[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ti (PG60) and Ti plus HA (HPG60) dense coatings with ultrahigh roughness (Ra: 74 +/- 8 microm and 53 +/- 18 microm, respectively) were compared to high Ti (Ti60) and Ti plus HA (HT60) high roughened porous coatings (Ra: 40 +/- 7 microm and 36 +/- 3 microm, respectively). Surfaces were implanted in cortical and trabecular bone of young adult (YOUNG), aged (AGED) and estrogen-deficient sheep (OVX) and analyzed by means of histology, histomorphometry and push-out tests 3 months after implantation. A significantly lower value in affinity index (AI) of PG60 when compared to TI60 (p < 0.01) was observed in cortical bone. In trabecular bone, lower values in AI were found in TI60 and PG60 when compared to their HA-coated surfaces (p < 0.0005). Bone ingrowth (BI) of TI60 and PG60 was significantly lower than that of the HA-coated surfaces in trabecular bone (p < 0.05). Significantly lower values in BI in OVX sheep in comparison to YOUNG sheep in both cortical and trabecular bone were observed (p < 0.05). Data showed that high roughness and Ti and HA-coated surfaces are suitable for aged and osteoporotic patients. HA coatings represent the most successful strategy in trabecular bone.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 05/2009; 89(2):550-60. DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.31995 · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The osteointegration rate of titanium (Ti; TI01) and duplex Ti plus HA (HT01) coating systems with high surface roughness was investigated in healthy, aged, and oestrogen-deficient sheep. After having evaluated the bone quality, TI01 and HT01 rods were implanted in the tibial diaphyses (two implants for each tibia) and epiphyses (1 implant for each tibia) of five young (YOUNG), five aged (AGED), and five aged and ovariectomized (OVX) sheep. The iliac crest trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and number (Tb.N) in OVX sheep were respectively 33.5% and 28.5% lower than in YOUNG sheep (p < 0.005) and lower than in the AGED group (BV/TV, -17%; Tb.N, -13.5%; not significant); in the OVX group the trabecular separation was 77.9% higher than in YOUNG (p < 0.05) and 30.9% higher than in AGED animals. Lumbar vertebrae L5 bone mineral density was significantly lower in AGED (8.9%, p < 0.05) and OVX sheep (19.3%, p < 0.0005) when compared with YOUNG animals. Five samples of five sheep from each group were analyzed for each observation. At 3 months, in cortical bone both affinity index and pushout test results showed no significant differences between the two materials in each group of animals. In trabecular bone, the affinity index of HT01 was significantly higher than that of TI01 in each group of animals (YOUNG, 90.7%; AGED, 76.9%; OVX, 49.9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, the performance of TI01 and HT01 surfaces was high not only in YOUNG, but also in OVX animals and, therefore, they might be useful for aged and osteoporotic patients.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2007; 25(9):1250-60. DOI:10.1002/jor.20413 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate how aging and estrogen deficiency influence the success rate of Sandblasted Titanium (Ti/SA) implants, the osteointegration of Ti/SA rods was studied in the cortical and trabecular bone of 5 young, 5 aged and 5 ovariectomized (OVX) sheep. The characterization of the host bone by transiliac biopsies of the iliac crest showed a progressive rarefaction of trabecular bone in aged and OVX animals when compared to young ones. A significant reduction, both in cortical and trabecular bone, of the osteointegration rate of Ti/SA rods in the presence of estrogen deficiency compared to young animals was observed, while only a minor reduction was observed in aged animals. These results were confirmed by the pushout test in cortical bone. Bone quality affected the biological response of bone to Ti/SA implants in both trabecular and cortical bone; consequently, strategies to maximize the bone osteogenic properties of osteoporotic patients should be adopted.
The International journal of artificial organs 03/2007; 30(2):163-72. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize and compare various titanium (Ti) and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti6Al4V, in view of their application on noncemented orthopedic implants. Two innovative vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) coatings, the first of ultrahigh rough and dense Ti (PG60, Ra=74 microm) and the second of ultrahigh rough and dense Ti coated with HA (HPG60, Ra=52 microm), have been developed, and the response of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) seeded on these new coatings was evaluated in comparison to: a low roughness and sandblasted (Ti/SA, Ra=4 microm) Ti6Al4V surface; Ti medium (TI01, Ra=18 microm), and high (TI60, Ra=40 microm) roughness VPS coatings; and the relative Ti plus HA duplex coatings (HT01, Ra=12 microm and HT60, Ra=36 microm respectively), also obtained by VPS. PG60 coating presented no open porosity, making it dense and potentially intrinsically stronger. Cell adhesion and proliferation on PG60 was similar to those of the smoothest one (Ti/SA) and adhesion on ultrahigh roughness was lower than the medium- and high-roughness coatings, whereas cell proliferation on PG60 was lower than TI60. The HA coating determined significant increases in cell proliferation at medium and high roughness levels when compared to the relative Ti coating, but not compared to the ultrahigh one; all HA-coated surfaces showed a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen I production. Surface morphology and the HA coating strongly affected cell behavior. However, ultrahigh values of roughness are not correctly seen by cells, and the presence of HA has no improving effects.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2005; 75(2):359-68. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.30313 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the soft tissue response to a new austenitic stainless steel with a low nickel content (P558) in comparison with a conventional stainless steel (SSt)and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous findings showed its in vitro biocompatibility by culturing P558 with healthy and osteoporotic osteoblasts and its in vivo effectiveness as bone implant material. Regarding its use as a material in osteosynthesis,P558 biocompatibility when implanted in soft tissues, as subcutis and muscle, was assessed. Disks and rods of these metals were implanted in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle, respectively. Four and twelve weeks post surgery implants with surrounding tissue were retrieved for histologic and histomorphometric analysis: fibrous capsule thickness and new vessel formation were measured. Around all implanted materials, light microscopy highlighted a reactive and fibrous capsule formation coupled with ongoing neoangiogenesis both in rats and in rabbits. Histomorphometric measurements revealed a stronger inflammatory response,in terms of capsule thickness,surrounding SSt implants (9.8% Ni content) both in rat subcutis and in rabbit muscle independently of shape and site of implantation. A progressive decrease in capsule thickness around P558 (<0.02% Ni content) and Ti6Al4V, respectively, was seen. Regarding new vessel density, the data showed a different response dependent on the site of implantation. However,in the light of the previous and present studies, P558 is a good material, instead of titanium alloys, in orthopedic research.
The International journal of artificial organs 10/2005; 28(10):1003-11. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new implant surface has been developed with the purpose of avoiding as much stress shielding as possible, and thus prolong the prosthesis lifespan. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of this new ultra-high roughness and dense Titanium (Ti) surface (PG60, Ra = 74 microm) in comparison with medium (TI01, Ra = 18 microm) and high (TI60, Ra = 40 microm) roughness and open porous coatings; all the coatings were obtained by vacuum plasma spraying. MG63 osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the tested materials and polystyrene, as control, for 3 and 7 days. Cells proliferated on the material surfaces similarly to the control. Alkaline phosphatase activity had lower values for TI60 than TI01 (p < 0.0005) and PG60 (p < 0.005). Osteocalcin levels measured on TI60 were significantly (p < 0.0005) lower in comparison with TI01 and PG60 at 7 days. Procollagen-I synthesis reduced with increasing roughness and the lowest data was found for PG60. While at 3 days Transforming Growth Factor beta1 levels augmented with increasing roughness, at 7 days TI60, the high roughness surface, was significantly lower than PG60 (p < 0.005) and TI01 (p < 0.001). All tested materials showed significantly higher Interleukin-6 levels than those of polystyrene at both experimental times. Nitric Oxide activity on TI01 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than on TI60 and polystyrene. In conclusion, the new ultra-high roughness and dense coating PG60 provided a good biological response, even though, at least in vitro, it behaved similarly to the coatings already used in orthopaedics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A biomaterial named P558 is a new austenitic stainless steel (SS) with a negligible amount of Ni (<0.20%). In previous in vitro and in vivo studies it was compared with conventional SS and Ti6Al4V and shown to be a promising material in orthopedics. Because osteoporosis is a type of pathology very often encountered in implanted patients and can be studied with in vitro models, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate P558 in vitro through comparison of normal (nOB) with osteopenic (oOB) bone-derived primary rat osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were cultured directly on P558 and polystyrene as controls for 72 h. Osteoblast proliferation, adhesion, and activity (ALP, OC, TGF-beta1, and IL-6) were evaluated at 24 and 72 h. Results demonstrated that the growth of nOB and oOB cultured on P558 was not affected negatively when compared to control. Cells on P558 did not show any alteration in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and metabolic marker production in nOB and oOB cultures, and a significant increase in ALP, OC, and TGF-beta1 production was observed. SEM images revealed no alteration in cell morphology. The current findings demonstrate that P558 promotes osteoblast proliferation, activation, and differentiation not only in normal bone, but also in osteopenic bone-derived osteoblasts.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2004; 71(1):30-7. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.30068 · 2.33 Impact Factor