[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a bi-metalloenzyme of potential applications in biotechnology and bioremediation, in which phosphate monoesters are nonspecifically hydrolysed under alkaline conditions to yield inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis occurs through an enzyme intermediate in which the catalytic residue is phosphorylated. The reaction, which also requires a third metal ion, is proposed to proceed through a mechanism of in-line displacement involving a trigonal bipyramidal transition state. Stabilizing the transition state by bidentate hydrogen bonding has been suggested to be the reason for conservation of an arginine residue in the active site. We report here the first crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase purified from the bacterium Sphingomonas. sp. Strain BSAR-1 (SPAP). The crystal structure reveals many differences from other APs: 1) the catalytic residue is a threonine instead of serine, 2) there is no third metal ion binding pocket, and 3) the arginine residue forming bidentate hydrogen bonding is deleted in SPAP. A lysine and an aspargine residue, recruited together for the first time into the active site, bind the substrate phosphoryl group in a manner not observed before in any other AP. These and other structural features suggest that SPAP represents a new class of APs. Because of its direct contact with the substrate phosphoryl group, the lysine residue is proposed to play a significant role in catalysis. The structure is consistent with a mechanism of in-line displacement via a trigonal bipyramidal transition state. The structure provides important insights into evolutionary relationships between members of AP superfamily.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22767. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutation G48V in HIV-1 protease is a major resistance mutation against the drug saquinavir. Recently, G48V mutation is found to co-exist with the mutation C95F in AIDS patients treated with saquinavir. We report here the three-dimensional crystal structure of G48V/C95F tethered HIV-1 protease/saquinavir complex. The structure indicates following as the possible causes of drug resistance: (1) loss of direct van der Waals interactions between saquinavir and enzyme residues PHE-53 and PRO-1081, (2) loss of water-mediated hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atoms in saquinavir and amide nitrogen atoms of flap residues 50 and 1050, (3) changes in inter-monomer interactions, which could affect the energetics of domain movements associated with inhibitor-binding, and (4) significant reduction in the stability of the mutant dimer. The present structure also provides a rationale for the clinical observation that the resistance mutations C95F/G48V/V82A occur as a cluster in AIDS patients.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2010; 396(4):1018-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural snapshots of each step in the catalytic cycle would help development of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR) as effective drugs against HIV/AIDS. We report here one snapshot obtained by determining the structure of enzyme-substrate complex under conditions where the catalytic activity of the enzyme is greatly reduced. The 1.76 A crystal structure shows the oligopeptide substrate, AETFYVDGAA, converted in situ into a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate (TI). The gem-diol intermediate is neutral and one of the hydroxyl oxygens forms a very short hydrogen bond (2.2 A) with the anionic aspartate of the catalytic dyad, which is monoprotonated. Further, there is no hydrogen atom on the outer oxygen of the neutral aspartate. These two observations provide direct evidence that, in the reaction mechanism, hydrogen bonding between catalytic aspartate and scissile carbonyl oxygen facilitates water attack on the scissile carbon atom. Comparison with the structural snapshot of the biproduct complex involving the same substrate reveals the reorganization of the hydrogen bonds at the catalytic center as the enzymatic reaction progresses toward completion. Accumulation of TI in the crystals provides direct evidence that collapse of TI is the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2010; 132(18):6366-73. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are widely distributed from microbes to humans and are involved in several important biological processes such as phosphate nutrition, signal transduction and pathogenesis. Alkaline phosphatases are also useful in various industrial applications and in recombinant DNA technology. A new AP enzyme from Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1, termed PhoK, has been shown to be useful in uranium bioprecipitation. PhoK was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2 or P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.37, c = 168.16 A, and contained one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native diffraction data have been collected to 1.95 A resolution at the ESRF.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 10/2009; 65(Pt 9):917-9. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nelfinavir is an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, and is used for treatment of patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. However, treatment results in drug resistant mutations in HIV-1 protease. N88D and N88S are two such mutations which occur in the non-active site region of the enzyme. We have determined crystal structures of unliganded N88D and N88S mutants of HIV-1 protease to resolution of 1.65A and 1.8A, respectively. These structures refined against synchrotron data lead to R-factors of 0.1859 and 0.1780, respectively. While structural effects of N88D are very subtle, the mutation N88S has caused a significant conformational change in D30, an active site residue crucial for substrate and inhibitor binding.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 389(2):295-300. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human seminal plasma protein PSP94 is a small protein of 94 residues that contains ten cysteines. Since its discovery about 25 years ago, several potential biological functions have been reported for this protein. Many PSP94 homologues have also been identified since then from various species, but no crystal structure has been determined to date. PSP94 has been purified from human seminal plasma and crystallized. These crystals diffracted to approximately 2.3 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.9, b = 107.9, c = 92.1 A. There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Structure solution by the heavy-atom method is currently in progress.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 05/2009; 65(Pt 4):389-91. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that HIV-1 protease is an important target for design of antiviral compounds in the treatment of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In this context, understanding the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme is of crucial importance as transition state structure directs inhibitor design. Most mechanistic proposals invoke nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule. But such a water molecule coexisting with any ligand in the active site has not been found so far in the crystal structures.
We report here the first observation of the coexistence in the active site, of a water molecule WAT1, along with the carboxyl terminal product (Q product) peptide. The product peptide has been generated in situ through cleavage of the full-length substrate. The N-terminal product (P product) has diffused out and is replaced by a set of water molecules while the Q product is still held in the active site through hydrogen bonds. The position of WAT1, which hydrogen bonds to both the catalytic aspartates, is different from when there is no substrate bound in the active site. We propose WAT1 to be the position from where catalytic water attacks the scissile peptide bond. Comparison of structures of HIV-1 protease complexed with the same oligopeptide substrate, but at pH 2.0 and at pH 7.0 shows interesting changes in the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions from the catalytic aspartates.
The structure is suggestive of the repositioning, during substrate binding, of the catalytic water for activation and subsequent nucleophilic attack. The structure could be a snap shot of the enzyme active site primed for the next round of catalysis. This structure further suggests that to achieve the goal of designing inhibitors mimicking the transition-state, the hydrogen-bonding pattern between WAT1 and the enzyme should be replicated.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(11):e7860. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 protease is an effective target for design of different types of drugs against AIDS. HIV-1 protease is also one of the few enzymes that can cleave substrates containing both proline and nonproline residues at the cleavage site. We report here the first structure of HIV-1 protease complexed with the product peptides SQNY and PIV derived by in situ cleavage of the oligopeptide substrate SQNYPIV, within the crystals. In the structure, refined against 2.0-A resolution synchrotron data, a carboxyl oxygen of SQNY is hydrogen-bonded with the N-terminal nitrogen atom of PIV. At the same time, this proline nitrogen atom does not form any hydrogen bond with catalytic aspartates. These two observations suggest that the protonation of scissile nitrogen, during peptide bond cleavage, is by a gem-hydroxyl of the tetrahedral intermediate rather than by a catalytic aspartic acid.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 09/2008; 74(3):594-602. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 protease is an effective target for designing drugs against AIDS, and structural information about the true transition state and the correct mechanism can provide important inputs. We present here the three-dimensional structure of a bi-product complex between HIV-1 protease and the two cleavage product peptides AETF and YVDGAA. The structure, refined against synchrotron data to 1.65 A resolution, shows the occurrence of the cleavage reaction in the crystal, with the product peptides still held in the enzyme active site. The separation between the scissile carbon and nitrogen atoms is 2.67 A, which is shorter than a normal van der Waal separation, but it is much longer than a peptide bond length. The substrate is thus in a stage just past the G'Z intermediate described in Northrop's mechanism [Northrop DB (2001) Acc Chem Res 34:790-797]. Because the products are generated in situ, the structure, by extrapolation, can give insight into the mechanism of the cleavage reaction. Both oxygens of the generated carboxyl group form hydrogen bonds with atoms at the catalytic center: one to the OD2 atom of a catalytic aspartate and the other to the scissile nitrogen atom. The latter hydrogen bond may have mediated protonation of scissile nitrogen, triggering peptide bond cleavage. The inner oxygen atoms of the catalytic aspartates in the complex are 2.30 A apart, indicating a low-barrier hydrogen bond between them at this stage of the reaction, an observation not included in Northrop's proposal. This structure forms a template for designing mechanism-based inhibitors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 103(49):18464-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 protease is an effective target for the design of drugs against AIDS. To help this process of drug design, three-dimensional structures have been determined of complexes between HIV-1 protease and a variety of transition-state analogue inhibitors. The true transition state, however, has not been structurally characterized. The crystal structure of the C95M/C1095A HIV-1 protease tethered dimer shows a distinctive feature in which the two flaps of the enzyme are in a 'closed conformation' even in the unliganded state. This unique feature has been utilized here to study the structure of HIV-1 protease complexed to an oligopeptide substrate of amino acid sequence His-Lys-Ala-Arg-Val-Leu*NPhe-Glu-Ala-Nle-Ser (where * denotes the cleavage site, and NPhe and Nle denote p-nitrophenylalanine and norleucine residues respectively). The X-ray structure of the complex refined against 2.03 A (0.203 nm) resolution synchrotron data shows that the substrate is trapped as a tetrahedral reaction intermediate in the crystal. The hydrogen-bonding interactions between the reaction intermediate and the catalytic aspartates are different from those observed previously using transition-state analogues. The reaction intermediate did not dissociate to release the products, possibly due to the inflexibility introduced in the flaps when the enzyme is packed inside crystals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under the selection pressure of drugs, mutations appear in HIV-1 protease even at the sites, which are conserved in the untreated individuals. Cysteine 95 is a highly conserved residue and is believed to be involved in regulation of HIV-1 protease. In some of the virus isolates from patients undergoing heavy treatment with anti-HIV protease drugs, C95F mutation has appeared. The present study reports 1.8A X-ray structure of C95M/C1095F double mutant of tethered HIV-1 protease dimer complexed with acetyl pepstatin. It is found that in this mutant, dimer interface has become more rigid and that the packing at the interface of terminal and core domains is altered. These alterations may be relevant to C95F mutation conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 protease.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2004; 323(4):1229-35. · 2.41 Impact Factor