[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a specific histological biomarker for diagnosing early tubular injury on renal biopsies. In this study, KIM-1 expression was quantitated in renal transplant biopsies by immunohistochemistry and correlated with renal function. None of the 25 protocol biopsies showed detectable tubular injury on histologic examination, yet 28% had focal positive KIM-1 expression. Proximal tubule KIM-1 expression was present in all biopsies from patients with histological changes showing acute tubular damage and deterioration of kidney function. In this group, higher KIM-1 staining predicted a better outcome with improved blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over an ensuing 18 months. KIM-1 was expressed focally in affected tubules in 92% of kidney biopsies from patients with acute cellular rejection. By contrast, there was little positive staining for Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, in any of the groups. KIM-1 expression significantly correlated with serum creatinine and BUN, and inversely with the eGFR on the biopsy day. Our study shows that KIM-1 staining sensitively and specifically identified proximal tubular injury and correlated with the degree of renal dysfunction. KIM-1 expression is more sensitive than histology for detecting early tubular injury, and its level of expression in transplant biopsies may indicate the potential for recovery of kidney function.
Kidney International 04/2008; 73(5):608-14. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal injury is known to trigger upregulation of many intracellular signal proteins, but those most sensitive in responding to renal injury remain debatable. We used gene microarray analysis to compare gene expression in rat kidneys subjected to early ischemia-reperfusion injury (30 min of renal ischemia and 3 hr of reperfusion) with non-ischemic kidneys as controls. Among 31,100 genes analyzed, microarray analysis revealed 21 genes with >3-fold increase in expression in ischemic kidneys compared to control non-ischemic kidneys. These upregulated genes included heat shock protein 70 (43-fold), heat shock protein 27 (12-fold), heme oxygenase-1 (10-fold), kidney injury molecule-1 (8-fold), and several subtypes of S100 calcium-binding proteins (3.1- to 7.5-fold). Following a prolonged reperfusion period (48 hr) after 30 min of ischemia, acute tubular necrosis was obvious in the S3 segment of proximal tubules of ischemic kidneys. Injured proximal tubules showed upregulated expression of heat shock protein 70 by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting. These data suggest that heat shock proteins (eg, heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 27, and heme oxygenase-1) are crucial for renal cell response to ischemic injury and that heat shock protein 70 is a highly sensitive intracellular marker of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2008; 38(1):57-64. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritubular capillary C4d positivity, a marker for antibody-mediated rejection, is observed in approximately 20-50% of indicated renal transplant biopsies and in just 2% of unremarkable protocol biopsies. However, C4d staining has not been evaluated in protocol renal biopsies from patients with Campath-1H induction treatment, and the association between various types of inflammatory cells and acute antibody-mediated rejection is unclear. This study investigated the rates of C4d positivity in unremarkable protocol renal biopsies, biopsies with acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and biopsies with acute cellular rejection (ACR), all following Campath-1H treatment and post-operative immunosuppression. There was low positivity of C4d staining in both the protocol and ATN groups, but the ACR group had a 47.2% rate of positivity (combining focal and diffuse positive cases). Since Campath-1H treatment caused significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes but not circulating monocytes in renal recipients, this study also investigated the role of monocytes in humoral rejection. In ACR cases, CD68 positive monocytes were composed of 59.4 +/- 4.69% inflammatory cells, which was significantly higher than CD3 positive lymphocytes (38.9 +/- 4.4%). Co-localization of positive C4d staining in endothelium and marginating CD68 positive monocytes was illustrated by double staining. Our data indicate that acute antibody-mediated rejection occurs much more frequently in renal transplants with ACR. Moreover, the high percentage of monocytes observed in ACR cases (due to monocytes being less sensitive to Campath-1H depletion) suggests that monocytes are involved in antibody-mediated rejection.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2007; 37(2):121-6. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates have been used to treat lytic lesions of multiple myeloma because of their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. However, their effects on myeloma cells, per se, are not known to be correlated with specific markers. The goal of this study was to assess molecular concomitants of myeloma that might serve as markers for predicting the pharmacologic impact of bisphosphonates on malignant plasma cells. We tested the correlation of serum monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) level (IgG and IgA classes) with therapies utilizing two aminobisphosphonates, pamidronate (Aredia) and/or zoledronate (Zometa), in 19 patients with multiple myeloma. Myeloma cells from bone marrow biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for H-ras (p21 ras), N-ras, and the alpha subunit common to farnesyl and geranylgeranyl transferase (FTalpha/GGT alpha). Elevated expression level of H-ras in myeloma cells, rather than N-ras or FTalpha/GGTalpha, was significantly associated with a decrease of serum monoclonal Ig level following pamidronate treatment. The data suggest that pamidronate may have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of myeloma cells, thus causing reduction in serum monoclonal Ig level. H-ras expression in myeloma cells may prove to be valuable in predicting the therapeutic effects of pamidronate.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2007; 37(1):34-8. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinosinusitis involves several types of inflammatory cells. The dominant inflammatory cells include mast cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages. Since eosinophils are one type of inflammatory cell that is often related to allergy, we investigated in this study whether the eosinophils present in rhinosinusitis may be potential targets for CD52 antibody treatment. First, we found that circulating eosinophils in renal recipients were almost completely depleted after iv bolus of treatment with Campath-1H, a humanized antibody against CD52 antigen. Second, we showed morphologically that eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes gave positive staining reactions for CD52. Third, using an automated clinical imaging system, we found that tissue sections of sinus contents with prominent eosinophils (eosinophilic rhinosinusitis) yielded significantly higher CD52 staining scores than those with lymphocytes as the dominant component (lymphocytic rhinosinusitis). These findings indirectly support the hypothesis that CD52 may be a target for treating eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with Campath 1H.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2007; 37(2):148-51. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular signals along the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway have been associated with carcinogenesis in various malignant neoplasms. This investigation was to evaluate the expression of EGFR, phosphorylated(p)-Akt and p-NF-kappaB and correlate them with clinical outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A total of 45 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were studied by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression levels of EGFR, p-Akt and p-NF-kappaB. Results for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were compared with those for associated high-grade dysplasia and adjacent normal appearing epithelium, when present. In addition, tonsillar epithelium from non-neoplastic specimens of age-matched patients also was stained for the same markers. High-grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil demonstrated a similar pattern of expression, which differed from the pattern seen in the adjacent normal epithelium and tonsillar epithelium from normal controls (an overexpression for each of these three protein analytes in high-grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry). When markers from squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were correlated with survival status, only increasing levels of p-NF-kappaB immunoreactivity (a relative overexpression) were statistically significant predictors of poor survival. No markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were significantly related to rate of recurrence. When analyzing marker scores from tissue with high-grade dysplasia, relative overexpressions of both p-Akt and p-NF-kappaB were significantly related to poor survival. Additionally, increasing levels of p-NF-kappaB immunopositivity from tissue with high-grade dysplasia were also significantly related to rate of recurrence. In summary, p-NF-kappaB, overexpressed in high-grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, is associated with worse prognosis in terms of high recurrence and poor survival, respectively. This significant finding in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, in combination with previous animal and in vitro studies, suggests that p-NF-kappaB represents a potential therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Modern Pathology 08/2005; 18(7):924-32. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campath-1H has been used successfully for induction and has resulted in a low rate of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in renal transplantation in combination with various postoperative immunosuppression regimens. This study was undertaken to investigate the extent of monocyte involvement in ACR, with or without Campath-1H induction. We found that monocytes represented the majority of inflammatory cells in grades Ib or higher ACR, but not with Ia type of ACR, regardless of the status of Campath-1H induction. Cases of ACR, following Campath-1H induction, appear to demonstrate a 'pure form' of monocytic ACR, whereas monocytes were mixed with many other types of inflammatory cells in the cases of ACR in the absence of Campath-1H induction. In addition with Campath-1H induction, the cases of monocyte-predominant ACR were found to uniformly exhibit a good response to corticosteroid treatment. We conclude that monocyte-predominate ACR may represent a severe form of rejection, with or without Campath-1H treatment.
American Journal of Transplantation 04/2005; 5(3):604-7. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Velcade, a proteasome inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and to stabilize p53 in vitro. But its impact, in the context of activated (phosphorylated and translocated) NF-kappaB and the expression of p53, has not been studied in breast cancer. It would be desirable to determine whether or not the immunohistochemical (IHC) expressions of activated NF-kappaB and of p53 can predict the effects of Velcade in viable tumor cells. To answer these questions, we selected 3 breast cancer cell lines (SKBR-3, MDA-175, and MDA-231), which are negative for hormonal receptors, but differ in HER-2/neu expression (strong, mild, and minimal, respectively). The 3 cell lines showed different expressions of phosphorylated (p)- NF-kappaB and p53, as evaluated using immunohistochemistry with visual quantification by brightfield microscopy. After being treated with Velcade for 2 days, MDA-231 cells showed markedly reduced proliferation, followed by SKBR-3 cells, and then by MDA-175 cells. There was strong correlation between the nuclear expression of either p-NF-kappaB or p53 and the inhibitory rate of Velcade in the 3 cell lines (r = 0.987 and 0.807, respectively). Western blotting showed an increase in inhibitor-kappaB (I-kappaB) expression in nuclei of MDA-231 and SKBR-3 cells, but not in MDA-175 cells, following exposure to Velcade. Velcade treatment resulted in cleaved caspase-3 expression in MDA-231 cells and in the overexpression of p53 and p21WAF1 in all 3 cell lines, as evaluated using Western blotting. In summary, morphoproteomic analysis of p-NF-kappaB and p53 can be correlated with the inhibitory effect of Velcade in vitro. We propose that this proliferative inhibition is variably associated with blocking p-NF-kappaB function by upregulation of nuclear I-kappaB, stabilization of p53, and induction of p21WAF1.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2005; 35(1):15-24. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify markers sensitive to inhibitors of the farnesylation pathway, we used 3 breast cancer cell lines (SKBR-3, MDA-175, and MDA-231) to evaluate the in vitro effects of pamidronate, an inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase. In response to pamidronate, there was significant inhibition of cell proliferation in MDA-231 and SKBR-3 cells, compared to MDA-175 cells. This correlated with their respective basal levels of N-ras and H-ras. N-ras and H-ras protein levels were both reduced in MDA-231 cells, and to lesser extent in SKBR-3 cells, following exposure to pamidronate, whereas these markers were not altered in MDA-175 cells. Combinatorial therapy with pamidronate and Gleevec, an inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases; Velcade, a proteasome inhibitor; or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) all showed additive effects in causing proliferative inhibition in MDA-175 cells. In summary, resistance to pamidronate may result from low levels of GTPase-activating proteins, such as N-ras and H-ras, in tumor cells. Combinatorial therapies directed against other signaling pathways, not dependent upon ras, may be required to overcome such resistance.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2004; 34(3):263-70. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate protein circuitry in breast cancer based on the profiling of hormone-receptor-negative breast carcinomas using morphoproteomic and pharmacoproteomic techniques. Three human breast carcinoma cell lines (SKBR-3, MDA-175, MDA-231) were reacted by immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures to detect several categories of protein analytes. Immunoreactivities and cell compartmentalizations were scored from 0 to 3+ positivity using bright-field microscopy. An automated cellular imaging system (ACIS) was used to obtain a final combined score of staining intensity and positive cells in the IHC reactions, to enable comparisons with the visual scores and the rates of inhibition by pharmaceutical agents. FDA-approved inhibitors that target the protein circuitry were added to the cultures for 2-4 days. Proliferation assays were conducted, and in vitro inhibition rates were calculated as (control - treated)/control. Western blot analyses of whole cell lysates assessed the effects of the pharmaceutical agents on selected aspects of protein circuitry. Good to excellent correlation was observed between visual scores and ACIS scores (r values from 0.732 to 0.996 in 10 of 11 trials). Gleevec produced growth inhibition that correlated with the composite expressions of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors; captopril inhibited only MDA-175, consistent with its unique expression of plasmalemmal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); and interferon (IFN)-alpha effected growth inhibition in accordance with the degree of conventional (c) protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and phosphorylated (p)-PKCalpha/betaII expressions. Western blot analyses revealed correlative changes of several intracellular signals following incubation with these inhibitors. This study shows (a) a close association between the immunohistochemical expression of signal transduction markers and in vitro inhibition by pharmaceutical agents, and (b) correlations between the sites of action of the pharmaceutical agents and the downstream expression of proteins in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer cell lines. Such morphoproteomic and pharmacoproteomic profiling of individual tumors may enable the pathologist and oncologist to design antitumor therapy that is customized for an individual patient.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2004; 34(3):251-62. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although molecular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are known to be involved in folding and assembly of glycosylated proteins, it is unclear whether preinduced ER chaperones can protect cardiomyocytes from lethal injury. In this study we used tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation in the ER, to preinduce ER chaperones in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and we tested the cytoprotective role of preinduced ER chaperones in the cardiomyocytes. Expression of GRP78 at both protein and mRNA levels was markedly increased in cardiomyocytes pretreated with tunicamycin, when compared to non-treatment controls. Following prolonged ATP depletion or oxidative stress, which was used to simulate cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury, respectively, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from tunicamycin-pretreated cardiomyocytes was significantly lower than from non-pretreated cardiomycocytes. Tunicamycin-pretreated cardiomyocytes showed significantly higher Ca2+ release into cytoplasm than controls when treated with both caffeine and thapsigargin, indicating higher storage of Ca2+ in the ER. After oxidative stress, cytosolic Ca2+ levels were maintained relatively stable in tunicamycin-pretreated cardiomyocytes, when compared to control cardiomyocytes. These observations suggest that preinduced ER chaperones protect cardiomyocytes from lethal injury, at least in part, by preventing an increase in cytosolic Ca2+.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2004; 34(4):449-57. · 0.88 Impact Factor