Martin Drucker

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Avignon, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France

Are you Martin Drucker?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)90.69 Total impact

  • Stéphane Blanc, Martin Drucker, Marilyne Uzest
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms and impacts of the transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors have been studied for more than a century. The virus route within the insect vector is amply documented in many cases, but the identity, the biochemical properties, and the structure of the actual molecules (or molecule domains) ensuring compatibility between them remain obscure. Increased efforts are required both to identify receptors of plant viruses at various sites in the vector body and to design competing compounds capable of hindering transmission. Recent trends in the field are opening questions on the diversity and sophistication of viral adaptations that optimize transmission, from the manipulation of plants and vectors ultimately increasing the chances of acquisition and inoculation, to specific "sensing" of the vector by the virus while still in the host plant and the subsequent transition to a transmission-enhanced state. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology Volume 52 is August 04, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Phytopathology 06/2014; · 10.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) forms two types of inclusion bodies within infected plant cells: numerous virus factories, which are the sites for viral replication and virion assembly, and a single transmission body (TB), which is specialized for virus transmission by aphid vectors. The TB reacts within seconds to aphid feeding on the host plant by total disruption and redistribution of its principal component, the viral transmission helper protein P2, onto microtubules throughout the cell. At the same time, virions also associate with microtubules. This redistribution of P2 and virions facilitates transmission and is reversible: the TB reforms within minutes after vector departure. Although some virions are present in the TB before disruption, their subsequent massive accumulation on the microtubule network suggests that they may also be released from virus factories. Using drug treatments, mutant viruses, and exogenous supply of viral components to infected protoplasts, we show that virions can rapidly exit virus factories and, once in the cytoplasm, accumulate together with the helper protein P2 onto the microtubule network. Moreover, we show that during reversion of this phenomenon, virions from the microtubule network can either be incorporated in the reverted TB or return to the virus factories. Our results suggest that CaMV virus factories are dynamic structures that participate in vector transmission by controlled release and uptake of virions during TB reaction.
    Journal of Virology 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aphids infest many plants and cause damage by depriving them of nutrients and by transmitting many viral diseases. Aphid infestation and arbovirus transmission are controlled by establishment (or not) of a compatible reaction between the insects and the plants. This reaction is the result of defense reactions of the plant and counter-defense reactions of the parasite. Contrarily to plant-bacteria, plant-fungi and plant-herbivorous insects pathosystems, the plant-aphid pathosystem is understudied, although recent advances have begun to uncover some of its details. Especially the very early steps in plant-aphid interactions are hardly known. We here resume the present knowledge of these interactions. We discuss further how an aphid-transmitted plant virus that is transmitted during the first moments of the plant-aphid encounter, might help to study the very early plant aphid interactions.
    Plant signaling & behavior 03/2013; 8(6).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many plant and animal viruses are spread by insect vectors. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is aphid-transmitted, with the virus being taken up from specialized transmission bodies (TB) formed within infected plant cells. However, the precise events during TB-mediated virus acquisition by aphids are unknown. Here, we show that TBs react instantly to the presence of the vector by ultra-rapid and reversible redistribution of their key components onto microtubules throughout the cell. Enhancing or inhibiting this TB reaction pharmacologically or by using a mutant virus enhanced or inhibited transmission, respectively, confirming its requirement for efficient virus-acquisition. Our results suggest that CaMV can perceive aphid vectors, either directly or indirectly by sharing the host perception. This novel concept in virology, where viruses respond directly or via the host to the outside world, opens new research horizons, that is, investigating the impact of 'perceptive behaviors' on other steps of the infection cycle.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00183.001.
    eLife Sciences 01/2013; 2:e00183.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical vector-less transmission of viruses, as well as vector-mediated non-circulative virus transmission, where the virus attaches only to the exterior of the vector during the passage to a new host, are apparently simple processes: the viruses are carried along with the wind, the food or by the vector to a new host. We discuss here, using the examples of the non-circulatively transmitted Cauliflower mosaic virus that binds to its aphid vector's exterior mouthparts, and that of the mechanically (during feeding activity) transmitted Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, that transmission of these viruses is not so simple as previously thought. Rather, these viruses prepare their transmission carefully and long before the actual acquisition event. Host-virus interactions play a pivotal and specialised role in the future encounter with the vector or the new host. This ensures optimal propagation and enlarges the tremendous bottleneck transmission presents for viruses and other pathogens.
    Protoplasma 10/2011; 249(3):529-39. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest, Martin Drucker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanisms controlling vector-transmission of plant viruses requires integrating information from at least three different viewpoints: virus-vector interactions, plant-vector interactions and virus-plant interactions. While some of these aspects have been covered by past and present investigations, others have been bypassed completely, because of technical bottlenecks or conceptual lacunas. Here, we highlight recent advances and needs in hitherto poorly documented aspects of vector transmission, such as characterization of the vector molecules responsible for initial viral recognition, and the role of vector saliva in inoculation and initial onset of infection in a new plant. We also propose and discuss some novel conceptual and complementary questions that are opening up fascinating new horizons in this field. We explore the possible existence of viral morphs with specific properties that facilitate acquisition by vectors, and discuss the dynamics/genetics of such viral subpopulations, which could differentiate and specialize in different host compartments.
    Current opinion in microbiology 08/2011; 14(4):483-91. · 7.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Host-to-host transmission--a key step in plant virus infection cycles--is ensured predominantly by vectors, especially aphids and related insects. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of virus acquisition, which is critical to vector-transmission, might help to design future virus control strategies, because any newly discovered molecular or cellular process is a potential target for hampering viral spread within host populations. With this aim in mind, an aphid membrane-feeding assay was developed where aphids transmitted two non-circulative viruses [cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and turnip mosaic virus] from infected protoplasts. In this assay, virus acquisition occurs exclusively from living cells. Most interestingly, we also show that CaMV is less efficiently transmitted by aphids in the presence of oryzalin--a microtubule-depolymerising drug. The example presented here demonstrates that our technically simple "virus-acquisition phenotyping assay" (VAPA) provides a first opportunity to implement correlative studies relating the physiological state of infected plant cells to vector-transmission efficiency.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23241. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted from plant to plant through a seemingly simple interaction with insect vectors. This process involves an aphid receptor and two viral proteins, P2 and P3. P2 binds to both the aphid receptor and P3, itself tightly associated with the virus particle, with the ensemble forming a transmissible viral complex. Here, we describe the conformations of both unliganded CaMV P3 protein and its virion-associated form. X-ray crystallography revealed that the N-terminal domain of unliganded P3 is a tetrameric parallel coiled coil with a unique organization showing two successive four-stranded subdomains with opposite supercoiling handedness stabilized by a ring of interchain disulfide bridges. A structural model of virus-liganded P3 proteins, folding as an antiparallel coiled-coil network coating the virus surface, was derived from molecular modeling. Our results highlight the structural and biological versatility of this coiled-coil structure and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in CaMV acquisition and transmission by the insect vector.
    Journal of Virology 02/2010; 84(9):4706-13. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Though the duration of a single round of replication is an important biological parameter, it has been determined for only few viruses. Here, this parameter was determined for Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in transfected protoplasts from different hosts: the highly susceptible Arabidopsis and turnip, and Nicotiana benthamiana, where CaMV accumulates only slowly. Four methods of differing sensitivity were employed: labelling of (1) progeny DNA and (2) capsid protein, (3) immunocapture PCR,, and (4) progeny-specific PCR. The first progeny virus was detected about 21 h after transfection. This value was confirmed by all methods, indicating that our estimate was not biased by the sensitivity of the detection method, and approximated the actual time required for one round of CaMV replication. Unexpectedly, the replication kinetics were similar in the three hosts; suggesting that slow accumulation of CaMV in Nicotiana plants is determined by non-optimal interactions in other steps of the infection cycle.
    Virology 11/2009; 396(2):238-45. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Plant signaling & behavior 06/2009; 4(June):548-550.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interactions between microtubules and viruses play important roles in viral infection. The best-characterized examples involve transport of animal viruses by microtubules to the nucleus or other intracellular destinations. In plant viruses, most work to date has focused on interaction between viral movement proteins and the cytoskeleton, which is thought to be involved in viral cell-to-cell spread. We show here, in Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)-infected plant cells, that viral electron-lucent inclusion bodies (ELIBs), whose only known function is vector transmission, require intact microtubules for their efficient formation. The kinetics of the formation of CaMV-related inclusion bodies in transfected protoplasts showed that ELIBs represent newly emerging structures, appearing at late stages of the intracellular viral life cycle. Viral proteins P2 and P3 are first produced in multiple electron-dense inclusion bodies, and are later specifically exported to transiently co-localize with microtubules, before concentrating in a single, massive ELIB in each infected cell. Treatments with cytoskeleton-affecting drugs suggested that P2 and P3 might be actively transported on microtubules, by as yet unknown motors. In addition to providing information on the intracellular life cycle of CaMV, our results show that specific interactions between host cell and virus may be dedicated to a later role in vector transmission. More generally, they indicate a new unexpected function for plant cell microtubules in the virus life cycle, demonstrating that microtubules act not only on immediate intracellular or intra-host phenomena, but also on processes ultimately controlling inter-host transmission.
    The Plant Journal 01/2009; 58(1):135-46. · 6.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Du fait de l'immobilité de leurs hôtes, l'immense majorité des virus de plante utilisent des vecteurs spécifiques pour passer d'un hôte à un autre. Ces « véhi-cules de transport » sont principalement des arthropodes et en grande majorité des pucerons, qui sont des insectes de type piqueur-suceur [1]. Pour les interac-tions virus-vecteur, la stratégie la plus communément utilisée par les virus de plante est la transmission dite non circulante, où les particules virales prélevées lors d'un repas dans les cellules infectées seront retenues au niveau de sites d'attachement dans les pièces buccales antérieures de l'insecte sans effectuer de passage à l'intérieur de son organisme. Ces particules virales seront ensuite relarguées de ces sites d'attachement lors de piqûres sur de nouvelles cellules hôtes et induiront ainsi l'infection dans de nouvelles plantes [2]. Si les méca-nismes moléculaires de la transmission non circulante sont bien documentés en ce qui concerne le partenaire viral, les sites d'attachement correspondants dans les stylets du vecteur demeurent la principale « boîte noire » pour laquelle aucune donnée n'est disponible. Malgré l'importance de ce mode de transmis-sion, l'existence même d'un récepteur spécifique n'a jamais été prouvée pour aucun virus. Dans une étude très récemment publiée [3], nous avons localisé précisément le récepteur du Caulifower mosaic virus (CaMV) et déterminé sa nature chimique. Le Caulifower mosaic virus (CaMV) est un virus de plante dont la transmission non circulante par un puceron vecteur est très bien caractérisée. P2 est la protéine virale qui établit le lien entre le virion et les sites d'attachement chez le puceron. Cette protéine peut être produite et purifiée en système hétérologue [4], et nous possédons un mutant ponctuel de P2 (P2Rev5), déficient pour la transmission par vecteur [5], un outil particulièrement intéressant pour la recherche de molécules réceptrices chez l'insecte. Les sty-lets du puceron sont des organes peu caractérisés qui ne contiennent pas de cellules et sont composés principale-ment de chitine. Ils se présentent comme quatre longues aiguilles : deux stylets mandibulaires externes entourant deux stylets maxillaires internes. Ces derniers possèdent une architecture complexe sur leur face interne qui présente des invaginations et excavations complémentaires assurant une coaptation sur toute la longueur et ménageant l'exis-tence des deux canaux, alimentaire et salivaire. Ces canaux sont séparés sur près de 99 % de la longueur totale des stylets et se rejoignent à l'extrémité distale pour former un court canal commun.
    Virologie 01/2008; 12(1):70-72. · 0.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hundreds of species of plant viruses, many of them economically important, are transmitted by noncirculative vector transmission (acquisition by attachment of virions to vector mouthparts and inoculation by subsequent release), but virus receptors within the vector remain elusive. Here we report evidence for the existence, precise location, and chemical nature of the first receptor for a noncirculative virus, cauliflower mosaic virus, in its insect vector. Electron microscopy revealed virus-like particles in a previously undescribed anatomical zone at the extreme tip of the aphid maxillary stylets. A novel in vitro interaction assay characterized binding of cauliflower mosaic virus protein P2 (which mediates virus-vector interaction) to dissected aphid stylets. A P2-GFP fusion exclusively labeled a tiny cuticular domain located in the bottom-bed of the common food/salivary duct. No binding to stylets of a non-vector species was observed, and a point mutation abolishing P2 transmission activity correlated with impaired stylet binding. The novel receptor appears to be a nonglycosylated protein deeply embedded in the chitin matrix. Insight into such insect receptor molecules will begin to open the major black box of this scientific field and might lead to new strategies to combat viral spread.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2007; 104(46):17959-64. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted by aphids. For acquisition by the vector, a transmissible complex must form, composed of the virus particle, the viral coat-associated protein P3 and the helper protein P2. However, the components of the transmissible complex are largely separated in infected plant cells: most P3 virions are confined in electron-dense inclusion bodies, whereas P2 is sequestered in electron-lucent inclusion bodies (elIBs). This spatial separation controls virus acquisition by favouring the binding of virus-free P2 to the vector first, rendering the vector competent for later uptake of P3 virions. Consequently, sequential acquisition of virus from different cells or tissues is possible, with important implications for the biology of CaMV transmission. CaMV strains Campbell and CM1841 contain a single amino acid mutation (G94R) in the helper protein P2, rendering them non-transmissible from plant to plant. However, the mutant P2-94 protein supports aphid transmission when expressed heterologously and supplied to P3-CaMV complexes in vitro. The non-transmissibility of P2-94 was re-examined in vivo and it is shown here that the non-transmissibility of this P2 mutant is not due to low accumulation levels in infected plants, as suggested previously, but more specifically to the failure to form elIBs within infected plant cells. This demonstrates that elIBs are complex viral structures specialized for aphid transmission and suggests that viral inclusion bodies other than viral factories, most often considered as 'garbage cans', can in fact exhibit specific functions.
    Journal of General Virology 11/2007; 88(Pt 10):2872-80. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proteasome is a multicatalytic complex involved in many cellular processes in eukaryotes, such as protein and RNA turnover, cell division, signal transduction, transcription and translation. Intracellular pathogens are targets of its enzymic activities, and a number of animal viruses are known to interfere with these activities. The first evidence that a plant virus protein, the helper component-proteinase (HcPro) of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV; genus Potyvirus), interferes with the 20S proteasome ribonuclease is reported here. LMV infection caused an aggregation of the 20S proteasome to high-molecular mass structures in vivo, and specific binding of HcPro to the proteasome was confirmed in vitro using two different approaches. HcPro inhibited the 20S endonuclease activity in vitro, while its proteolytic activities were unchanged or slightly stimulated. This ability of HcPro, a pathogenicity regulator of potyviruses, to interfere with some of the catalytic functions of the 20S proteasome suggests the existence of a novel type of defence and counter-defence interplay in the course of interaction between potyviruses and their hosts.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2005; 86(Pt 9):2595-603. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) has an icosahedral capsid composed of the viral protein P4. The viral product P3 is a multifunctional protein closely associated with the virus particle within host cells. The best-characterized function of P3 is its implication in CaMV plant-to-plant transmission by aphid vectors, involving a P3-virion complex. In this transmission process, the viral protein P2 attaches to virion-bound P3, and creates a molecular bridge between the virus and a putative receptor in the aphid's stylets. Recently, the virion-bound P3 has been suggested to participate in cell-to-cell or long-distance movement of CaMV within the host plant. Thus, as new data accumulate, the importance of the P3-virion complex during the virus life-cycle is becoming more and more evident. To provide a first insight into the knowledge of the transmission process of the virus, we determined the 3D structures of native and P3-decorated virions by cryo-electron microscopy and computer image processing. By difference mapping and biochemical analysis, we show that P3 forms a network around the capsomers and we propose a structural model for the binding of P3 to CaMV capsid in which its C terminus is anchored deeply in the inner shell of the virion, while the N-terminal extremity is facing out of the CaMV capsid, forming dimers by coiled-coil interactions. Our results combined with existing data reinforce the hypothesis that this coiled-coil N-terminal region of P3 could coordinate several functions during the virus life-cycle, such as cell-to-cell movement and aphid-transmission.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2005; 346(1):267-77. · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing usually leads to an increase in the number of gene products that can be derived from a single transcript. Here, a different and novel use of alternative splicing--as a means to control the amount of a potentially toxic gene product in the plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)--is reported. About 70 % of the CaMV 35S RNA, which serves as a substrate for both reverse transcription and polycistronic mRNA, is spliced into four additional RNA species. Splicing occurs between four donor sites--one in the 5' untranslated region and three within open reading frame (ORF) I--and one unique acceptor site at position 1508 in ORF II. A previous study revealed that the acceptor site is vital for CaMV infectivity and expression of ORFs III and IV from one of the spliced RNA species suggested that splicing may facilitate expression of downstream CaMV ORFs. However, it is shown here that deleting the splice acceptor site and replacing ORF II with a cargo ORF that lacks splice acceptor sites does not interfere with virus proliferation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that whenever P2 cannot accumulate in infected tissues, the splice acceptor site at position 1508 is no longer vital and has little effect on virus replication. This suggests that the vital role of splicing in CaMV is regulation of P2 expression and that P2 exhibits biological properties that, whilst indispensable for virus-vector interactions, can block in planta virus infection if this regulation is abolished.
    Journal of General Virology 10/2004; 85(Pt 9):2719-26. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is a key protein encoded by plant viruses of the genus Potyvirus. HC-Pro is involved in different steps of the viral cycle, aphid transmission, replication, and virus cell-to-cell and systemic movement and is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Structural knowledge of HC-Pro is required to better understand its multiple functions. To this aim, we purified His-tagged wild-type HC-Pro and a N-terminal deletion mutant (DeltaHC-Pro) from plants infected with recombinant potyviruses. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant proteins confirmed that HC-Pro is a dimer in solution, that the N terminus is not essential for self-interaction, and that a large C-terminal domain is highly resistant to proteolysis. Two-dimensional crystals of the recombinant proteins were successfully grown on Ni2+-chelating lipid monolayers. Comparison of projection maps of negatively stained crystals revealed that HC-Pro is composed of two domains separated by a flexible constriction. Cryo-electron crystallography of DeltaHC-Pro allowed us to calculate a projection map at 9-A resolution. Our data from electron microscopy, biochemical analysis, and secondary structure predictions lead us to suggest a model for structure/function relationships in the HC-Pro protein.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2003; 278(26):23753-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted in a non-circulative manner by aphids following the helper strategy. Helper proteins P2 and P3 act as a bridge between virions and the aphid cuticle. Electronic monitoring of aphid stylet activities (EPG technique), transmission tests and electron microscopy showed that CaMV is preferentially acquired from the phloem by its most common aphid vectors, Brevycorine brassicae and Myzus persicae. We also found that CaMV is semipersistently transmitted and that the rate of acquisition does not follow a typical bimodal curve. Instead, the virus could be acquired from non-phloem tissues at a low and fairly constant rate after one or more intracellular punctures within a few minutes, but the probability of acquisition rose significantly when aphids reached the phase of committed ingestion from the phloem. The acquisition rate of CaMV did not increase with increasing number of intracellular punctures, but the total duration of intracellular puncture was one of the variables selected by the stepwise logistic regression model used to fit the data that best explained acquisition of CaMV. Furthermore, aphids reaching the phloem faster had a higher probability of acquiring the virus. Our results support the hypothesis that multiple intracellular punctures of epidermal and mesophyll cells result in loading aphids with the CaMV-encoded aphid transmission factor (P2), and that aphids, in most cases, subsequently acquire CaMV particles during phloem sap ingestion. Consistently, immunoelectron microscopy showed that P3-virions are frequently found in the sieve element lumen, whereas P2 could not be detected.
    Journal of General Virology 01/2003; 83(Pt 12):3163-71. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interactions between Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and its aphid vector are regulated by the viral protein P2, which binds to the aphid stylets, and protein P3, which bridges P2 and virions. By using baculovirus expression of P2 and P3, electron microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, affinity chromatography, and transmission assays, we demonstrate that P3 must be previously bound to virions in order that attachment to P2 will allow aphid transmission of CaMV. We also show that a P2:P3 complex exists in the absence of virions but is nonfunctional in transmission. Hence, unlike P2, P3 and virions cannot be sequentially acquired by the vector. Immunogold labeling revealed the predominance of spatially separated P2:P3 and P3:virion complexes in infected plant cells. This specific distribution indicates that the transmissible complex, P2:P3:virion, does not form primarily in infected plants but in aphids. A model, describing the regulating role of P3 in the formation of the transmissible CaMV complex in planta and during acquisition by aphids, is presented, and its consequences are discussed.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2002; 99(4):2422-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

368 Citations
90.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2011
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      • Biologie et Génétique des Interactions Plantes-parasites pour la Protection Intégrée
      Avignon, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2005
    • Université de Montpellier 1
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France