[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT 960) system was evaluated against Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the BACTEC 460 TB system for the recovery of mycobacteria from 1393 consecutive urine specimens. The MGIT had a sensitivity of 91.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 83.2-99.4] when the combination of BACTEC 460 and LJ medium was used as the reference method. The mean time for positivity for MGIT and BACTEC 460 was 19.3 days and 20 days, respectively, while that for LJ medium was 35 days.The incidence of contamination was highest for LJ medium (n=148), followed by MGIT 960 (n=81), and BACTEC 460 had the lowest incidence of contamination (n=50). In conclusion, the isolation of mycobacteria from urine specimens by the MGIT 960 is comparable to that of the BACTEC 460 TB system and solid media.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2008; 57(Pt 10):1220-2. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reevaluated the BACTEC MGIT 960 antimicrobial susceptibility testing system (MGIT 960 AST) by using 1,112 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When the results of MGIT 960 AST were compared with that of the proportion method using Ogawa medium (Ogawa PM), discrepant results were obtained for 30 strains with isoniazid, all resistant by MGIT 960 AST but susceptible by Ogawa PM. For 93% of the strains that produced discrepant results, the MIC was 0.4 or 0.8 microg/ml, showing resistance by the proportion method using Middlebrook agar plates. Furthermore, it was also established by analyses of the katG and inhA genes that strains resistant only by MGIT 960 AST have a low level of isoniazid (INH) resistance, indicating that MGIT 960 AST is a reliable method. Ninety-six strains were resistant to 0.1 microg/ml INH by MGIT 960 AST. When they were divided into three groups, Low-S (susceptible at 0.2 microg/ml), Low-R (resistant at 0.2 microg/ml), and High-R (resistant at 1.0 microg/ml), by Ogawa PM, 43.3% of the Low-S strains had mutations in the promoter region of inhA and no mutations were detected in katG codon 315, while 61.7% of the High-R strains had katG codon 315 mutations or a gross deletion of katG. These results suggest that mutations in inhA are associated with low-level resistance to INH and katG codon 315 mutations are associated with high-level resistance to INH. In addition, the analyses demonstrated some relationship of mutations in the inhA gene with ethionamide resistance for the Low-S strains, but not for the High-R strains.
Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2008; 46(7):2263-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the incidence of carbapenemase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii between two time periods.
We studied 114 isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii collected over two 5 month periods (in 1996 and 2001). Isolates showing carbapenemase activity by plate bioassay were screened for carbapenemase genes using PCR. Chromosomal DNA from strains carrying carbapenemase genes was subjected to PFGE after digestion with ApaI.
The incidence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii in our hospital rose from 1.1 per 1000 admissions in 1996 to 2.3 per 1000 admissions in 2001. However, the number of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii rose only slightly in 2001 (0.8 per 1000 admissions) compared to 1996 (0.5 per 1000 admissions). Of 44 isolates with carbapenemase activity, 4 isolates carried bla(IMP-4), 5 carried bla(OXA-58), and 40 carried bla(OXA-23). In addition, most isolates carried a bla(OXA-51)-type beta-lactamase gene. All strains with bla(IMP-4), also carried bla(OXA-58) and bla(PSE-1), but not bla(OXA-51)-type beta-lactamase genes. PCR analysis repeated on seven recent isolates of susceptible A. baumannii showed only the presence of bla(OXA-51)-type beta-lactamase genes. A total of five novel bla(OXA-51)-type beta-lactamase genes (bla(OXA-88),-91,-93,-94, and -95) and one new bla(OXA-58)-type beta-lactamase gene (bla(OXA-96)) were found.
The incidence of carbapenemase genes did not vary significantly between the two study periods. There is a wide diversity of OXA genes in A. baumannii in Singapore. The most common carbapenemase gene found in our study was bla(OXA-23).
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2007; 59(4):627-32. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization and infection among inpatients in the hematology ward of an acute tertiary care public hospital in Singapore. Two cases of bacteremia and 4 cases of gastrointestinal carriage were uncovered before implementation of strict infection control measures resulted in control of the outbreak.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2006; 27(9):991-3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gordonia species have been recognized as pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. We report the first case of bacteremia due to Gordonia bronchialis in a diabetic patient with a sequestrated lung. Species identification was confirmed with mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2004; 42(6):2870-1. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from patients in Singapore. One Pseudomonas putida isolate contained a bla(IMP-1) identical to that first described in Japan. The sequence of a variant bla(IMP-1) in Pseudomonas fluorescens contained four silent mutations compared with the original sequence. The remaining P. putida isolates contained bla(VIM-6), a novel VIM gene variant.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2004; 48(6):2334-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor