[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyploidization is an important process in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, but ensuing molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. Autopolyploidization or whole-genome duplication events frequently are resolved in resulting lineages by the loss of single genes from most duplicated pairs, causing transient gene dosage imbalance and accelerating speciation through meiotic infertility. Allopolyploidization or formation of interspecies hybrids raises the problem of genetic incompatibility (Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller effect) and may be resolved by the accumulation of mutational changes in resulting lineages. In this article, we show that an osmotolerant yeast species, Pichia sorbitophila, recently isolated in a concentrated sorbitol solution in industry, illustrates this last situation. Its genome is a mosaic of homologous and homeologous chromosomes, or parts thereof, that corresponds to a recently formed hybrid in the process of evolution. The respective parental contributions to this genome were characterized using existing variations in GC content. The genomic changes that occurred during the short period since hybrid formation were identified (e.g., loss of heterozygosity, unilateral loss of rDNA, reciprocal exchange) and distinguished from those undergone by the two parental genomes after separation from their common ancestor (i.e., NUMT (NUclear sequences of MiTochondrial origin) insertions, gene acquisitions, gene location movements, reciprocal translocation). We found that the physiological characteristics of this new yeast species are determined by specific but unequal contributions of its two parents, one of which could be identified as very closely related to an extant Pichia farinosa strain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Megasatellites are a new family of long tandem repeats, recently discovered in the yeast Candida glabrata. Compared to shorter tandem repeats, such as minisatellites, megasatellite motifs range in size from 135 to more than 300 bp, and allow calculation of evolutionary distances between individual motifs. Using divergence based on nucleotide substitutions among similar motifs, we determined the smallest distance between two motifs, allowing their subsequent clustering. Motifs belonging to the same cluster are recurrently found in different megasatellites located on different chromosomes, showing transfer of genetic information between megasatellites. In comparison, evolution of the few similar tandem repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO genes mainly involves subtelomeric homologous recombination. We estimated selective constraints acting on megasatellite motifs and their host genes, and found that motifs are under strong purifying selection. Surprisingly, motifs inserted within pseudogenes are also under purifying selection, whereas the pseudogenes themselves evolve neutrally. We propose that megasatellite motifs propagate by a combination of three different molecular mechanisms: (i) gene duplication, (ii) ectopic homologous recombination and (iii) transfer of motifs from one megasatellite to another one. These mechanisms actively cooperate to create new megasatellites, that may play an important role in the adaptation of Candida glabrata to its human host.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2010; 38(14):4731-9. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Megasatellites are DNA tandem arrays made of large motifs; they were discovered in the yeast Candida glabrata. They are widespread in this species (40 copies) but are not found in any other hemiascomycete so far, raising the intriguing question of their origin. They are found mainly in genes encoding cell wall products, suggesting that megasatellites were selected for a function linked to cell-cell adhesion or to pathogenicity. Their putative role in promoting genome rearrangements by interfering with DNA replication will also be discussed.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2009; 67(5):671-6. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of yeast genomes remains largely dominated by the extensive studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the consequences of its ancestral duplication, leaving the evolution of the entire class of hemiascomycetes only partly explored. We concentrate here on five species of Saccharomycetaceae, a large subdivision of hemiascomycetes, that we call "protoploid" because they diverged from the S. cerevisiae lineage prior to its genome duplication. We determined the complete genome sequences of three of these species: Kluyveromyces (Lachancea) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces (Lachancea) kluyveri (two members of the newly described Lachancea clade), and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. We included in our comparisons the previously available sequences of Kluyveromyces lactis and Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii. Despite their broad evolutionary range and significant individual variations in each lineage, the five protoploid Saccharomycetaceae share a core repertoire of approximately 3300 protein families and a high degree of conserved synteny. Synteny blocks were used to define gene orthology and to infer ancestors. Far from representing minimal genomes without redundancy, the five protoploid yeasts contain numerous copies of paralogous genes, either dispersed or in tandem arrays, that, altogether, constitute a third of each genome. Ancient, conserved paralogs as well as novel, lineage-specific paralogs were identified.
Genome Research 07/2009; 19(10):1696-709. · 14.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain trinucleotide repeat expansions. Here we show that in yeast srs2Delta cells, CTG repeats undergo both expansions and contractions, and they show increased chromosomal fragility. Deletion of RAD52 or RAD51 suppresses these phenotypes, suggesting that recombination triggers trinucleotide repeat instability in srs2Delta cells. In sgs1Delta cells, CTG repeats undergo contractions and increased fragility by a mechanism partially dependent on RAD52 and RAD51. Analysis of replication intermediates revealed abundant joint molecules at the CTG repeats during S phase. These molecules migrate similarly to reversed replication forks, and their presence is dependent on SRS2 and SGS1 but not RAD51. Our results suggest that Srs2 promotes fork reversal in repetitive sequences, preventing repeat instability and fragility. In the absence of Srs2 or Sgs1, DNA damage accumulates and is processed by homologous recombination, triggering repeat rearrangements.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minisatellites are DNA tandem repeats that are found in all sequenced genomes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, they are frequently encountered in genes encoding cell wall proteins. Minisatellites present in the completely sequenced genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata were similarly analyzed, and two new types of minisatellites were discovered: minisatellites that are composed of two different intermingled repeats (called compound minisatellites), and minisatellites containing unusually long repeated motifs (126-429 bp). These long repeat minisatellites may reach unusual length for such elements (up to 10 kb). Due to these peculiar properties, they have been named 'megasatellites'. They are found essentially in genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, and could therefore be involved in the ability of this opportunistic pathogen to colonize the human host. In addition to megasatellites, found in large paralogous gene families, there are 93 minisatellites with simple shorter motifs, comparable to those found in S. cerevisiae. Most of the time, these minisatellites are not conserved between C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae, although their host genes are well conserved, raising the question of an active mechanism creating minisatellites de novo in hemiascomycetes.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2008; 36(18):5970-82. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minisatellites are DNA tandem repeats exhibiting size polymorphism among individuals of a population. This polymorphism is generated by two different mechanisms, both in human and yeast cells, "replication slippage" during S-phase DNA synthesis and "repair slippage" associated to meiotic gene conversion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains numerous natural minisatellites. They are located on all chromosomes without any obvious distribution bias. Minisatellites found in protein-coding genes have longer repeat units and on the average more repeat units than minisatellites in noncoding regions. They show an excess of cytosines on the coding strand, as compared to guanines (negative GC skew). They are always multiples of three, encode serine- and threonine-rich amino acid repeats, and are found preferably within genes encoding cell wall proteins, suggesting that they are positively selected in this particular class of genes. Genome-wide, there is no statistically significant association between minisatellites and meiotic recombination hot spots. In addition, minisatellites that are located in the vicinity of a meiotic hot spot are not more polymorphic than minisatellites located far from any hot spot. This suggests that minisatellites, in S. cerevisiae, evolve probably by strand slippage during replication or mitotic recombination. Finally, evolution of minisatellites among hemiascomycetous yeasts shows that even though many minisatellite-containing genes are conserved, most of the time the minisatellite itself is not conserved. The diversity of minisatellite sequences found in orthologous genes of different species suggests that minisatellites are differentially acquired and lost during evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts at a pace faster than the genes containing them.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 02/2006; 23(1):189-202. · 10.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast RAD27 gene encodes a functional homolog of the mammalian FEN1 protein, a structure-specific endo/exonuclease which plays an important role in DNA replication and repair. Previous genetic interaction studies, including a synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, showed that the survival of rad27Delta cells requires several DNA metabolic processes, in particular those mediated by all members of the Rad52-dependent recombinational repair pathway. Here, we report the results of our SGA analysis of the collection of non-essential yeast genes against the rad27Delta mutation, which resulted in the identification of a novel synthetic lethal interaction conferred by mutations affecting the Nup84 nuclear pore subcomplex (nup133Delta, nup120Delta and nup84Delta). Additional screens showed that all Rad52 group genes are required for the survival of the nup133Delta and nup120Delta mutants, which are defective in nuclear pore distribution and mRNA export, but not of the nup133DeltaN mutant, which is solely defective in pore distribution. This requirement for the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway is consistent with the observation that, like rad27Delta, the nup133Delta, nup120Delta and nup84Delta mutants are sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Furthermore, nup133Delta cells exhibit an increased number of spontaneous DNA repair foci containing Rad52. Altogether, these data suggest that the pathological interactions between the rad27Delta and specific nupDelta mutations result from the accumulation of unrepaired DNA damages.
DNA Repair 05/2005; 4(4):459-68. · 4.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among genes conserved from bacteria to mammals are those involved in replicating and repairing DNA. Following the complete sequencing of four hemiascomycetous yeast species during the course of the Genolevures 2 project, we have studied the conservation of 106 genes involved in replication, repair, and recombination in Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica and compared them with their Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologues. We found that proteins belonging to the replication fork and to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were-on the average-more conserved than proteins involved in the checkpoint response to DNA damage or in meiotic recombination. The meiotic recombination proteins Spo11p and Mre11p-Rad50p, involved in making meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs), are conserved as is Mus81p, involved in resolving meiotic recombination intermediates. Interestingly, genes found in organisms in which DSB-repair is required for proper synapsis during meiosis are also found in C. glabrata, K. lactis, and D. hansenii but not in Y. lipolytica, suggesting that two modes of meiotic recombination have been selected during evolution of the hemiascomycetous yeasts. In addition, we found that SGS1 and TOP1, respectively, a DEAD/DEAH helicase and a type I topoisomerase, are duplicated in C. glabrata and that SRS2, a helicase involved in homologous recombination, is tandemly duplicated in K. lactis. Phylogenetic analyses show that the duplicated SGS1 gene evolved faster than the original gene, probably leading to a specialization of function of the duplicated copy.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 05/2005; 22(4):1011-23. · 10.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity to explore such mechanisms. We present here the complete, assembled genome sequences of four yeast species, selected to represent a broad evolutionary range within a single eukaryotic phylum, that after analysis proved to be molecularly as diverse as the entire phylum of chordates. A total of approximately 24,200 novel genes were identified, the translation products of which were classified together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins into about 4,700 families, forming the basis for interspecific comparisons. Analysis of chromosome maps and genome redundancies reveal that the different yeast lineages have evolved through a marked interplay between several distinct molecular mechanisms, including tandem gene repeat formation, segmental duplication, a massive genome duplication and extensive gene loss.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have screened the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fragments that confer a growth-retardation phenotype when overexpressed in a multicopy plasmid with a tetracycline-regulatable (Tet-off) promoter. We selected 714 such fragments with a mean size of 700 base-pairs out of around 84,000 clones tested. These include 493 in-frame open reading frame fragments corresponding to 454 distinct genes (of which 91 are of unknown function), and 162 out-of-frame, antisense and intergenic genomic fragments, representing the largest collection of toxic inserts published so far in yeast.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have analyzed all di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats in the partially sequenced genomes of 13 hemiascomycetous yeast species, and compared their sequences, lengths, and distributions to those observed in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that most of the 13 species exhibit a unique distribution of microsatellites, not correlated to the base composition of their genome. Species close to S. cerevisiae exhibit a similar distribution, while species more distantly related show a more divergent distribution. We propose that de novo formation and continuous loss of microsatellites are active processes generating new DNA sequences. We also show that hemiascomycete-specific genes encoding transcription factors contain trinucleotide repeats more frequently than expected from their average frequency distribution. These transcription factors might play an important role in the speciation process, by regulating gene expression through DNA-protein or protein-protein interactions mediated by stretches of charged amino acids encoded by trinucleotide repeats.
Journal of Molecular Evolution 07/2003; 56(6):730-41. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trinucleotide repeats are involved in several neurological disorders in humans. DNA sequences containing CAG/CTG repeats are prone to slippage during replication and double-strand break repair. The effects of trinucleotide repeats on transcription and on nuclear export were analyzed in vivo in yeast. Transcription of a CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3'-untranslated region of a URA3 reporter gene leads to transcription of messenger RNAs several kilobases longer than the expected size. These long mRNAs form more readily when CAG rather than CTG repeats are transcribed. CAG- or CUG-containing transcripts show a non-homogeneous cellular localization. We propose that long mRNAs result from transcription slippage, and discuss the possible implications for human diseases.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2002; 30(16):3540-7. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsatellites are direct tandem DNA repeats found in all genomes. A particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, is responsible for a number of neurological disorders in humans. We review here our current state of knowledge on trinucleotide repeat instability, and discuss the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in trinucleotide repeat expansions leading to fatal diseases in humans. We also present original data on microsatellite distribution in several microbial genomes, and on the use of microsatellites as physical markers to accurately and easily genotype yeast strains.
Research in Microbiology 01/1999; · 2.89 Impact Factor