Shuling Liu

Academy of Military Medical Sciences, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (13)23.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To express human-mouse chimeric antibody against Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen (F1 antigen) and analyze its biological activities. Methods: The heavy chain gene of the chimeric antibody was obtained by fusing the variable region gene of the mouse mAb heavy chain with human IgG1 constant region gene. The light chain gene of the chimeric antibody was obtained by fusing the variable region gene of the mouse mAb light chain with the human kappa constant region gene. Both the heavy and light chain genes of the chimeric antibody were further verified by sequencing. The chimeric antibody heavy and light chain genes were inserted into EcoR I/Not I of pcDNA3.1 (+) to construct expression plasmids termed pcDNA3.1-L and pcDNA3.1-H, respectively. Then, two plasmids were mixed and transfected into CHO-S cells. Finally, the stable cell clone secreting chimeric antibody was obtained by G418 selection. The culture supernatants of serum-free medium were collected and the chimeric antibody was purified by MabSelect SuRe affinity chromatography. The purified chimeric antibody was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA and evaluated in the protective effect in vivo. Results: PCR and sequencing analysis proved that plasmids pcDNA3.1-H and pcDNA3.1-L were correctly constructed. Dot blot showed that a cell line with high-level expression of chimeric antibody was obtained. SDS-PAGE and western blot showed that the chimeric antibody was successfully purified. ELISA showed that the chimeric antibody could specifically bind to F1 antigen. In vivo activity assay showed that 80% BALB/c mice treated with the chimeric antibody survived from 36 MLD virulent Yersinia pestis. Conclusion: The chimeric antibody against F1 antigen with neutralizing activity was successfully expressed in CHO-S cells, which laid a foundation for the preparation of anti-plague passive immunity agents.
    Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology 12/2013; 29(12):1299-302.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish a tumor model in mice with the expression of luciferase (Luc) and human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), in order to evaluate the activities of anticancer drugs or vaccines for prostate cancer. RM-1 cells were stably transfected with pcDNA-Luc and pcDNA-PSCA plasmids. The Luc-expressing cells were examined using a luminometer and the PSCA-expressing cells were examined using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometric analysis. Male C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously with the RM-PSCA/Luc cells, prior to the tumor growth and survival time of the mice being measured, respectively. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was used to detect Luc expression and immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect PSCA expression. Inoculation of the tumor cells into the C57BL/6 mice closely mimicked the tumor growth of prostate cancer. All of the inoculated mice exhibited a detectable tumor within two weeks. Tumor progression was able to be quantitatively monitored following the inoculation of 1×10(6) RM-PSCA/Luc cells. There was an excellent correlation (R(2)=0.9849) between the photon counts and tumor volume. The expression of PSCA in tumor tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemical analysis. The Luc and PSCA co-expression tumor model was successfully established in mice, which is likely to accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and facilitate the development of novel antitumor drugs or vaccines for the disease.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 11/2013; 6(5):1208-1212. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1293 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an independent risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV HBx gene is frequently identified as an integrant in the chromosomal DNA of patients with HCC. HBx encodes the X protein (HBx), a putative viral oncoprotein that affects transcriptional regulation of several cellular genes. Therefore, HBx may be an ideal target to impede the progression of HBV infection-related HCC. In this study, integrated HBx was transcriptionally downregulated using an artificial transcription factor (ATF). Two three-fingered Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZF) motifs that specifically recognized two 9-bp DNA sequences regulating HBx expression were identified from a phage-display library. The ZF domains were linked into a six-fingered protein that specified an 18-bp DNA target in the Enhancer I region upstream of HBx. This DNA-binding domain was fused with a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) transcriptional repression domain to produce an ATF designed to downregulate HBx integrated into the Hep3B HCC cell line. The ATF significantly repressed HBx in a luciferase reporter assay. Stably expressing the ATF in Hep3B cells resulted in significant growth arrest, whereas stably expressing the ATF in an HCC cell line lacking integrated HBx (HepG2) had virtually no effect. The targeted downregulation of integrated HBx is a promising novel approach to inhibiting the progression of HBV infection-related HCC.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 10/2012; 18(4). DOI:10.1177/1087057112463066 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The C fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT-Hc) with different conformations was observed due to the four cysteine residues within it which could form different intramolecular disulfide bonds. In this study, we prepared and compared three types of monomeric TeNT-Hc with different conformational components: free sulfhydryls (50 kDa), bound sulfhydryls (44 kDa), and a mixture of the two conformational proteins (half 50 kDa and half 44 kDa). TeNT-Hc with bound sulfhydryls reduced its binding activity to ganglioside G(T1b) and neuronal PC-12 cells compared to what was seen for TeNT-Hc with free sulfhydryls. However, there was no significant difference among their immunogenicities in mice, including induction of antitetanus toxoid IgG titers, antibody types, and protective capacities against tetanus neurotoxin challenge. Our results showed that the conformational changes of TeNT-Hc resulting from disulfide bond formation reduced its ganglioside-binding activity but did not destroy its immunogenicity, and the protein still retained continuous B cell and T cell epitopes; that is, the presence of the ganglioside-binding site within TeNT-Hc may be not essential for the induction of a fully protective antitetanus response. TeNT-Hc with bound sulfhydryls may be developed into an ideal human vaccine with a lower potential for side effects.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 08/2011; 18(10):1668-72. DOI:10.1128/CVI.05244-11 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    Hao Li · Shuling Liu · Ying Yin · Shuang Ji · Dayong Dong · Jun Zhang · Ling Fu · Junjie Xu · Wei Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The ESX-1 secretion system plays a critical role in the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ESX-1 secreted protein EspB is cleaved close to its C-terminus during secretion and is necessary for inhibiting phagosome maturation. In this study, the EspB gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the expression vector of pET21a(+) and was effectively expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The expressed fusion protein existed as a soluble form in cell lysate and was first purified by a column packed with Ni-NTA resin and then a column packed with DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow matrix. Using the purified protein to immunize BALB/c mice, five monoclonal antibodies were produced. As shown by ELISA and immunoblotting, the five respective antibodies could recognize the EspB protein. These monoclonal antibodies will provide powerful reagents for further investigation of EspB protein functions.
    Hybridoma (2005) 08/2011; 30(4):341-6. DOI:10.1089/hyb.2011.0013 · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • Rui Yu · Lihua Hou · Shuling Liu · Changming Yu · Xiaoyan Zhang · Ying Liu · Wei Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Tetanus is caused by tetanus toxin synthesized by Clostridium tetani. Fragment C (Hc), the 50 kDa carboxy-terminal portion of tetanus toxin, is nontoxic but has receptor protein binding activities, which has been evaluated as a potential new recombinant subunit vaccine to replace the traditional formaldehyde inactivated toxoid vaccine. It is easy for wild Hc (HcW) to form inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds and the different conformations changes unstably, which brings difficulties for vaccine production technology. In our study, the Cys 869 of HcW was mutated to A1a and the conformation-stable fragment-C mutant of tetanus toxin (HcM) was constructed. The HcM was expressed, fermented and purified and its stability, receptor binding and immunogenicity were evaluated. The result showed that the HcM got high-level expression and was purified to > 95% of purity. The purified HcM was conformation-stable at different temperature for different time and kept the binding activities with one of its receptor GT1b. Mice given three vaccinations by HcM developed a protective immune response and were 100% protected against an intraperitoneal administration of 1 x 10(3) 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of tetanus neurotoxin. All the results showed that the conformation-stable HcM had potent immunogenicity as a recombinant tetanus vaccine candidate with simple production process and similar immunogenicity with HcW. Whether for routine tetanus therapy or for countries to respond to unexpected events (war, earthquake or other disaster), it is of great significance.
    Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 02/2011; 27(2):226-32.
  • Rui Yu · Lihua Hou · Changming Yu · Shuling Liu · Jun Ren · Ting Fang · Xiaoyan Zhang · Wei Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of the carboxyl fragment of the heavy chain of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT-Hc) in Escherichia coli has been hampered by the unusually high AT content and the presence of rarely used codons by Clostridium. The gene encoding TeNT-Hc was optimized for E. coli by replacing rare codons and decreasing the AT pairs from 72.57% to 52.47%. The reconstructed gene was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and resulted in a soluble product which was about 46% of the total bacterial protein. TeNT-Hc produced in a 42 L fermentor was purified to >95% at 87 g/kg of cell paste (approximately 333 mg/L). BALB/c mice vaccinated with three bi-weekly doses of TeNT-Hc with Freund's adjuvant were fully protected against an intraperitoneally challenge of 2 × 10(3) 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) of tetanus neurotoxin. NIH mice vaccinated with TeNT-Hc adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant demonstrated a potency of 168 IU/mL, which was 2 times higher than the national standard for tetanus vaccines. These results suggest that TeNT-Hc may be a promising second-generation vaccine candidate for clinical use against tetanus neurotoxin.
    Immunobiology 09/2010; 216(4):485-90. DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2010.09.001 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Jinlong Zhang · Jun Ren · Bing Li · Shuling Liu · Lihua Hou · Ling Fu · Jianmin Li · Wei Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: We converted the TGC codon (307-309 bp) of Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase (UOX) gene to a GCC codon by using fusion PCR techniques to produce a C103A mutant. This gene was cloned into expression vector pET-42a (+) and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The mutant protein (UOX-Ala103) was expressed in soluble form at high levels after induction with IPTG The expressed rUOX-Ala103 accounted for about 45% of total bacterial proteins, rUOX-Ala103 of up to 98% purity was obtained after purified using hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange. Western blotting showed that the anti-UOX antibody specifically recognized rUOX-Ala103. The mutant protein showed a 60% increased in vitro biological activities compared with native protein, and performed a good activity of degrading the uric acid in vivo.
    Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 08/2010; 26(8):1102-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The high affinity binding of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) to one of its receptors, capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2), is essential for the intoxication process of anthrax toxin. To acquire novel research tools to study the PA-CMG2 interaction, we generated several anti-CMG2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We demonstrated that one of the MAbs, 4B5, could inhibit PA-CMG2 binding and could also protect the sensitive cells against an anthrax lethal toxin challenge. We identified the epitope recognized by 4B5 and confirmed that the key residues of the epitope were the residues (119)YI-LK(125) of CMG2. Based on our results, we propose that 4B5 binds to the E122 pocket of CMG2 and interrupts the interaction between the pocket and the PA 2beta3-2beta4 loop. To our knowledge, this is the first report to illustrate that an anti-CMG2 antibody could inhibit the PA-CMG2 interaction and therefore interfere with the intoxication of anthrax toxin.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 385(4):591-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.114 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis and the Fraction 1 Capsular Antigen (F1 antigen), V antigen of Yersinia pestis have been demonstrated to be potential immunogens and candidate vaccine sub-units against anthrax and plague respectively. In this study, the authors have investigated the antibody responses and the protective efficacy when the antigens were administered separately or in combination intramuscularly formulation adsorbed to an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Results show that immunized rF1 + rV and rPA antigen together was as effective as separately for induction of serological antibody response, and these titers were maintained for over 1 year in mice. An isotype analysis of the serum indicates that the co-administration of these antigens did not influence the antigen-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio which was consistent with a Th2 bias. Furthermore, the combined vaccine comprising the protein antigens rF1 + rV + rPA has been demonstrated to protect mice from subcutaneous challenge with 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) virulent Y. pestis strain, and to fully protect rabbit against subcutaneous challenge with 1.2x10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) virulent B. anthracis spores. These data show that the protective efficacy was unaffected when the antigens were administered in combination.
    Vaccine 08/2009; 27(52):7436-41. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.015 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major aim of present study is to develop and evaluate chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying a neutralizing epitope of anthrax protective antigen (PA) as a potential vaccine against anthrax. The truncated hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein (aa 1-144) was used as a carrier, and the 2beta2-2beta3 loop of the PA domain 2 (aa 302-325) which has been shown contains a dominant neutralizing epitope was inserted into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the HBc. The recombinant protein HBc-N144-PA-loop2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and was able to form HBc-like particles confirmed by electron microscopy. The immunogenicity of these chimeric particles was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs. In mice the HBc-N144-PA-loop2 was able to induce PA-epitope specific antibodies; in guinea pigs it was able to induce PA-epitope specific antibodies and anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibodies regardless of whether alum adjuvant was used or not, and was able to partially protect the immunized guinea pigs against virulent anthrax spores challenge. This study suggests chimeric HBc particles carrying a neutralizing epitope of PA can induce protective immunity against Bacillus anthracis.
    Vaccine 10/2008; 26(46):5814-21. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.031 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The whole encoding sequence for Yersinia pestis LcrV antigen was cloned into pET-32a(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The LcrV was high level expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm in a completely soluble form. Recombinant LcrV could be purified from the supernatant of the bacteria lysate after chromatography using a combination of Phenyl-Sepharose F F, DEAE-Sepharose F F and Hiload Superdex 75. The final yield of approximately 3 g of purified rLcrV from 42 L bioreactor containing 25 L LB medium was obtained. High-titer IgG directed against rLcrV was detected positive after immunization on the BALB/c mice. The results presented here exhibit the ability to generate multi-gram quantities of non-tagged rLcrV from E. coli that can be used for the development of vaccine for preventing plague.
    Protein Expression and Purification 03/2008; 57(2):136-42. DOI:10.1016/j.pep.2007.10.011 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. However, the lower immune intensity in clinical trials limits the application of DNA vaccine. Here we intend to develop a new DNA vaccine based on prostate stem-cell antigen (PSCA), which has been suggested as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy, and enhance the DNA vaccine potency with heat shock proteins (HSPs) as adjuvant. A series of DNA plasmids encoding human PSCA, human HSP70 and their conjugates was constructed and injected into male mice intramuscularly (i.m.). To evaluate the immune responses and therapeutic efficacy of these plasmids, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted PSCA and HSP70-specific epitopes were predicted and a mouse model with a human PSCA-expressing tumor was constructed. The result showed that mice vaccinated with PSCA-HSP plasmids generated the strongest PSCA-specific CD8+ T-cell immune response, but the CD4+ TH1 and TH2 cell immune responses were similar with those vaccinated with other HSP-adjuvant PSCA plasmids or only PSCA DNA. The immunity of HSP70 was also observed and the mice i.m. injected with PSCA+ HSP mixed plasmids generated the lowest anti-HSP antibodies. Furthermore, these vaccinations inhibited the growth of PSCA-expressing tumors and prolonged mouse survival. These observations emphasize and extend the potential of the human HSP70 gene as adjuvant for DNA vaccines, and the vaccine based on PSCA and HSP70 is of potential value for treating prostate cancer.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 08/2007; 9(8):715-26. DOI:10.1002/jgm.1067 · 2.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

70 Citations
23.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Academy of Military Medical Sciences
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2007-2011
    • Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
      Peping, Beijing, China