Wiesław W. Sułkowski

University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (81)101.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing amount of waste plastics has become an environmental problem on a global scale. This study presents an investigation of the conditions of cleaning water from heavy metal ions using chemically recycled polystyrene. To get effective ion exchangers, the sulfonation of virgin polystyrene and expanded polystyrene wastes were obtained using silica sulfuric acid. As it turned out, the use of this solid sulfonating agent simplifies the separation of the polymeric product from the acid and the solvent in comparison to conventional sulfonation methods. The ion exchange behavior of copper and zinc cations in the yielded sulfonated derivatives of polystyrene was studied. Batch shaking adsorption experiments depending on contact time, pH, temperature, and dosage of adsorbate were carried out. The stability of resin to cyclical adsorption and regeneration (column experiment) was also investigated. We report that resins have a high adsorption efficiency with total ion exchange capacity (IEC) about 2.6 meq g−1, which drops with decreasing pH owing to competition between protons H+ and metal cations, whereas with the increasing resin doses the removal of cations rises for a constant initial metal concentration. The speed of cation exchange for yielded adsorbents was even better than for commercial resins. After 360 cyclical adsorption and regeneration in column, resin had working IEC of about 2.3 meq g−1. The study shows that cation exchange resin from polystyrene wastes can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 06/2013; 128(5). · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Spectroscopy Letters 10/2012; 45(7):520-529. · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • W. W. Sułkowski, K. Nowak, A. Sułkowska
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    ABSTRACT: The solid silica sulfuric acid was used to heterogeneous sulfonation of polystyrene waste dissolved in organic solvent. After sulfonation, small suspended particles of polystyrene derivatives were easily separated from much bigger particles of silica sulfuric acid by filtration and from solvent mostly by decantation and additionally by evaporation. The characteristics of adsorption of heavy metal cations on resins from polystyrene were compared with that of commercial resins. It was proved that synthesized resins are effective cation exchangers. The advantage of obtained resins was their high rate of metal removal.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 01/2012; 556(1):25-38. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermogravimetric analysis was applied for indication of the thermal stability of polyurethane-rubber composites received from polyurethane and rubber waste. The results of the thermogravimetric analysis show that the decomposition of rubber granulate depends on the speed of heating. It starts within the temperature range from 320°C to 360°C and is completed at the temperature range from 500°C to 550°C. The evaporation of small-molecular substances probably takes place below 300°C. At temperatures above 320°C, two-stage decomposition of rubber and polyurethane-rubber waste composites was observed. The low temperature decomposition of rubber probably corresponds to the decomposition of natural rubber (NR) while the high temperature decomposition corresponds to decomposition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) or/and butadiene rubber (BR). The thermogravimetric studies of the polyurethanes obtained from different isocyanates showed that the increase of thermal stability depends on the isocyanate used. The one-stage decompositions of different polyurethanes were observed. Polyurethane-rubber composites undergo two-stage decomposition. Thus, the low temperature decomposition of composites may be connected to the decomposition of suitable polyurethane and NR, and the high temperature decomposition may be connected to the decomposition of SBR or/and BR as it was observed for rubber granulate.Tested samples of composites contained polyols of the trade name Recypol® 201 and Recypol®601 received from used polyurethane foam and of rubber recyclate received from tyres in the form of a granulate of dimensions ranging from 1.5 to 2.0 mm. The percentage ratio of polyurethane glue/rubber granulate: 5/95; 7.5/92.5; 10/90 was chosen. The profiles of composites were held at the temperature of 90°C for 90 min under the load of and 2 ·10 Pa. Thermogravimetric analysis of the samples was conducted using Perkin Elmer TGA PYRIS. Measurements were performed at the temperatures from 25°C to 900°C, with heating rates of 20°C/min, 40°C/min, 80°C/min using nitrogen as the purge gas. The value of the apparent activation energy of decomposition processes of the composites is reported.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 01/2012; 556(1):39-51. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of theworkwas the successful encapsulation of etoposide (ETO) and vinorelbine (VIN). Liposomes made from dipalmitylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), liposomes containing both drugs (DPPC/ETO/VIN) and control liposomes DPPC/ETOand DPPC/VIN were prepared by the mREV method at 328 K. Liposome entrapped drugs were separated from free drugs by ultracentrifugation. The degree of encapsulation of drugs into liposome vesicles DPPC/ETO, DPPC/VIN and DPPC/ETO/VIN was estimated using UV spectrofluorescence after ultracentrifugation. The phase transition temperature was determined for all types of liposomes. The encapsulation efficiency, which is a measure of the percentage of the total compound entrapped within the liposome, is also determined.
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,. 01/2012; 555:218–224.
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    ABSTRACT: The compounds and complexes of vanadium are used to treat diabetes and cancer. Research on the effectiveness and mechanism of action of new derivatives of vanadium, and their toxicity is currently very intense. The research shows that the vanadium(IV) acetylacetonate complex [VO(acac)2] shows a synergism with insulin in treating diabetes, high pharmacological activity and low toxicity. In order to improve the effectiveness of drugs and minimize their toxicity, the active compounds are often closed in the liposome membranes. The objective of the work was preparation of bilayer liposomes from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), closing the complex VO(acac)2 in these membranes and estimating the concentration of vanadium complex after incorporation into liposomes membranes. Due to the paramagnetic properties of vanadium(IV) the concentration of this metal complex can be determined directly by EPR. Entering the spin label CTPO in the water phase into the studied arrangement allows for the indirect measurement of the concentration of complex, on the basis of changes of the EPR spectrum of the spin label caused by the presence of the vanadium(IV) complex. In the work the dependence of the α parameter based on the analysis of CTPO EPR spectra on the concentration of VO(acac)2 was determined. To demonstrate the presence of the complex in the membrane directly by measuring the EPR sulfate(IV) sodium was used in order to remove the EPR signal of vanadium(IV) from the water phase. The presence of vanadium(IV) in the membrane was also demonstrated indirectly using a spin label 12-SASL. Based on the results of EPR spectroscopy the concentration of the complex in the membrane was determined together with the partition coefficient of VO(acac)2 between the membrane and outer water environment of the membrane.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals - MOL CRYST LIQUID CRYST. 01/2012; 554(1):195-208.
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of ketoprofen (KP, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and indapamide (IDP, a thiazide-related diuretic) with human serum albumin (HSA) in low-affinity binding sites (LAS) and competition between these medicines used in multidrug therapy have been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy.The analysis of chemical shifts, Δσ (ppm), of drug proton resonances and the values of the association constant, Ka [M], were used to estimate the effect of IDP and KP on the KP–HSA and IDP–HSA complexes, respectively. The results showed the changes in the affinity of human serum albumin toward the drug with different mechanisms of action (KP and IDP) and the competition in the binding to HSA.
    Spectroscopy Letters 01/2012; 45(6):365-371. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Danuta Pentak, Wiesław W. Sułkowski, Anna Sułkowska
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to encapsulate two drugs: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with the hydrophobic properties and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) with the amphiphilic properties into liposomes prepared by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV) from L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC). We studied the thermotropic phase behavior of liposome entrapped 5-FU and Ara-C. It is known that the stability of liposomes depends not only on the method of chemical gradient loading, the use of membrane stabilizer such as sterols, but also on the phase transition temperature (T c) of phospholipids, which undergoes an alteration after encapsulation of drugs to liposomes. The competition of these two drugs entrapped in liposomes was analyzed by the use of two spectroscopies: 1H NMR and UV on the basis of the analysis of the signals of each drug in the liposome—drug system. The percent of encapsulation in DPPC/Ara-C/5-FU liposome obtained by the use of UV spectroscopy amounted 93.84 and 96.05% for 5-FU and Ara-C, respectively. Phase transition temperature T c of liposomes containing Ara-C did not significantly change while for the liposomes containing 5-FU it increased in comparison with T c of the reference liposomes formed from DPPC. KeywordsLiposome–Multidrug therapy–mREV–NMR–UV
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2012; 108(1):67-71. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and aspirin (ASA), two drugs recommended in rheumatoid diseases (RDs), when binding to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumins, has been studied by quenching of fluorescence and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR) techniques. On the basis of spectrofluorescence measurements high affinity binding sites of PBZ and ASA on albumin as well as their interaction within the binding sites were described. A low affinity binding site has been studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using fluorescence spectroscopy the location of binding site in serum albumin (SA) for PBZ and ASA was found. Association constants K(a) were determined for binary (i.e. PBZ-SA and ASA-SA) and ternary complexes (i.e. PBZ-[ASA]-SA and ASA-[PBZ]-SA). PBZ and ASA change the affinity of each other to the binding site in serum albumin (SA). The presence of ASA causes the increase of association constants K(aI) of PBZ-SA complex. Similarly, PBZ influences K(aI) of ASA-SA complex. This phenomenon shows that the strength of binding and the stability of the complexes increase in the presence of the second drug. The decrease of K(aII) values suggests that the competition between PBZ and ASA in binding to serum albumin in the second class of binding sites occurs. The analysis of (1)HNMR spectral parameters i.e. changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicate that the presence of ASA weakens the interaction of PBZ with albumin. Similarly PBZ weakens the interaction of ASA with albumin. This conclusion points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 08/2011; 82(1):181-90. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • J Polak, M Bartoszek, M Ządło, A Kos, W W Sułkowski
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    ABSTRACT: Goczałkowice Reservoir is the biggest water reservoir in the south of Poland. For our studies bottom sediments were collected from eight different places of the reservoir at various seasons of the year. EPR spectroscopy was applied to analyse both quantitatively and qualitatively the humic acids (HA) present in the samples. EPR spectra of the extracted HA exhibited broad lines from the paramagnetic metal ions and narrow lines from free radicals. The values of the free radical concentration obtained for HA amounted to 1.14-13.6 × 1016 spin g(-1) depending on the season and the place of sample collection. The values of the g factor obtained for HA were of the range 2.0027-2.0035. The EPR studies show that HA extracted from bottom sediment collected at various points of the Goczałkowice Reservoir exhibit similar physical-chemical properties. It was also observed that the depth of the reservoir affects the content of the oxygen functional groups as well as the free radical concentration in HA. The identification of the functional groups was done by means of IR. UV/VIS spectroscopy was used to estimate the maturity of the HA.
    Chemosphere 06/2011; 84(11):1548-55. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fluorescence characteristic of the “alkaline-ageing” process was performed. The quenching of the aged form of human serum albumin (AHSA) fluorescence by acrylamide (Ac) was smaller than that of native HSA, in contrast to the negatively charged anion iodide quencher. The comparison of quenching of fluorescence probes ANS and DNSA bound to aged and native forms of HSA allows for the conclusion that “alkaline-ageing process” causes an increase of hydrophobicity within the binding site located in subdomain IIA. This conclusion was confirmed by the F coefficients calculated for the emission fluorescence spectra of A- and N-forms of HSA excited at 295 nm and 275 nm which show that the increase of hydrophobicity is more significant within tyrosyl than within tryptophanyl residues.The binding constants metronidazole–HSA as well as the number of the class of binding sites were determined by the use of the Scatchard and Klotz-plot analysis. Ageing of HSA causes an increase of the quenching constant determined from the Stern–Volmer equation for λex 275 nm. However ageing does not affect the KQ value for λex 295 nm.The influence of ageing of human serum albumin on its surface hydrophobicity was also studied with the use of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) as the fluorescence probe. At the ANS fluorescence excitation wavelength λex 360 nm the change in surface hydrophobicity is not observed for both N- and A-forms of HSA. The increase of surface hydrophobicity of the A-form in comparison with that of the native form at λex 295 nm indicates that within subdomain IIA an alteration of HSA conformation takes place.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 01/2011; 993:477-484. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The influence of phenylbutazone (Phe) and methotrexate (MTX) on binding of MTX and Phe to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin in the low-affinity binding sites is investigated. The strength and kind of interactions between serum albumin (SA) and drugs used in combination therapy were found using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. A stoichiometric molar ratios for Phe–SA and MTX–SA complexes are 36:1 and 31:1, respectively. It appeared these molar ratios are higher for the ternary systems than it were in the binary ones. The presence of the additional drug (MTX or Phe) causes the increase of an affinity of albumin towards Phe and MTX. It was found that the aliphatic groups of MTX are more resistant to the influence of Phe on the MTX–SA complex than the aromatic rings. The results showed the important impact of another drug (MTX or Phe) on the affinity of SA towards Phe and MTX in the low-affinity bind-ing sites. This work is a subsequent part of the spectroscopic study on Phe–MTX–SA interactions (Macia ˛ _ zek-Jurczyk, 2009 [1]).
    Journal of Molecular Structure 01/2011; 993:302-307. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of phenylbutazone (Phe) and methotrexate (MTX) on binding of MTX and Phe to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin in the low-affinity binding sites is investigated. The strength and kind of interactions between serum albumin (SA) and drugs used in combination therapy were found using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A stoichiometric molar ratios for Phe–SA and MTX–SA complexes are 36:1 and 31:1, respectively. It appeared these molar ratios are higher for the ternary systems than it were in the binary ones. The presence of the additional drug (MTX or Phe) causes the increase of an affinity of albumin towards Phe and MTX. It was found that the aliphatic groups of MTX are more resistant to the influence of Phe on the MTX–SA complex than the aromatic rings. The results showed the important impact of another drug (MTX or Phe) on the affinity of SA towards Phe and MTX in the low-affinity binding sites.This work is a subsequent part of the spectroscopic study on Phe–MTX–SA interactions (Maciążek-Jurczyk, 2009 [1]).
    Journal of Molecular Structure 01/2011; 993:302-307. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the investigation was the dynamic thermo-mechanical analysis (DMTA) study of the polyurethane-rubber composites obtained from used polymer products. Polyols obtained in the glycolysis process from used semi-rigid polyurethane foams, hardened by diphenylmethane 4,4′-diisocyanate (MDI) and rubber granules obtained from mechanical granulation of used car tyres were used to receive polyurethane-rubber composites. On the basis of the DMTA spectra the glass transition temperature Tg was determined. The analysis of loss module E′′ allowed us to observe two relaxation processes for polyurethane-waste rubber composites α – originating from the rubber and α′ – from the polyurethane glue. The dependence of the changes of activation energy of relaxation processes with the change of weight ratio of polyurethane glue in polyurethane-waste rubber composites was observed.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals. 12/2010; 523(1):173/[745]-181/[753].
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    ABSTRACT: In this study waste polystyrene foam and virgin polystyrene as a reference materials were converted by chemical reactions under heterogeneous conditions into useful products. Polymeric flocculants were obtained from polystyrene during the sulfonation with sulfuric acid as the sulfonating agent and Ag2SO4 as the catalyst. The influence of temperature and time of reaction on the properties of the products were studied. The products were successfully used as flocculants in the treatment of the waste water. Solid silica sulfuric acid was also used to convert polystyrene. In comparison with the conventional sulfonation methods this sulfonating agent simplifies the reaction and makes easier separation of products from acid and solvent. The obtained products were cross-linked and exhibited cation-exchange properties. The batch method was used to study purification of solutions of Zn2+ and Cu2+ by the yielded resins. The performed study proved the usefulness of waste polystyrene derivatives for water treatment process.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals. 12/2010; 523(1):218/[790]-227/[799].
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to encapsulate two drugs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) with the hydrophobic properties and 5-Formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroyl-L-glutamic acid calcium salt (leucovorin) with the hydrophilic properties into liposomes prepared by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV) from L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC). The drugs are used in the anticancer multidrug therapy FLv (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin) and ELF (etoposide, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil). We studied the competition for their encapsulation in liposomes by the use of two spectroscopies: 1H NMR and UV on the basis of the analysis of the signals of each drug in the liposome – drug system. Liposomes are highly versatile structures for research, therapeutic and analytical applications. We concluded that the liposomes obtained by the mREV method may transport more than one drug simultaneously.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 12/2010; 523(1):282/[854]-288/[860]. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BSA Binding site Chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I) 3-MaleimidoPROXYL EPR a b s t r a c t EPR spectroscopy was applied to determine the binding site of chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I), (ClAu-PEt 3), in bovine serum albumin (BSA). The EPR spectrum of the spin marker covalently bonded to the sul-phydryl group of polypeptide chain shows the presence of two 3-maleimidoPROXYL populations which differ in their way of immobilization. The first population shows the spin marker with a strongly restricted rotation due to hydrogen bonds between the oxygen of the label agent nitroxyl group and hydrogen atoms of the polypeptide chain with possible participation of water. The second population contains the spin marker bound with Cys-34 sulphydryl group located outside the crevice between heli-ces h2 and h3, weakly immobilized by water hydrogen bonds. The addition of ClAuPEt 3 results in the changes of the shape of spin labeled albumin EPR spectra. The displacement of 3-maleimidoPROXYL is observed below ClAuPEt 3 :BSA molar ratio 0.5:1. It is possible that above this molar ratio another bonding of the displaced spin marker takes place, having a high freedom of movement. EPR spectra, recorded after dialysis, show displacement of 3-maleimidoPROXYL molecules and the competition between AuPEt 3 and the spin marker to the mutual binding site with cysteine residue.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 03/2010; 970:106-110. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence studies on furosemide (FUR) binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed the existence of three or four binding sites in the tertiary structure of the protein. Two of them are located in subdomain IIA, while the others in subdomains IB and/or IIIA. Furosemide binding in subdomain IB is postulated on the basis of run of Stern-Volmer plot indicating the existence of two populations of tryptophans involved in the interaction with FUR. In turn, the significant participation of tyrosil residues in complex formation leads to the consideration of the subdomain IIIA as furosemide low-affinity binding site. The effect of increasing concentration of fatty acid on FUR binding in all studied binding sites was also investigated and compared with the previous results obtained for human serum albumin (HSA). For BSA the lesser impact of fatty acid on affinity between drug and albumin was observed. This is probably a result of more significant role of tyrosines in the complex formation and different polarity of microenvironment of the fluorophores when compared HSA and BSA. The most distinct differences between FUR-BSA and FUR-HSA binding parameters are observed when third fatty acid molecule is bound with the protein and rotation of domains I and II occurs. However these structural changes mostly affect FUR low affinity binding sites.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 02/2010; 76(1):6-11. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Used polymer plastics have high fuel values (approximately 40 MJ/kg for polyolefines). Therefore, they constitute perfect energy materials. Thermodestruction of used products and wastes of polymer plastics on specialized installations seems to be a long-term method to manage this group of wastes in chemical recycling with the destination to obtain fuel ingredients. Application of this technology allows for reduction the quantity of municipal waste. This enables also to obtain the valuable fuel components. In the Department of Environment Chemistry and Technology of Institute of Chemistry at the University of Silesia and in enterprises using the installation for the thermodestruction of used polymer plastics it was studied influence of different catalyst on course of thermodestruction. According to an innovatory technology elaborated in the enterprise called “Speranda-1” Sp. z o.o. the dirty used products of polymer plastics and wastes after melting flow down to the bottom part of the reactor, where they undergo thermal degradation due to a contact with the catalyst.It was ascertained that type of catalyst influences the course of the primary and secondary destruction processes and is of fundamental importance for capacity of this process and for the composition of the obtained products.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals - MOL CRYST LIQUID CRYST. 01/2010; 523(1).
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: EPR spectroscopy was applied to determine the binding site of chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I), (ClAuPEt3), in bovine serum albumin (BSA). The EPR spectrum of the spin marker covalently bonded to the sulphydryl group of polypeptide chain shows the presence of two 3-maleimidoPROXYL populations which differ in their way of immobilization. The first population shows the spin marker with a strongly restricted rotation due to hydrogen bonds between the oxygen of the label agent nitroxyl group and hydrogen atoms of the polypeptide chain with possible participation of water. The second population contains the spin marker bound with Cys-34 sulphydryl group located outside the crevice between helices h2 and h3, weakly immobilized by water hydrogen bonds. The addition of ClAuPEt3 results in the changes of the shape of spin labeled albumin EPR spectra. The displacement of 3-maleimidoPROXYL is observed below ClAuPEt3:BSA molar ratio 0.5:1. It is possible that above this molar ratio another bonding of the displaced spin marker takes place, having a high freedom of movement. EPR spectra, recorded after dialysis, show displacement of 3-maleimidoPROXYL molecules and the competition between AuPEt3 and the spin marker to the mutual binding site with cysteine residue.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 01/2010; 970:106-110. · 1.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

328 Citations
101.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2012
    • University of Silesia in Katowice
      • Institute of Chemistry
      Katowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2003–2011
    • Medical University of Silesia in Katowice
      • Department of Physical Pharmacy
      Catowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1995
    • Czestochowa University of Technology
      Tschenstochau, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland