/NRAS mutations, and KIT/PDGFRA gene alterations. Computer modeling proved that L576P/KIT is two times less sensitive than the wild-type counterpart and considerably less affine to imatinib than the sensitive Delta559/KIT. Accordingly, the modeling evidence strongly supports the lack of tumoral regression we observed at the histological level.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2009; 8(9):2491-5. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although apoptosis (programmed cell death type I) is more frequently reported in the literature in imatinib-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cell lines,morphological features consistent with autophagic changes aremore often encountered in surgical specimens of treated patients. Autophagy (programmed cell death type II) is highly regulated by a tumor-suppressor mechanism that mainly involves the genes beclin1, PI3KIII, and bcl2. Being our material not suitable for electron microscopy analysis (not paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde-fixed), we evaluated the morphological, biochemical, and immunophenotypical profiles expected to be related to autophagy and apoptosis in a series of surgically resected samples taken from 11 imatinib-treated patients with molecularly characterized GISTs. The samples were examined for imatinib-induced morphological changes, the presence/interactions of the autophagic-related proteins (beclin1, PI3KIII, bcl2, and LC3-II) and the presence of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 7, and lamin A/C) by means ofWestern blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation, complemented by immunohistochemistry. We also studied samples of two untreated GISTs used as controls. Sampling areas with different residual cellularity scores fromboth the imatinib-treated and untreated patients showed biochemical and immunohistochemical evidence of high levels of proautophagy beclin1/PI3KIII and low levels of antiautophagy beclin1/bcl2 complexes, together with the presence of LC3-II detected by Western blot analysis, thus supporting the presence of autophagy. There was no expression of cleaved/activated caspase 3 or 7 or cleaved lamin A/C. Our descriptive results support the idea that GISTs activate autophagy rather than apoptosis in response to imatinib treatment and that their molecular makeup includes fingerprints of autophagy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the effect of preoperative imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients with unresectable or locally advanced primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
From January 2003 to January 2008, all patients affected by bulky localized GIST who presented at our institution were considered for preoperative IM with cytoreductive intent. Clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics were assessed and the rate of response recorded. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated according to Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Fifteen patients (1 esophageal, 7 gastric, 3 duodenal, 4 rectal GISTs) received preoperative IM for a median of 9 months. All patients had tumor shrinkage, with a median size reduction of 34%. One patient had radiological complete response. In all cases an improvement of the originally planned surgical procedure was obtained: 3 patients initially considered unresectable underwent complete surgery; 7 patients with initial indication for extensive surgery were more conservatively operated on; 4 patients initially deemed at high perioperative risk underwent safe surgery. Due to the small sample size, no association between tumor shrinkage and tumor site, size, IM duration, mutational status and pathological response could be formally explored. PFS at 3 years from IM onset was 77%.
In unresectable or locally advanced GISTs, preoperative IM is a useful tool both to improve resectability and reduce surgical morbidity. It should be therefore always be considered before embarking on a major surgical procedure. The long-term impact of IM on PFS and survival is presently under investigation in multicenter prospective randomized trials.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 01/2009; 35(7):739-45. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the range of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors widens, a detailed understanding of the activating mechanisms of KIT/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)A and the related downstream pathways involved in the development and maintenance of GISTs is becoming increasingly important. We analysed areas with different histological response ratios in surgical specimens taken from imatinib-treated and untreated GIST patients in order to investigate KIT and PDGFRA expression/activation, the presence of their cognate ligands and the activation of downstream signalling, by means of biochemistry, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. All of the cases showed KIT and PDGFRA co-expression. In addition to the oncogenic activation of mutated receptors, activation of wild-type KIT and wild-type PDGFRA, sustained by heterodimerization and an autocrine-paracrine loop, was demonstrated by the presence of their specific ligands, stem cell factor (SCF) and PDGFA. To confirm RTK activation further, all of the samples (including those with the highest regression ratios) were investigated for downstream effectors, and all proved to have activated downstream signalling. The results show that after the mutated receptors are switched off, heterologous wild-type receptors become important in imatinib-treated GISTs as a means of maintaining signalling activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that drugs targeting wild-type receptors should be tested in imatinib-treated GIST patients.
The Journal of Pathology 09/2008; 217(1):103-12. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib mesylate is a molecular-targeted agent, shown to be effective in chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The latter may currently serve as a model on which speculating how the future of molecular-targeted therapy in solid tumors will be. So far, some lessons have been learnt. 1) Molecular-targeted therapy can be effective in the advanced disease setting, resulting in major tumor responses. 2) Patterns of tumor responses may be peculiar, radiologically and pathologically. 3) Anti-tumor activity may be highly predictable by assessing tumor molecular biology. 4) The methodology of clinical development of molecular-targeted agents may differ from standard chemotherapy in some respects, because, say, the preclinical rationale may be stronger, thus increasing the Bayesian prior probability of efficacy, or the optimal dose cannot be determined separately from the assessment of activity and efficacy. 5) Molecular-targeted agents will hardly remain "orphan drugs", if effective. 6) While an obvious impact on survival in the advanced disease setting has been clearly demonstrated, the biologic and clinical impact of molecular-targeted therapy still needs to be elucidated. Its eradicating capabilities, as well as the implications of secondary resistance, are to be understood. 7) Integrated, multimodality approaches, including surgery, may still be of value in the molecular-targeted therapy era.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To the authors' knowledge, no effective medical therapy currently is available for advanced chordoma. Imatinib mesylate is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRB), BCR-ABL, and KIT.
Six patients with advanced chordoma were treated with imatinib mesylate at a dose of 800 mg daily. In all patients, the tumor was found to be positive for PDGFRB, and in four patients PDGFRB was shown to be phosphorylated/expressed.
After a treatment period of > or = 1 year, overt tumor liquefaction was evident on computed tomography (CT) scan in the first patient. In previous months, a decrease in contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a decrease in glucose uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) were detected. Similar signs on MRI and PET were observed in subsequent patients, who had a shorter treatment period. One of these patients initially was removed from therapy and then was readmitted to therapy because of difficulties with regard to tumor response assessment; 1 month after the reinitiation of therapy, an overt decrease in tumor density was visible on CT scan in this patient. In four of five symptomatic patients, a subjective improvement was observed early in the course of treatment. The first patient died after 17 months, with a sizeable, mostly liquefied mass. Another patient died early, apparently of unrelated causes. The remaining patients were on therapy at the time of last follow-up.
Imatinib mesylate has been found to have antitumor activity in patients with chordoma. This activity might be mediated by inactivation of PDGFRB. Tumor response manifests through patterns that are similar to those observed in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors who respond to molecular-targeted therapy, but evolves more slowly. The benefit to the patient entailed by this pattern of tumor response in chordoma needs to be elucidated, but may be limited in the presence of significant local disease.
Cancer 11/2004; 101(9):2086-97. · 5.20 Impact Factor