[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered an useful method in the evaluation of many cardiac disorders. Based on our experience and available literature, we wrote a document as a guiding tool in the clinical use of CMR. Synthetically we describe different cardiac disorders and express for each one a classification, I to IV, depending on the significance of diagnostic information expected.
La radiologia medica 11/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We sought to assess the effectiveness of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) through a retrospective review of 6 years' experience at a single centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2005 to August 2011, 222 patients affected by abdominal aortic aneurysms underwent EVAR. We evaluated primary technical success, postprocedural mortality, intraprocedural and postprocedural complications with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. RESULTS: The procedures were elective in 75.7% and urgent due to symptomatic or ruptured aneurysm in 24.3%. Technical success was 98.6%; three patients (1.4%) required conversion to open surgery. Postoperative mortality rate was 24% for urgent and 2.3% for elective procedures. During a mean follow-up period of 29.6 months, no cases of stent-graft migration were observed; the overall incidence of endoleaks was 27% (60/222) and comprised four type I (1.8%) and one type III (0.45%), all treated by stent-graft extension, and 55 type 2 (24.8%), eight of which (14.5%) were treated by percutaneous injection of thrombin. In 10/222 cases (4.5%), thrombotic occlusion of the iliac extension was detected, which was successfully treated by transcatheter intra-arterial thrombolysis. One patient developed stent-graft infection requiring surgical explantation. Average hospital stay was 4 days, and average time in intensive care was 2 days. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the literature data, our study confirms the safety and long-term efficacy of EVAR for treating AAA.
La radiologia medica 11/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We evaluated the effectiveness of endovascular treatment with percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA)/stenting of transplanted renal artery stenosis (TRAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2010, 17 patients (4 women, 13 men; mean age 60.9 years) with TRAS underwent PTA/stenting. The parameters analysed were: technical success, pre- and post-treatment serum creatinine (SCr) and blood pressure (BP), average number of antihypertensive drugs administered before and after treatment and vessel patency on colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and once a year thereafter. RESULTS: Technical success was 100%. During a mean follow-up of 28.3±18.7 months, there was a statistically significant reduction in SCr and BP values. In 18 % of cases, moderate (<60%) restenosis was observed on CDUS without renal failure and not requiring new treatment. There was a reduction in antihypertensive drugs from an average of 3.5±0.5 to 1.5±0.5. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the literature data, our experience shows that endovascular treatment with PTA/stenting is a safe and effective option for managing TRAS and can thus be considered the method of choice.
La radiologia medica 10/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to identify tumoural infiltration of peri-enhancing brain tissue in patients with glioblastoma by means of perfusion computed tomography (PCT) parameters, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability surface (PS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients with surgically treated glioblastoma who were eligible for radiotherapy and nine patients with brain metastases from lung and breast cancer underwent CT before and after injection of contrast medium. CBV and PS were calculated in the contrast-enhancing lesion area, in the area of perilesional oedema and in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), normalised to contralateral symmetrical areas. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for normalised CBV (nCBV) and nPS in NAWM regions between metastasis and glioma. Significant differences in nPS (p<0.005) were found between the typically vasogenic oedema surrounding the metastases and signal alteration surrounding the glial neoplasm. On the contrary, no significant differences were detected in the same areas for nCBV. CONCLUSIONS: PCT can analyse the histopathological substrate underlying the hypodense peritumoural halo and differentiate between vasogenic oedema and neoplastic infiltration on the basis of the PS parameter. In our study, PS was more informative than CBV. These findings can be used to integrate plans for radiation therapy and/or surgery.
La radiologia medica 08/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was done to determine the diagnostic value of whole-body magnetic resonance using diffusion-weighted imaging with background suppression (WB-DWIBS) for detecting bone metastases compared with whole-body bone scintigraphy (WB-BS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with solid tumours underwent both WB-DWIBS imaging and WBBS. A nuclear medicine specialist interpreted WB-BS images and two blinded radiologists, first independently and then jointly, interpreted the WB-DWIBS images by completing a reading grid categorising the skeletal segments. Cohen's k statistic was used to determine interobserver agreement in reading the WB-DWIBS images and the agreement between WB-BS and WB-DWIBS. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated per patient and per lesion. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement in reading the WBDWIBS images was substantial or good, with κ=0.68. Analysis of agreement between the nuclear physician's and the radiologists' readings provided κ=0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76-0.98)] Per-lesion analysis gave a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI=75-85) and a specificity of 98.2% (95% CI=96.5-99.8). CONCLUSIONS: We found a good level of interobserver agreement for the WB-DWIBS images and an excellent level of agreement in the subjective judgement of presence or absence of disease between WB-BS and WB-DWIBS after consensual double reading. WB-DWIBS has the same specificity as WB-BS in detecting bone metastases. The anatomical sites exhibiting the highest level of disagreement between WB-DWIBS and WB-BS are the pelvis, the coccyx, and the sternum, all sites at which detection with WB-BS has the greatest limitations.
La radiologia medica 08/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatic artery is the second most common site for aneurysms formation within the splanchnic circulation. Most hepatic artery aneurysms (HAA) are diagnosed incidentally by a computed tomography(CT) scan or a Doppler ultrasonography. We present the case of a HAA diagnosed preoperatively in a 82-year old man, who was treated with an endovascular procedure. An abdominal ultrasonography revealed by chance the presence of a HAA. The abdominal CT scan confirmed an aneurysm of the common hepatic artery, specifically at the origin of the gastroduodenal artery. The gastroduodenal artery was embolized using coils then a heparin-bonded covered stent was deployed into the common hepatic artery to exclude the aneurysm. Final arteriogram documented the regular patency of the stent and the complete exclusion of the aneurysm. No complication occurred and the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day. Six months later, a follow-up with a Duplex scan confirmed the regular patency of the stent, and the patient was in good clinical conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are a rare condition with an incidence <0.1%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment of PAA with a covered stent-graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2009 and July 2010, ten patients (nine men and one woman, mean age 69±12 years) with PAA were treated by endovascular placement of a heparin-coated stent-graft. All procedures were evaluated in terms of technical success, patency at 1, 6 and 12 months as assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound, complications, procedure duration and length of postoperative hospital stay. RESULTS: We obtained 100% technical success, with no peri- or postprocedural complications. Average duration of the procedure was 40 min, and mean hospital stay was 3 days. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1, 6 and 12 months were 100% and 100%, 90% and 100%, and 90% and 100%, respectively. Only one case of endoleak occurred. DISCUSSION: In keeping with the literature, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of endovascular repair of PAA, with short- and mid-term patency rates comparable to those of open surgery. Larger series and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
La radiologia medica 06/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has grown as a useful means in different clinical contexts. Technological development has progressively extended the indications for CCT while reducing the required radiation dose. Even today there is little documentation from the main international scientific societies describing the proper use and clinical indications of CCT; in particular, there are no complete guidelines. This document reflects the position of the Working Group of the Cardiac Radiology Section of the Italian Society of Radiology concerning the indications for CCT.
La radiologia medica 04/2012; 117(6):901-938. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of isolated iliac artery aneurysms (IIAA) and compare our data with those reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2005 to December 2010, 32 patients (31 men and one woman; mean age 73±12 years) with a total of 40 IIAAs underwent endovascular treatment at our institute. We evaluated technical success, long-term patency, early and late complications and overall mortality. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 36 months, we achieved a technical success of 100%, a primary patency of 95% and a secondary patency of 100%, with complete exclusion of the aneurysm in 84.6% of cases. In 12.8% of cases, there was a reduction in aneurysm sac volume, with an incidence of type II endoleak of 12.8%. Overall survival at 1, 2, 3, and 6 years was 96.8%, 84.2%, 66.6% and 64%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study documents the effectiveness of endovascular treatment of iliac aneurysms, which has become the first-choice treatment at our institute. This finding is consistent with the most recent literature and confirms the safety and long-term patency of stent-graft placement.
La radiologia medica 03/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The authors compared the immediate, mid-term and long-term effectiveness of cryoplasty and conventional angioplasty for treating stenotic-occlusive lesions of the femoropopliteal arteries in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2006 to November 2009, 48 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM) and an indication for percutaneous revascularisation of the femoropopliteal arteries were randomly assigned to treatment with angioplasty or cryoplasty. The following parameters were analysed and compared between the two groups: immediate technical success (residual stenosis <30%) and distal run-off as assessed on postprocedural angiography, and degree of restenosis and distal run-off at 6 and 12 months, as assessed with either colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). RESULTS: Treatment with angioplasty revealed a significant superiority in procedural technical success (p=0.04), a significant reduction in the degree of restenosis at 6 months (p=0.02) and a significant increase in the distal run-off at 6 (p=0.005) and 12 (p=0.01) months. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional angioplasty is more effective than cryoplasty for treating stenotic-occlusive lesions of the femoropopliteal arteries in diabetic patients and provides better immediate, mid-term and long-term results.
La radiologia medica 02/2012; 117(7):1176-1189. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the follow up of Achille's tenorraphy negativization of Thompson calf queezing test is not always omogeneous and absolute. Aim of the paper is to correlate Thompson test to different anatomical and ul-trasound parameters. We investigated clinically and by ultrasound 61 patients operated on of Achille's te-norraphy at Novara Hospital with follow-up of 10 to 46 months. Negative controls were contralateral ten-dons. We excluded patients with previous and/or contralateral Achille's tendon ruptures, those operated af-ter 7 days, diabetics or with autoimmune diseases, if used topic steroids, < 18years, those rejecting the study. Measured parameters were: age, sex, hight, wheigth, side, open vs percutaneous approach, time from opera-tion, neutral angle and range of motion of the ankle, maximal circumference of the leg, Single Heel Rise Te-st, Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA) score; with ultrasound: length of tendons, mio-tendi-nous U.S.-structure, dynamic diastasis of tendon scar, tendon sliding. Thompson test is positive if no plan-tar-flexion of the foot occurs at calf squeezing, negative if plantar-flexion is normal (75% patients) and in-termediate if reduced or slight reactive (25%). We found correlation of Thompson test with age (p<0,05) and with tendon length (p>0,05), being intermediate tests more represented in older patients and in those with longer healed tendons. In conclusion post-operative negativization of Thompson test can be incomplete as observed in older patients and in those healed with elongated tendon. Riassunto. Dopo tenorrafia Achillea la negativizzazione del test di strizzamento del polpaccio di Thompson non è sempre omogenea e assoluta. L'obiettivo del lavoro consiste nel correlare il test di Thompson con di-versi parametri anatomo-funzionali. Abbiamo indagato clinicamente ed ecograficamente 61 pazienti opera-ti di tenorrafia dell'Achille presso la nostra struttura con follow-up da 10 a 46 mesi. Controlli negativi i ten-dini controlaterali. Esclusi i pazienti con rotture del tendine d'Achille pregresse e/o controlaterali, quelli ope-rati dopo 7 giorni, i diabetici o con malattie autoimmuni, se sottoposti a steroidi topici, i minorenni, i rifiu-tanti l'arruolamento. I parametri misurati sono: età, sesso, altezza, peso, lato, intervento a cielo aperto vs per-cutaneo, tempo dall'intervento, angolo neutro ed aticolarità T.T., circonferenza massima delle gambe, Single Heel Rise Test, punteggio Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA); con l'ECO: lunghezza dei ten-dini, eco-struttura mio-tendinea, diastasi dinamica cicatrice tendinea, scorrimento tendine. Il test di Thom-pson è positivo se allo strizzamento del polpaccio non risulta alcuna plantar-flessione del piede, negativo se plantar-flessione normale (75% pazienti) ed intermedio se ridotta e cioè poco reattiva (25%). Abbiamo tro-O R I G I N A L
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our work was to design, implement and evaluate an e-learning programme in favour of trainee radiologists enrolled at the many specialty schools located throughout Italy, in the spirit of "sharing culture".
Once a common educational programme and time slot had been identified and planned, the programme was delivered via Internet-based video conferencing once a week for 2-h lectures. Each lecture was followed by interaction between the teaching staff and trainees at the individual sites. The universities involved were Trieste, Udine, Verona, Milano Bicocca, Novara, Varese, Genova, Sassari, Rome "Campus", Rome "Cattolica", Chieti, Foggia, Catania, Modena and Firenze. The University of Rome "Cattolica" participated in the project with two locations: Rome "Policlinico Gemelli" and Rome "Cattolica Campus of Campobasso".
Eighteen lectures were conducted, for a total of 36 h. "Transient" connection interruption occurred 13 times for a total of 33 min over 2,160 min of lessons. Video quality and, in particular, details of radiological images shown in slides or moving pictures, were rated as very good by 71% of trainees, good by 24% and satisfactory by 4.5%; no one gave a rating of unsatisfactory.
Based on our experience, whereas e-learning in radiology has become established and compulsory, there is the need for legislation that on the one hand protects online teaching activity and on the other allows study and continuing medical education (CME) credits to be recognised.
La radiologia medica 04/2011; 116(7):989-99. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively evaluated the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with fat and background signal suppression in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of the chest-mediastinum by calculating the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values.
Thirty-four patients with lung nodules/mediastinal masses underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the chest with conventional and DWI sequences. All patients had been previously studied with computed tomography (CT). After magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the patients underwent transthoracic CT-guided biopsy or mediastinoscopy. After the histopathological diagnosis had been obtained, the lesions were retrospectively divided into five groups: adenocarcinomas (n=16), squamous cell carcinomas (n=12), chronic pneumonias (n=2), malignant mediastinal tumours (n=2) and typical carcinoids (n=2). We compared ADC values in the different lesion groups using the Mann-Whitney U test.
There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between ADC values of benign and malignant lesions. Using an ADC value of 1.25×10⁻³ mm²/s as a threshold, we were able to differentiate malignant from benign lesions with 91% diagnostic accuracy, 90% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 57% negative predictive value.
Short-tau inversion-recovery echo-planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequences applied to the chest-mediastinum provided potentially useful images for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions.
La radiologia medica 02/2011; 116(5):720-33. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of Moyamoya disease (MD) with other cerebrovascular disease has been reported in literature but not the occurrence of MD and arteriovenous fistula of the epiaortic vessels. A 61-year old Italian woman was admitted to our Department because of the sudden onset of Broca's aphasia. At general examination she presented a murmur above the right clavicle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an ischemic lesion involving left frontal and temporal lobes. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed moyamoya vessels and an arteriovenous fistula between vertebral artery and internal giugular vein in right laterocervical region. This is the first report of the association of MD with arteriovenous fistula of the epiaortic vessels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating incurable disease. Stem-cell-based therapies represent a new possible strategy for ALS clinical research. The objectives of this Phase 1 clinical study were to assess the feasibility and toxicity of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and to test the impact of a cell therapy in ALS patients. The trial was approved and monitored by the National Institute of Health and by the Ethics Committees of all participating Institutions. Autologous MSCs were isolated from bone marrow, expanded in vitro and analyzed according to GMP conditions. Expanded MSCs were suspended in the autologous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and directly transplanted into the spinal cord at a high thoracic level with a surgical procedure. Ten ALS patients were enrolled and regularly monitored before and after transplantation by clinical, psychological, neuroradiological and neurophysiological assessments. There was no immediate or delayed transplant-related toxicity. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic evaluations of the patients showed no serious transplant-related adverse events. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed no structural changes (including tumor formation) in either the brain or the spinal cord. However the lack of post mortem material prevents any definitive conclusion about the vitality of the MSCs after transplantation. In conclusion, this study confirms that MSC transplantation into the spinal cord of ALS patients is safe and that MSCs might have a clinical use for future ALS cell based clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the sensitivity of a 3.0-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in measuring cerebral phenylalanine using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and in assessing MR-documented white-matter changes by means of diffusion studies (diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient map; diffusion tensor imaging) in patients with phenylketonuria.
Thirty-two patients with the classical clinical and biochemical deficits of phenylketonuria underwent biochemical (blood phenylalanine), genotypic (phenylalanine hydroxylase gene) and radiological investigation by means of MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging with a 3.0-T scanner.
Periventricular and subcortical white-matter changes were detected on all MR scans. In 29/32 patients, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy easily documented abnormal signal elevation at 7.36 ppm, corresponding to phenylalanine, despite its low concentration. Phenylalanine signal amplitude relative to the creatine/phosphocreatine signal increased linearly with blood phenylalanine values (r 0.7067; p<0.001). Diffusion MRI demonstrated hyperintensity in the areas exhibiting MRI changes as well as decreased apparent diffusion coefficient values, but fractional anisotropy indices were normal.
The high signal, together with better spectral, spatial, contrast and temporal resolution, makes the 3.0-T MR the most suitable technique in the study of the phenylketonuria. In particular, the multimodal approach with MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging can provide more information than previous studies performed with low-field systems.
La radiologia medica 03/2009; 114(3):461-74. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of newly developed, advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques (spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion imaging) in diagnosing brain gliomas, with special reference to histological typing and grading, treatment planning and posttreatment follow-up. Conventional MR imaging enables the detection and localisation of neoplastic lesions, as well as providing, in typical cases, some indication about their nature. However, it has limited sensitivity and specificity in evaluating histological type and grade, delineating margins and differentiating oedema, tumour and treatment side-effects. These limitations can be overcome by supplementing the morphological data obtained with conventional MR imaging with the metabolic, structural and perfusional information provided by new MR techniques that are increasingly becoming an integral part of routine MR studies. Incorporation of such new MR techniques can lead to more comprehensive and precise diagnoses that can better assist surgeons in determining prognosis and planning treatment strategies. In addition, the recent development of new, more effective, treatments for cerebral glioma strongly relies on morphofunctional MR imaging with its ability to provide a biological interpretation of these characteristically heterogeneous tumours.
La radiologia medica 01/2009; 114(3):448-60. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this pilot study was to compare positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body DWIBS in staging oncological patients to determine the staging accuracy of whole-body DWIBS.
We initiated a prospective, blinded investigation on 29 patients affected by oncological diseases (n=14) or lymphoma (n=15), who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-based PET-CT and whole-body DWIBS for restaging purposes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was conducted with a multistack (n=4) DWIBS pulse sequence. Images were read independently by two experienced radiologists and one nuclear physician. Statistical analysis assessed interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy.
Whole-body DWIBS had a room occupation time of 20 min. Mean postprocessing time was 15 min (range 10-17 min). Mean reading time was 20 min for reader 1 (range 15-25 min) and 18 min for reader 2 (range 13-22 min). Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (=0.93). Reader 1 had a sensitivity of 89.07%, a specificity of 98.5%, and an accuracy of 97.65%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.48% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.91%. Reader 2 had a sensitivity of 87.39%, a specificity of 98.39% and a diagnostic accuracy of 97.8%, with a PPV of 88.13% and a NPV of 98.75%.
The whole-body DWIBS protocol provided a fast whole-body examination with high specificity and NPV. One major bias of the study was the inclusion of patients with diffuse disease and advanced disease stage and the heterogeneity of the neoplastic diseases included.
La radiologia medica 01/2009; 114(1):1-17. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare virtual MR arthroscopic reconstructions with arthroscopic images in patients affected by shoulder joint instability. MR arthrography (MR-AR) of the shoulder is now a well-assessed technique, based on the injection of a contrast medium solution, which fills the articular space and finds its way between the rotator cuff (RC) and the glenohumeral ligaments. In patients with glenolabral pathology, we used an additional sequence that provided virtual arthroscopy (VA) post-processed views, which completed the MR evaluation of shoulder pathology.
We enrolled 36 patients, from whom MR arthrographic sequence data (SE T1w and GRE T1 FAT SAT) were obtained using a GE 0.5 T Signa--before any surgical or arthroscopic planned treatment; the protocol included a supplemental 3D, spoiled GE T1w positioned in the coronal plane. Dedicated software loaded on a work-station was used to elaborate VAs. Two radiologists evaluated, on a semiquantitative scale, the visibility of the principal anatomic structures, and then, in consensus, the pathology emerging from the VA images.
These images were reconstructed in all patients, except one. The visualization of all anatomical structures was acceptable. VA and MR arthrographic images were fairly concordant with intraoperative findings.
Although in our pilot study the VA findings did not change the surgical planning, the results showed concordance with the surgical or arthroscopic images.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 01/2009; 9(4):187-93.