[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major component of the pattern recognition receptor repertoire that detect invading microorganisms
and direct the vertebrate immune system to eliminate infection. In chickens, the differential biology of Salmonella serovars (systemic versus gut-restricted localization) correlates with the presence or absence of flagella, a known TLR5
agonist. Chicken TLR5 (chTLR5) exhibits conserved sequence and structural similarity with mammalian TLR5 and is expressed
in tissues and cell populations of immunological and stromal origin. Exposure of chTLR5+ cells to flagellin induced elevated levels of chicken interleukin-1β (chIL-1β) but little upregulation of chIL-6 mRNA. Consistent
with the flagellin-TLR5 hypothesis, an aflagellar Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium fliM mutant exhibited an enhanced ability to establish systemic infection. During the early stages of infection, the fliM mutant induced less IL-1β mRNA and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration of the gut. Collectively, the data represent the identification
and functional characterization of a nonmammalian TLR5 and indicate a role in restricting the entry of flagellated Salmonella into systemic sites of the chicken.
Infection and Immunity 05/2005; 73(4):2344-50. DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.4.2344-2350.2005 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based upon the recognition of antiviral compounds and single stranded viral RNA the Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR8 are suggested to play a significant role in initiating antiviral immune responses. Here we report the molecular characterization of the chicken TLR7/8 loci which revealed an intact TLR7 gene and fragments of a TLR8-like gene with a 6-kilobase insertion containing chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroviral-like insertion elements. The chicken TLR7 gene encodes a 1047-amino-acid protein with 62% identity to human TLR7 and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats. Highest levels of chicken TLR7 mRNA were detected in immune-related tissues and cells, especially the spleen, caecal, tonsil and splenic B cells. Alternative spliced forms of TLR7 mRNA were identified in chicken, mouse and human and expressed in similar tissues and cell types to the major form of chicken TLR7. The chicken TLR7+ HD11 cell line and fresh splenocytes produced elevated levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA after exposure to the agonists R848 and loxoribine. Interestingly, none of the TLR7 agonists stimulated increased type I interferon (IFN) mRNA whereas poly(I:C) (a TLR3 agonist) up-regulated both chicken IFN-alpha and chicken IFN-beta mRNA. In contrast, TLR7 agonists, particularly R848 and poly(U) stimulated up-regulation of chicken IL-1beta, and chicken IL-8 mRNAs more effectively than poly(I:C). Stimulation of chicken TLR7 with R848 was chloroquine sensitive, suggesting signalling within an endosomal compartment, as for mammalian TLR7. The deletion of TLR8 in galliforms, accompanied with the differential response after exposure to TLR7 agonists, offers insight into the evolution of vertebrate TLR function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of cell surface molecules represent a major component of the pattern recognition system, which enables both vertebrates and invertebrates to detect invading microorganisms and mount an anti-microbial response. The TLR repertoire of mouse and man has been intensively studied and in this manuscript we report the identification of ESTs with homology to chTLR5 and chTLR7, and independently confirm the identification of chTLR 1/6/10 and 3 in the EST databases. We have determined the mRNA expression patterns for seven chicken TLRs (chTLR) in a wide range of chicken tissues, isolated immune cell types and cultured cells. Some of the chTLR were expressed in most tissues (chTLR1/6/10, chTLR3, chTLR4 and chTLR5), whereas others exhibited more restricted expression patterns (chTLR2 type 1, type 2 and chTLR7). Similarly distinct patterns of chTLR expression were seen with innate and adaptive immune cell types isolated from peripheral blood or spleen and with cultured cells of somatic or immunological origin. An understanding of the TLR repertoire for different tissues, immune cell subsets and cultured cell types allows more refined interpretation of immune induction in response to chicken pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterophil is the major polymorphonuclear cell in birds with a functional capacity akin to that of the mammalian neutrophil. Herein, we demonstrate that heterophils constitutively express TLR1/6/10, TLR2 type 1, TLR2 type 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 mRNA. Furthermore, TLR agonists, including flagellin (from Salmonella typhimurium, FGN), peptidoglycan (from Staphylococcus aureus, PGN), ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide (from Salmonella minnesota, LPS), the synthetic double stranded RNA analog [poly(I:C)], and the guanosine analog, loxoribine (LOX) directly induced both an oxidative burst and a degranulation response. Interestingly, the synthetic bacterial lipoprotein Pam3CSK4 (palmitoyl-3-cysteine-serine-lysine-4, PAM) induced degranulation, but no oxidative burst. The bacterial TLR agonists (PAM, PGN, LPS, and FGN) all induced an up-regulation of expression of mRNA of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8; whereas both poly(I:C) and LOX induced a down-regulation of these cytokine mRNAs. Stimulation of heterophils with each specific TLR agonist led to a differential increase in the phosphorylation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activation, but not the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). The broad TLR expression profile in heterophils reflects their principal role as first line effector cells in avian host defense against bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. The results demonstrate the differential involvement of TLR-induced signals in the stimulation of transduction pathways that regulate the oxygen-dependent and -independent antimicrobial defense mechanisms of avian heterophils.