[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human angiotensin-converting enzyme is an important drug target for which little structural information has been available until recent years. The slow progress in obtaining a crystal structure was due to the problem of surface glycosylation, a difficulty that has thus far been overcome by the use of a glucosidase-1 inhibitor in the tissue culture medium. However, the prohibitive cost of these inhibitors and incomplete glucosidase inhibition makes alternative routes to minimizing the N-glycan heterogeneity desirable. Here, glycosylation in the testis isoform (tACE) has been reduced by Asn-Gln point mutations at N-glycosylation sites, and the crystal structures of mutants having two and four intact sites have been solved to 2.0 A and 2.8 A, respectively. Both mutants show close structural identity with the wild-type. A hinge mechanism is proposed for substrate entry into the active cleft, based on homology to human ACE2 at the levels of sequence and flexibility. This is supported by normal-mode analysis that reveals intrinsic flexibility about the active site of tACE. Subdomain II, containing bound chloride and zinc ions, is found to have greater stability than subdomain I in the structures of three ACE homologues. Crystallizable glycosylation mutants open up new possibilities for cocrystallization studies to aid the design of novel ACE inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ACE chimeric proteins and N domain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to determine the influence of the N domain, and particular regions thereof, on the rate of ACE ectodomain shedding. Somatic ACE (having both N and C domains) was shed at a rate of 20%/24 h. Deletion of the C domain of somatic ACE generated an N domain construct (ACEDeltaC) which demonstrated the lowest rate of shedding (12%). However, deletion of the N domain of somatic ACE (ACEDeltaN) dramatically increased shedding (212%). Testicular ACE (tACE) having 36 amino acid residues (heavily O-glycosylated) at the N-terminus of the C domain shows a 4-fold decrease in the rate of shedding (49%) compared to that of ACEDeltaN. When the N-terminal region of the C domain was replaced with the corresponding homologous 141 amino acids of the N domain (N-delACE) the rate of shedding of the ACEDeltaN was only slightly decreased (174%), but shedding was still 3.5-fold more efficient than wild-type testicular ACE. Monoclonal antibodies specific for distinct, but overlapping, N-domain epitopes altered the rate of ACE shedding. The mAb 3G8 decreased the rate of shedding by 30%, whereas mAbs 9B9 and 3A5 stimulated ACE shedding 2- to 4-fold. Epitope mapping of these mAbs in conjunction with a homology model of ACE N domain structure, localized a region in the N-domain that may play a role in determining the relatively low rate of shedding of somatic ACE from the cell surface.
Journal of Proteome Research 04/2005; 4(2):258-67. DOI:10.1021/pr049859w · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CA (carbonic anhydrase) catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and at least 14 isoforms have been identified in vertebrates. The role of CA type II in maintaining the fluid and pH balance has made it an attractive drug target for the treatment of glaucoma and cancer. 667-coumate is a potent inhibitor of the novel oncology target steroid sulphatase and is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials for hormone-dependent breast cancer. It also inhibits CA II in vitro. In the present study, CA II was crystallized with 667-coumate and the structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.95 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The structure reported here is the first for an inhibitor based on a coumarin ring and shows ligation of the sulphamate group to the active-site zinc at 2.15 A through a nitrogen anion. The first two rings of the coumarin moiety are bound within the hydrophobic binding site of CA II. Important residues contributing to binding include Val-121, Phe-131, Val-135, Leu-141, Leu-198 and Pro-202. The third seven-membered ring is more mobile and is located in the channel leading to the surface of the enzyme. Pharmacokinetic studies show enhanced stability of 667-coumate in vivo and this has been ascribed to binding of CA II in erythrocytes. This result provides a structural basis for the stabilization and long half-life of 667-coumate in blood compared with its rapid disappearance in plasma, and suggests that reversible binding of inhibitors to CA may be a general method of delivering this type of labile drug.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aromatic amino acids are frequent components of the carbohydrate binding sites of lectins and enzymes. Previous structural studies have shown that in alpha-1,3 galactosyltransferase, the binding site for disaccharide acceptor substrates is encircled by four tryptophans, residues 249, 250, 314, and 356. To investigate their roles in enzyme specificity and catalysis, we expressed and characterized variants of the catalytic domain of alpha-1,3 galactosyltransferase with substitutions for each tryptophan. Substitution of glycine for tryptophan 249, whose indole ring interacts with the nonpolar B face of glucose or GlcNAc, greatly increases the K(m) for the acceptor substrate. In contrast, the substitution of tyrosine for tryptophan 314, which interacts with the beta-galactosyl moiety of the acceptor and UDP-galactose, decreases k(cat) for the galactosyltransferase reaction but does not affect the low UDP-galactose hydrolase activity. Thus, this highly conserved residue stabilizes the transition state for the galactose transfer to disaccharide but not to water. High-resolution crystallographic structures of the Trp(249)Gly mutant and the Trp(314)Tyr mutant indicate that the mutations do not affect the overall structure of the enzyme or its interactions with ligands. Substitutions for tryptophan 250 have only small effects on catalytic activity, but mutation of tryptophan 356 to threonine reduces catalytic activity for both transferase and hydrolase activities and reduces affinity for the acceptor substrate. This residue is adjacent to the flexible C-terminus that becomes ordered on binding UDP to assemble the acceptor binding site and influence catalysis. The results highlight the diverse roles of these tryptophans in enzyme action and the importance of k(cat) changes in modulating glycosyltransferase specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) is a galactose-specific legume lectin. Although its biological function in the legume is unknown, ECL exhibits hemagglutinating activity in vitro and is mitogenic for T lymphocytes. In addition, it has been recently shown that ECL forms a novel conjugate when coupled to a catalytically active derivative of the type A neurotoxin from Clostridium botulinum, thus providing a therapeutic potential. ECL is biologically active as a dimer in which each protomer contains a functional carbohydrate-combining site. The crystal structure of native ECL was recently reported in complex with lactose and 2'-fucosyllactose. ECL protomers adopt the legume lectin fold but form non-canonical dimers via the handshake motif as was previously observed for Erythrina corallodendron lectin. Here we report the crystal structures of native and recombinant forms of the lectin in three new crystal forms, both unliganded and in complex with lactose. For the first time, the detailed structure of the glycosylated hexasaccharide for native ECL has been elucidated. The structure also shows that in the crystal lattice the glycosylation site and the carbohydrate binding site are involved in intermolecular contacts through water-mediated interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays a critical role in the circulating or endocrine renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as well as the local regulation that exists in tissues such as the myocardium and skeletal muscle. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structures of testis ACE (tACE) in complex with the first successfully designed ACE inhibitor captopril and enalaprilat, the Phe-Ala-Pro analogue. We have compared these structures with the recently reported structure of a tACE-lisinopril complex [Natesh et al. (2003) Nature 421, 551-554]. The analyses reveal that all three inhibitors make direct interactions with the catalytic Zn(2+) ion at the active site of the enzyme: the thiol group of captopril and the carboxylate group of enalaprilat and lisinopril. Subtle differences are also observed at other regions of the binding pocket. These are compared with N-domain models and discussed with reference to published biochemical data. The chloride coordination geometries of the three structures are discussed and compared with other ACE analogues. It is anticipated that the molecular details provided by these structures will be used to improve the binding and/or the design of new, more potent domain-specific inhibitors of ACE that could serve as new generation antihypertensive drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc- and chloride-dependent metallopeptidase that plays a vital role in the metabolism of biologically active peptides. Until recently, much of the inhibitor design and mechanism of action of this ubiquitous enzyme was based on the structures of carboxypeptidase A and thermolysin. When compared to the recently solved structures of the testis isoform of ACE (tACE) and its Drosophila homologue (AnCE), carboxypeptidase A showed little structural homology outside of the active site, while thermolysin revealed significant but less marked overall similarity. The ellipsoid-shaped structure of tACE, which has a preponderance of α-helices, is characterised by a core channel that has a constriction approximately 10 Å from its opening where the zinc-binding active site is located. Comparison of the native protein with the inhibitor-bound form (lisinopril-tACE) does not reveal any striking differences in the conformation of the inhibitor binding site, disfavouring an open and closed configuration. However, the inhibitor complex does provide insights into the network of hydrogen-bonding and ionic interactions in the active site as well as the mechanism of ACE substrate hydrolysis. The three-dimensional structure of ACE now paves the way for the rational design of a new generation of domain-selective ACE inhibitors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2004; 61(21). DOI:10.1007/s00018-004-4239-0 · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retaining glycosyltransferase, alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT), is mutationally inactivated in humans, leading to the presence of circulating antibodies against its product, the alpha-Gal epitope. alpha3GT catalyzes galactose transfer from UDP-Gal to beta-linked galactosides, such as lactose, and in the absence of an acceptor substrate, to water at a lower rate. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the roles in catalysis and specificity of residues in alpha3GT that form H-bonds as well as other interactions with substrates. Mutation of the conserved Glu(317) to Gln weakens lactose binding and reduces the k(cat) for galactosyltransfer to lactose and water by 2400 and 120, respectively. The structure is not perturbed by this substitution, but the orientation of the bound lactose molecule is changed. The magnitude of these changes does not support a previous proposal that Glu(317) is the catalytic nucleophile in a double displacement mechanism and suggests it acts in acceptor substrate binding and in stabilizing a cationic transition state for cleavage of the bond between UDP and C1 of the galactose. Cleavage of this bond also linked to a conformational change in the C-terminal region of alpha3GT that is coupled with UDP binding. Mutagenesis indicates that His(280), which is projected to interact with the 2-OH of the galactose moiety of UDP-Gal, is a key residue in the stringent donor substrate specificity through its role in stabilizing the bound UDP-Gal in a suitable conformation for catalysis. Mutation of Gln(247), which forms multiple interactions with acceptor substrates, to Glu reduces the catalytic rate of galactose transfer to lactose but not to water. This mutation is predicted to perturb the orientation or environment of the bound acceptor substrate. The results highlight the importance of H-bonds between enzyme and substrates in this glycosyltransferase, in arranging substrates in appropriate conformations and orientation for efficient catalysis. These factors are manifested in increases in catalytic rate rather than substrate affinity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a highly glycosylated type I integral membrane protein. A series of underglycosylated testicular ACE (tACE) glycoforms, lacking between one and five N-linked glycosylation sites, were used to assess the role of glycosylation in tACE processing, crystallization and enzyme activity. Whereas underglycosylated glycoforms showed differences in expression and processing, their kinetic parameters were similar to that of native tACE. N-glycosylation of Asn-72 or Asn-109 was necessary and sufficient for the production of enzymically active tACE but glycosylation of Asn-90 alone resulted in rapid intracellular degradation. All mutants showed similar levels of phorbol ester stimulation and were solubilized at the same juxtamembrane cleavage site as the native enzyme. Two mutants, tACEDelta36-g1234 and -g13, were successfully crystallized, diffracting to 2.8 and 3.0 A resolution respectively. Furthermore, a truncated, soluble tACE (tACEDelta36NJ), expressed in the presence of the glucosidase-I inhibitor N -butyldeoxynojirimycin, retained the activity of the native enzyme and yielded crystals belonging to the orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) space group (cell dimensions, a=56.47 A, b=84.90 A, c=133.99 A, alpha=90 degrees, beta=90 degrees and gamma=90 degrees ). These crystals diffracted to 2.0 A resolution. Thus underglycosylated human tACE mutants, lacking O-linked oligosaccharides and most N-linked oligosaccharides or with only simple N-linked oligosaccharides attached throughout the molecule, are suitable for X-ray diffraction studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has a critical role in cardiovascular function by cleaving the carboxy terminal His-Leu dipeptide from angiotensin I to produce a potent vasopressor octapeptide, angiotensin II. Inhibitors of ACE are a first line of therapy for hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. Notably, these inhibitors were developed without knowledge of the structure of human ACE, but were instead designed on the basis of an assumed mechanistic homology with carboxypeptidase A. Here we present the X-ray structure of human testicular ACE and its complex with one of the most widely used inhibitors, lisinopril (N2-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-lysyl-L-proline; also known as Prinivil or Zestril), at 2.0 A resolution. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of ACE shows that it bears little similarity to that of carboxypeptidase A, but instead resembles neurolysin and Pyrococcus furiosus carboxypeptidase--zinc metallopeptidases with no detectable sequence similarity to ACE. The structure provides an opportunity to design domain-selective ACE inhibitors that may exhibit new pharmacological profiles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermoascus aurantiacus xylanase is a thermostable enzyme which hydrolyses xylan, a major hemicellulose component of the biosphere. The crystal structure of this F/10 family xylanase, which has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel (beta/alpha)(8) fold, has been solved to small-molecule accuracy at atomic resolution (1.11 A) at 293 K (RTUX) and at ultrahigh resolution (0.89 A) at 100 K (CTUX) using X-ray diffraction data sets collected on a synchrotron light source, resulting in R/R(free) values of 9.94/12.36 and 9.00/10.61% (for all data), respectively. Both structures were refined with anisotropic atomic displacement parameters. The 0.89 A structure, with 177 476 observed unique reflections, was refined without any stereochemical restraints during the final stages. The salt bridge between Arg124 and Glu232, which is bidentate in RTUX, is water-mediated in CTUX, suggesting the possibility of plasticity of ion pairs in proteins, with water molecules mediating some of the alternate arrangements. Two buried waters present inside the barrel form hydrogen-bond interactions with residues in strands beta2, beta3, beta4 and beta7 and presumably contribute to structural stability. The availability of accurate structural information at two different temperatures enabled the study of the temperature-dependent deformations of the TIM-barrel fold of the xylanase. Analysis of the deviation of corresponding C(alpha) atoms between RTUX and CTUX suggests that the interior beta-strands are less susceptible to changes as a function of temperature than are the alpha-helices, which are on the outside of the barrel. betaalpha-loops, which are longer and contribute residues to the active-site region, are more flexible than alphabeta-loops. The 0.89 A structure represents one of the highest resolution structures of a protein of such size with one monomer molecule in the asymmetric unit and also represents the highest resolution TIM-barrel fold structure to date. It may provide a useful template for theoretical modelling studies of the structure and dynamics of the ubiquitous TIM-barrel fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UDP-galactose:beta-galactosyl alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-alpha-d-galactose into an alpha-1,3 linkage with beta-galactosyl groups in glycoconjugates. The enzyme is expressed in many mammalian species but is absent from humans, apes, and old world monkeys as a result of the mutational inactivation of the gene; in humans, a large fraction of natural antibodies are directed against its product, the alpha-galactose epitope. alpha3GT is a member of a family of metal-dependent retaining glycosyltransferases including the histo-blood group A and B synthases. A crystal structure of the catalytic domain of alpha3GT was recently reported (Gastinel, L. N., Bignon, C., Misra, A. K., Hindsgaul, O., Shaper, J. H., and Joziasse, D. H. (2001) EMBO J. 20, 638-649). However, because of the limited resolution (2.3 A) and high mobility of the atoms (as indicated by high B-factors) this structure (form I) does not provide a clear depiction of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Here we report a new, highly ordered structure for the catalytic domain of alpha3GT at 1.53-A resolution (form II). This provides a more accurate picture of the details of the catalytic site that includes a bound UDP molecule and a Mn(2+) cofactor. Significantly, in the new structure, the C-terminal segment (residues 358-368) adopts a very different, highly structured conformation and appears to form part of the active site. The properties of an Arg-365 to Lys mutant indicate that this region is important for catalysis, possibly reflecting its role in a donor substrate-induced conformational change.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermoascus aurantiacus xylanase is a thermostable enzyme which hydrolyses xylan, a major hemicellulose component in the biosphere. Crystals belonging to P21 space group with a=41.7 A, b=68.1 A, c=51. 4 A and beta=113.6 degrees, Z=2 were grown that could diffract to better than 1.8 A resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement method using the Streptomyces lividans xylanase model. The amino acid sequence was determined from the electron density map aided by multiple alignment of related xylanase sequences. The sequence thus obtained provides a correction to the sequence reported earlier based on biochemical methods. The final refined protein model at 1.8 A resolution with 301 amino acid residues and 266 water molecules has an R-factor of 16.0 % and free R of 21.1 % with good stereochemistry. The single polypeptide chain assumes (alpha/beta)8 TIM-barrel fold and belongs to F/10 family of glycoside hydrolases. The active site consists of two glutamate residues located at the C terminus end of the beta-barrel, conforming to the double displacement mechanism for the enzyme action. A disulphide bond and more than ten salt bridges have been identified. In particular, the salt bridge Arg124-Glu232 which is almost buried, bridges the beta-strands beta4 and beta7 where the catalytic glutamate residues reside, and it may play a key role in the stability and activity at elevated temperature. To our knowledge, for the first time in the F/10 family xylanases, we observe a proline residue in the middle of the alpha-helix alpha6 which may be contributing to better packing. Earlier studies show that the enzyme retains its activity even at 70 degrees C. The refined protein model has allowed a detailed comparison with the other known structures in the F/10 family of enzymes. The possible causative factors for thermostability are discussed.