[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of amoxicillin therapy of poultry flocks upon the persistence of commensal Campylobacter spp. and the incidence of antibiotic resistance.
Four poultry flocks naturally colonized with Campylobacter were treated with amoxicillin and monitored before, during and up to 4 weeks post-treatment. The numbers of Campylobacter were determined and the isolates speciated and typed by flaA short variable region (SVR) sequence analysis and PFGE. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics, presence of the Cj0299 gene encoding a beta-lactamase and beta-lactamase production (nitrocefin hydrolysis) were also determined.
Amoxicillin-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from Flock 1 before and during treatment, but Campylobacter were not detected afterwards. Flock 2 was colonized by amoxicillin-susceptible strains throughout sampling. No amoxicillin-resistant isolates arose during or after treatment. Flock 3 contained amoxicillin-susceptible and -resistant types pre-treatment. Resistant isolates were detected during treatment, while antibiotic-susceptible isolates re-emerged at 3 weeks post-treatment. All Campylobacter isolates from Flock 4 were amoxicillin resistant, irrespective of sampling time. All but one of the 82 amoxicillin-resistant (MICs 16 to >128 mg/L) Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli tested for the presence of Cj0299 carried the gene and all of these produced beta-lactamase. Co-amoxiclav remained active against amoxicillin-resistant isolates.
Amoxicillin therapy had little effect on the numbers of amoxicillin-resistant commensal Campylobacter except for one flock where amoxicillin-resistant Campylobacter temporarily dominated. Amoxicillin therapy did not select amoxicillin-resistant isolates from a previous susceptible strain. Co-amoxiclav remained active against amoxicillin-resistant isolates.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2009; 64(4):702-11. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multidrug-resistant mutant Streptococcus pneumoniae M22 constitutively overexpresses two genes (patA and patB) that encode proteins homologous to known efflux proteins belonging to the ABC transporter family. It is shown here that PatA and PatB were strongly induced by quinolone antibiotics and distamycin in fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PatA was very important for growth of S. pneumoniae, and it could not be disrupted in strain M22. PatB appeared to control metabolic activity, particularly in amino acid biosynthesis, and it may have a pivotal role in coordination of the response to quinolone antibiotics. The induction of PatA and PatB by antibiotics showed a pattern similar to that exhibited by SP1861, a homologue of ABC-type transporters of choline and other osmoprotectants. A second group of quinolone-induced transporter genes comprising SP1587 and SP0287, which are homologues of, respectively, oxalate/formate antiporters and xanthine or uracil permeases belonging to the major facilitator family, showed a different pattern of induction by other antibiotics. There was no evidence for the involvement of PmrA, the putative proton-dependent multidrug transporter that has been implicated in norfloxacin resistance, in the response to quinolone antibiotics in either the resistant mutant or the fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2006; 50(2):685-93. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five commercial broiler flocks were treated with a fluoroquinolone for a clinically relevant infection. Fresh feces from individual chickens and environmental samples were cultured for campylobacters before, during, and weekly posttreatment until slaughter. Both Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were isolated during all treatment phases. An increased proportion of quinolone-resistant strains was seen during treatment, and these strains persisted posttreatment. One quinolone-resistant isolate of each species, each serotype, and each phage type from each sample at all treatment phases was examined for its phenotype and mechanism of resistance. Two resistant phenotypes were isolated: Nal(r) Cip(r) and Nal(r) Cip(s). The majority (269 of 290) of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, whether they were C. jejuni or C. coli, had a mutation in gyrA that resulted in the substitution Thr-86-->Ile. The other gyrA mutations detected were Thr-86-->Ala (n = 17) and Asp-90-->Asn (n = 10). The genotypic variation, based on the silent mutations in gyrA identified by the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography pattern and DNA sequencing, was used to supplement typing data and provided evidence for both the spread of preexisting resistant strains and the selection of spontaneous resistant mutants in treated flocks. Multidrug resistance was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-five percent (73 of 290) of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates but only 13% (24 of 179) of susceptible isolates were resistant to three or more unrelated antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, quinolone-resistant campylobacters were isolated from commercial chicken flocks in high numbers following therapy with a veterinary fluoroquinolone. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had the GyrA substitution Thr-86-->Ile. Resistant isolates were isolated from the feces of some flocks up to the point of slaughter, which may have consequences for public health.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2005; 49(2):699-707. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-four ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) and 12 ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based upon susceptibility to norfloxacin and the effect of reserpine (20 microg/ml). The quinolone-resistance-determining regions of parC, parE, gyrA, and gyrB of all ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates were sequenced, and the activities of eight other fluoroquinolones, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline in the presence and absence of reserpine were determined. Despite a marked effect of reserpine upon the activity of norfloxacin, there were only a few isolates for which the activity of another fluoroquinolone was enhanced by reserpine. For most isolates the MICs of acriflavine and ethidium bromide were lowered in the presence of reserpine despite the lack of effect of this efflux pump inhibitor on fluoroquinolone activity. The strains that were most resistant to the fluoroquinolones were predominantly those with mutations in three genes. Expression of the gene encoding the efflux pump PmrA was examined by Northern blotting (quantified by quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR) and compared with that of S. pneumoniae R6 and R6N. Within each group there were isolates that had high-, medium-, and low-level expression of this gene; however, increased expression was not exclusively associated with those isolates with a phenotype suggestive of an efflux mutant. These data suggest that there is another reserpine-sensitive efflux pump in S. pneumoniae that extrudes ethidium bromide and acriflavine but not fluoroquinolones.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2002; 46(3):808-12. · 4.57 Impact Factor