Lars Rosengren

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden

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Publications (102)340.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that CSF neurofilament light (NFL) levels would be elevated in dementias with subcortical involvement, including vascular dementia (VaD), but less elevated in dementias primarily affecting gray matter structures, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and that elevated CSF NFL would correlate with disease severity and shorter survival time irrespective of clinical diagnosis.
    Neurology 10/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients is reported to be high. Whether this is a result of active HIV-related neurodegeneration is unclear. We examined axonal injury in HIV-1 patients by measuring the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL) in CSF with a novel, sensitive method. With a cross-sectional design, CSF concentrations of neurofilament protein light (NFL) (marker of neuronal injury), neopterin (intrathecal immunoactivation) and CSF/Plasma albumin ratio (blood-brain barrier integrity) were analyzed on CSF from 252 HIV-infected patients, subdivided into untreated neuroasymptomatics (n = 200), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 14) and on combinations antiretroviral treatment (cART) (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 204). 46 HIV-infected patients were included in both treated and untreated groups, but sampled at different timepoints. Furthermore, 78 neuroasymptomatic patients were analyzed before and after treatment initiation. While HAD patients had the highest NFL concentrations, elevated CSF NFL was also found in 33% of untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, mainly in those with blood CD4+ cell counts below 250 cells/μL. CSF NFL concentrations in the untreated neuroasymptomatics and treated groups were equivalent to controls 18.5 and 3.9 years older, respectively. Neopterin correlated with NFL levels in untreated groups while the albumin ratio correlated with NFL in both untreated and treated groups. Increased CSF NFL indicates ongoing axonal injury in many neuroasymptomatic patients. Treatment decreases NFL, but treated patients retain higher levels than controls, indicating either continued virus-related injury or an aging-like effect of HIV infection. NFL correlates with neopterin and albumin ratio, suggesting an association between axonal injury, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier permeability. NFL appears to be a sensitive biomarker of subclinical and clinical brain injury in HIV and warrants further assessment for broader clinical use.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88591. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The literature regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in geriatric depression is sparse. The aim of this study was to examine associations between CSF interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and depression in a population-based sample of older women who were followed for 17 years. Methods 86 non-demented women aged 70-84 years who participated in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden took part in a lumbar puncture in 1992-3. CSF IL-6 and CSF IL-8 were measured. Psychiatric symptoms were rated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale at baseline and at three subsequent face-to-face examinations. Depression (major or minor) was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-IV/DSM-IV research criteria. Results At baseline, women with ongoing major (n=10) or minor depression (n=9) had higher levels of CSF IL-6 (p= 0.008) and CSF IL-8 (p=0.007) compared with those without depression (n=67). Higher CSF IL-8 was related to higher MADRS score (p=0.003). New cases of depression were observed in 9 women during follow-ups. No associations between CSF cytokine levels and future depression could be shown in women without depression at baseline. Conclusion Higher levels of CSF IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with current depression in this population-based sample. CSF IL-6 and CSF IL-8 may play a role in depression in late life.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related to neuronal damage, inflammation and amyloid β (Aβ) metabolism in patients resuscitated after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA). Methods CSF levels of neurofilament light protein (NFL), total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau), YKL-40, Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β (sAPPα and sAPPβ) were measured in 21 patients approximately two weeks after CA and in 21 age-matched neurologically healthy controls. The biomarker levels were also compared between patients with good and poor long-term clinical outcome according to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), activities of daily living (ADL) and mini-mental state examination (MMSE), measuring neurologic function, daily functioning and cognitive function, respectively. Results Patients with CA had a very marked increase in the CSF levels of NFL, T-tau and YKL-40 as compared with controls. The levels were increased at about 1200, 700 and 100%, respectively. NFL and T-tau were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome according to all three outcome measures. Patients with poor outcome according to GOS and ADL had higher levels of YKL-40. Levels of Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, sAPPα and sAPPβ were lower in patients with a low MMSE score. P-tau was not significantly altered. Conclusions Biomarkers reflecting neuronal damage and inflammation, but not so much Aβ metabolism, were significantly altered in patients after a CA, and the changes were more pronounced in the groups with poor outcome. This calls for future larger studies to determine the prognostic potential of these biomarkers.
    Resuscitation 11/2013; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is recognised as a clinically and morphologically heterogeneous group of interrelated neurodegenerative conditions. One of the subtypes within this disease spectrum is the behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD). This is known to be a varied disorder with a mixture of tau-positive and tau-negative underlying pathologies. The other subtypes include semantic dementia (SD), which generally exhibits tau-negative pathology, and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), which is usually tau-positive. As the clinical presentation of these subtypes may overlap, a specific diagnosis can be difficult to attain and today no specific biomarker can predict the underlying pathology. Neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), a cytoskeletal constituent of intermediate filaments, is thought to reflect neuronal and axonal death when appearing in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). NFL has been shown to be elevated in CSF in patients with FTD compared with AD and controls. Our hypothesis was that the levels of NFL also differ between the subtypes of FTD and may indicate the underlying pathological subtype. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from previous CSF analyses in 34 FTD cases (23 bvFTD, seven SD, four PNFA), 20 AD cases, and 26 healthy controls. A separate group of 10 neuropathologically verified and subtyped FTD cases (seven tau-negative, three tau-positive) were also analysed.Result: NFL levels were significantly higher in FTD compared with both AD (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.001). The NFL levels of SD and bvFTD were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with AD. The biomarker profiles of PNFA and AD were similar. In the neuropathologically verified FTD cases, NFL was higher in the tau-negative than in the tau-positive cases (exact p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The marked NFL elevation in some but not all FTD cases is likely to reflect the different underlying pathologies. The highest NFL values found in the SD group as well as in the neuropathologically verified tau-negative cases may be of subtype diagnostic value, if corroborated in larger patient cohorts. In bvFTD, a mixture of tau-positive and tau-negative underlying pathologies could possibly explain the intermediate NFL values.
    BMC Neurology 05/2013; 13(1):54. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The literature regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in geriatric depression is sparse. The aim of this study was to examine associations between CSF interleukin-6 (IL-6) and related proinflammatory cytokines and current and future depression in a population-based sample of older women who were followed for 17 years. Methods 83 non-demented women aged 70-84 years who participated in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden took part in a lumber puncture in 1992-3. CSF- IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin- 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Psychiatric symptoms were rated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale at baseline and at three subsequent face-to-face examinations. Depression (major or minor) was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-IV/DSM-IV research criteria. Results At baseline, women with ongoing depression had lower levels of IL-6 (p< 0.04), IL-8 (p<0.05) and TNF-α (p<0.05) compared with those without depression. In women without depression at baseline, lower CSF IL-6 levels predicted depression at one or more follow-up examination (p<0.03). Results from the generalized linear mixed logistic model using all baseline and follow-up data on depression status and Mini Mental State Examination score showed a significant relationship between IL-6 and depression (p= 0.005 OR 0.370 CI[0.184-0.744]). Conclusion Lower levels of CSF IL-6 were associated with current depression and with future depression during a follow-up of almost two decades. Our findings suggest that lower levels of CSF IL-6 may be related to depression vulnerability in later life.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 04/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We found that 19% (9/47) of healthy siblings of patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis had an intrathecal immunological reaction with two or more 2 CSF-enriched oligoclonal bands (OCBs), in contrast to (4%) (2/50) unrelated healthy controls. Furthermore, in this group of nine healthy sibs the measles CSF IgG antibody titers were higher than that of the other sibs and that of controls. There were also differences in the serum titers for measles IgG antibody, which were higher in the group of all healthy sibs than in healthy volunteers, and (as with CSF titers) higher in the subgroup of healthy sibs with two or more 2 CSF-enriched OCBs than the other sibs. Thus a significant proportion of healthy siblings to MS patients have a partially hyperimmune condition similar to that occurring in MS, which in 19% manifested itself as an OCB reaction, in 9% as increased CSF measles IgG antibody titers, and in 21% as increased serum measles IgG antibody titers, these phenomena tending to occur in the same individuals. This condition is characterized by CSF-enriched OCBs with undefined specificity, although some increased antiviral reactivity is found both in the serum and CSF. While it needs further characterization, a genetic trait interacting with common infections is suggested. The recurrence risk of this condition is approximately five times higher than the 3–4% recurrence risk for manifest MS reported for sibs.
    Journal of Neurology 04/2012; 247(8):616-622. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes (PS) remains a challenge despite well-established clinical diagnostic criteria. Specific diagnostic biomarkers have yet to be identified, though in recent years, studies have been published on the aid of certain brain related proteins (BRP) in the diagnosing of PS. We investigated the levels of the light subunit of neurofilament triplet protein (NF-L), total tau and phosphorylated tau, amyloid-β(1-42), and the soluble α- and β-cleaved fragments of amyloid precursor proteins in a cohort of patients with various PS. Seventy-one patients with different PS and cerebellar disorders were included consecutively over 21 months. CSF was collected at inclusion. Clinical follow-up was performed after 16 months (median; range: 9-30). Statistical comparison was performed after follow-up on 53 patients in four subgroups of PS: multiple system atrophy (MSA)(n = 10), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)(n = 10), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)(n = 11), and Parkinson's disease (PD)(n = 22), using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. A statistically significant difference was found for NF-L (p < 0.0001, lowest values for PD), Aβ(1-42,) (p = 0.002, lowest values for DLB), and sAPPα and sAPPβ (p = 0.03 and 0.02, lower values observed for DLB and MSA). We demonstrate a potential role for sAPPα and sAPPβ in distinguishing between PS, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies of larger cohorts. There is a tendency towards low levels of Aβ(1-42) in DLB patients in our cohort. Further, our results support findings from previous studies, which indicate an ability to separate atypical PS from PD based on levels of NF-L.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2011; 18(1):69-72. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 07/2011; 17(9):714-5. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    Annals of Neurology 06/2011; 69(6):1066-7. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of present disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) on nerve injury and reactive astrogliosis is still unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of natalizumab treatment on the release of 2 brain-specific tissue damage markers into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in MS patients. CSF samples from 92 patients with relapsing forms of MS were collected in a prospective manner prior to natalizumab treatment and after 6 or 12 months. In 86 cases, natalizumab was used as second-line DMT due to breakthrough of disease activity. The levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were determined using highly sensitive in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Natalizumab treatment led to a 3-fold reduction of NFL levels, from a mean value of 1,300 (standard deviation [SD], 2,200) to 400 (SD, 270) ng/l (p < 0.001). The later value was not significantly different from that found in healthy control subjects (350 ng/l; SD, 170; n = 28). Subgroup analysis revealed a consistent effect on NFL release, regardless of previous DMT or whether patients had relapses or were in remission within 3 months prior to natalizumab treatment. No differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of GFAP were detected. Our data demonstrate that natalizumab treatment reduces the accumulation of nerve injury in relapsing forms of MS. It is anticipated that highly effective anti-inflammatory treatment can reduce axonal loss, thereby preventing development of permanent neurological disability.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2011; 69(1):83-9. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a pilot study to evaluate the blood levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S-100B as prognostic markers for neurological outcome 6 months after hypothermia treatment following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Prospective observational study. One intensive care unit at Uppsala University Hospital. Thirty-one unconscious patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. None. Unconscious patients after cardiac arrest with restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were treated with mild hypothermia to 32-34°C for 26h. Time from cardiac arrest to target temperature was measured. Blood samples were collected at intervals of 1-108h after ROSC. Neurological outcome was assessed with Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) scale at discharge from intensive care and again 6 months later, when 15/31 patients were alive, of whom 14 had a good outcome (CPC 1-2). Among the predictive biomarkers, S-100B at 24h after ROSC was the best, predicting poor outcome (CPC 3-5) with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100%. NSE at 96h after ROSC predicted poor outcome, with sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 93%. BDNF and GFAP levels did not predict outcome. The time from cardiac arrest to target temperature was shorter for those with poor outcome. The blood concentration of S-100B at 24h after ROSC is highly predictive of outcome in patients treated with mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest.
    Resuscitation 11/2010; 82(1):26-31. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD), including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), are a group of neurodegenerative diseases sharing many similar signs and symptoms but distinguished by their particular clinical features, treatment response, prognosis and mortality. The differential diagnosis may be challenging, especially in early disease stages. Considering the importance of an accurate diagnosis both for clinical management and for research, new diagnostic tools are needed. In this study, we investigated 56 PD, 42 MSA, 39 PSP, 9 CBD patients, and 24 healthy controls. After screening the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), we identified 4 proteins (ubiquitin [mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 8590], beta2-microglobulin [m/z 11730], and 2 secretogranin 1 [chromogranin B] fragments [m/z 7260 and m/z 6250]) that differentiated healthy controls and PD patients from patients with APD. However, they could not differentiate PD patients from controls. As none of these changes were APD subgroup-specific, they most likely reflect the intensity and/or extent of the neurodegenerative process in general.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 09/2010; 16(8):545-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In light of our previous observation of higher levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta-42 (Abeta42) and CSF/serum albumin ratio in major depressive disorder (MDD), we analyzed two additional CSF biomarkers reflecting neurodegeneration-neurofilament protein light (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp)-in relationship to prevalent geriatric depression. Neuropsychiatric, physical, and lumbar puncture examinations, with DSM-III-R-based depression diagnoses and measurement of CSF levels of NFL and GFAp, were evaluated among a population-based sample of 78 elderly women (mean age, 73.9+/-3.2 years) without dementia for at least 10 years after CSF collection. Eleven (13.1%) women had MDD, and higher levels of NFL compared with women without depression. A multivariate model including age, NFL, Abeta42 and the CSF/serum albumin ratio showed that each biomarker was independently and positively associated with MDD, and that this biomarker profile explained more variation in the model compared with single or combined biomarkers. A CSF profile with higher levels of NFL, Abeta42, and CSF/serum albumin ratio may indicate neuropathological and vascular events in depression etiology. This contrasts with the well-characterized pattern of low Abeta42, higher CSF/serum albumin ratio, and higher NFL in Alzheimer's disease.
    Psychiatry Research 04/2010; 176(2-3):174-8. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) including chronic small vessel disease of the brain (SVD) are the most frequent causes of dementia. AD is associated with metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and low levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) X-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CVD and SVD are established risk factors for AD, brain white matter lesions (WML) are established surrogate markers for SVD and are also associated with reduced CSF AbetaX-42.A cohort survey was performed to examine whether SVD or acute CVD affects APP metabolism and to explore a potential association between WML and APP metabolism in two groups; cognitively impaired patients, subjective and mild (SCI and MCI) and stroke patients. Through measurements of CSF APP metabolite levels in patients with a wide range of WML volumes, this study aimed to determine how SVD influences APP metabolism. Sixty-three patients were included: 37 with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without stroke, and 26 after acute stroke. Chronic and acute WML volume and infarct volume were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) post-scan processing, and CSF levels of alpha- and beta-cleaved soluble APP (sAPP-alpha and sAPP-beta, AbetaX-38, AbetaX-40 and AbetaX-42) were determined. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the patient groups. Chronic and acute WML volumes, infarct volume, age, and sex were used as predictors for CSF biomarker levels in linear regression analysis. CSF levels of sAPP-alpha and sAPP-beta were strongly correlated (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) and lower levels of these biomarkers were found in the stroke group than in the SCI/MCI group; median sAPP-alpha 499.5 vs. 698.0 ng/mL (p < 0.001), sAPP-beta 258.0 vs. 329.0 ng/mL (p < 0.005). CSF levels of sAPP-alpha, sAPP-beta, AbetaX-38, AbetaX-40 and AbetaX-42 were inversely correlated with chronic WML volume (p </= 0.005; p </= 0.01; p </= 0.01; p </= 0.05; p </= 0.05 respectively), but not with acute WML or infarct volumes. Lower CSF levels of sAPP-alpha and sAPP-beta in the stroke group than in the SCI/MCI group and an inverse correlation with chronic WML indicate that ischemia lowers the levels of CSF sAPP metabolites and suggests that APP axonal transport or metabolism may be affected in SVD of the brain.
    Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 01/2010; 7:10. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta), amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Abeta1-42), and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau) in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 25 with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV-) subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Abeta1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Neurology 12/2009; 9:63. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofilament proteins (Nf) are highly specific biomarkers for neuronal death and axonal degeneration. As these markers become more widely used, an inter-laboratory validation study is required to identify assay criteria for high quality performance. The UmanDiagnostics NF-light (R)enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) for the neurofilament light chain (NfL, 68kDa) was used to test the intra-assay and inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) between 35 laboratories worldwide on 15 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Critical factors, such as sample transport and storage, analytical delays, reaction temperature and time, the laboratories' accuracy and preparation of standards were documented and used for the statistical analyses. The intra-laboratory CV averaged 3.3% and the inter-laboratory CV 59%. The results from the test laboratories correlated with those from the reference laboratory (R=0.60, p<0.0001). Correcting for critical factors improved the strength of the correlation. Differences in the accuracy of standard preparation were identified as the most critical factor. Correcting for the error introduced by variation in the protein standards improved the correlation to R=0.98, p<0.0001 with an averaged inter-laboratory CV of 14%. The corrected overall inter-rater agreement was subtantial (0.6) according to Fleiss' multi-rater kappa and Gwet's AC1 statistics. This multi-center validation study identified the lack of preparation of accurate and consistent protein standards as the main reason for a poor inter-laboratory CV. This issue is also relevant to other protein biomarkers based on this type of assay and will need to be solved in order to achieve an acceptable level of analytical accuracy. The raw data of this study is available online.
    Journal of immunological methods 10/2009; 352(1-2):23-31. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light protein (NFL), a marker of neuronal damage, are normal in Parkinson's disease (PD) but elevated in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Therefore, CSF NFL can help differentiate between PD on one hand and MSA/PSP on the other. In the present study of 10 patients with PD, 21 with MSA, 14 with PSP, 11 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and 59 healthy controls, this previous observation is confirmed and also extended to include CBD by showing that similarly high CSF NFL levels are seen not only in MSA and PSP but also in CBD. CSF levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a protein expressed mainly in fibrillary astrocytes, were similar in all investigated groups. In addition, consecutive analyses of CSF NFL and CSF GFAP levels showed relatively stable levels over time in all the investigated parkinsonian disorders, suggesting that the rate of neuronal degeneration is rather constant over time. Our results suggest that measurements of CSF NFL but not GFAP can be useful in the differential diagnosis of PD versus atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). However they do not help differentiate between the different APD.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2009; 16(2):142-5. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive neurodegeneration may result in potentially severe cognitive and motor dysfunctions as a complication of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a suggested IL-17A-associated inflammatory condition. To detect this complication (CNS-LCH) early and to evaluate the potential efficacy of therapeutic interventions, biomarkers detecting and measuring ongoing neurodegeneration would be valuable. We evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of ongoing neurodegeneration in CNS-LCH patients. Nine patients with endocrine, neuromotor, cognitive or/and behavioral abnormalities as well as neuroradiological evidence of CNS-LCH were evaluated 4-12 years after LCH diagnosis for CSF levels of neurofilament protein light chain (NF-L), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAp), and total tau protein (TAU). Two patients were analyzed longitudinally. One hundred ten children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) served as controls. NF-L, TAU, and GFAp levels were elevated in four, six, and eight of nine patients studied, respectively. NF-L (P < 0.001) and GFAp (P < 0.001) were higher in patients than in controls (TAU not analyzed in controls). The patient with most severe clinical and neuroradiological CNS-LCH displayed the highest levels of NF-L and GFAp whereas three patients without signs of systemic disease had low TAU levels and normal/slightly elevated NF-L. NF-L tended to be higher at radiological progression of neurodegeneration than at status quo (P = 0.07). Notably, we experienced frequent lumbar puncture complications in these patients. CSF levels of NF-L, TAU, and GFAp appear to be elevated in CNS-LCH. It would be valuable if these markers were validated in order to serve as markers for early CNS-LCH, to monitor disease progression and to evaluate various treatment attempts for CNS-LCH.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 08/2009; 53(7):1264-70. · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
340.49 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1999–2013
    • University of Gothenburg
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      • • Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
      • • Institute of Clinical Sciences
      Göteborg, Vaestra Goetaland, Sweden
  • 2009
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      • Department of Neurology
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1999–2003
    • Mid Sweden University
      Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden