Kristina Allers

Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany

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Publications (24)187.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge about HIV infection in older persons is becoming increasingly important. CD4 T cells are essential for protective immunity, but little is known about the effect of age on the CD4 T cell impairment in HIV infection. Treatment-naïve patients aged older than 50 or younger than 40 years were studied for absolute and relative frequencies of CD31 naïve and CD31 naïve CD4 T cells, central memory, effector memory, and terminally differentiated CD4 T cells, and compared with age-matched controls. In addition, cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion properties were determined. CD4 T cell reconstitution was analyzed in older and younger patients with <350 or ≥350 CD4 T cells/µl at initiation of cART. CD4 T cells of older but not younger HIV-infected patients showed age-inappropriate low levels of CD31 naïve cells, increased levels of effector memory cells, and enhanced IFNγ and IL-17 secretion. Impaired CD4 T cell composition persisted in patients who initiated cART at <350 CD4 T cells/µl. In patients with CD4 T cells ≥350/µl, alterations were less pronounced and were reversible with cART. Compared with age-matched controls, total CD4 T cell counts did not differ between treated younger and older HIV-infected patients. These data demonstrate that aging enhances the CD4 T cell impairment in HIV-infected persons mainly by a loss of CD31 naïve cells, accumulation of effector memory cells, and increased pro-inflammatory effector functions. Age-related changes in CD4 T cell composition can be prevented by an early initiation of cART.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Mucosal macrophages are involved in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity and the elimination of invading pathogens. Although an intestinal barrier defect and microbial translocation are hallmarks of HIV infection, recent data on gut mucosal macrophages in HIV infection are sparse.Methods. Treatment-naïve and treated HIV-infected patients, and healthy controls were studied for frequencies and functional parameters of blood monocytes and macrophages in duodenal mucosa.Results. We found mucosal enrichment of macrophages in untreated HIV infection associated with reduced monocyte counts in blood and increased monocyte expression of the gut-homing molecule integrin β7. Increased CCR2 density on integrin β7-expressing monocytes and mucosal secretion of CCL2 suggest that CCR2/CCL2-chemotaxis is involved in enhanced trafficking of blood monocytes to the gut. Secretion of macrophage-related pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1β, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 was increased in the gut mucosa of untreated patients. Moreover, mucosal macrophages of untreated patients showed reduced phagocytic activity.Conclusions. These data suggest a role for gut mucosal macrophages in HIV immune pathogenesis: (i) Infiltrated macrophages in the intestinal mucosa may promote local inflammation and tissue injury, whereas (ii) their low phagocytic activity prevents the efficient elimination of luminal antigens that cross the damaged intestinal barrier.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Macrophage heterogeneity reflects their plasticity in response to environmental stimuli. Usually human macrophages are characterized by analysis of surface molecules or cytokine expression while functional assays are established in the mouse system but lacking for various human specimens. METHODS: To evaluate the value of analysis of arginine metabolism for characterization of human macrophage differentiation, we analyzed nitrite production and arginase activity in plasma, duodenal biopsies, and in vitro differentiated macrophages of patients with classical Whipple's disease. RESULTS: We demonstrate that it is feasible to determine the content of urea in supernatants of stimulated duodenal biopsies, arginase activity in fresh duodenal biopsies and plasma samples, and arginase activity and nitrite production in lysates and supernatants of in vitro differentiated macrophages. However, only selected tests are appropriate to define macrophage polarization in human specimens. CONCLUSION: Analysis of arginine metabolism is not suitable for the characterization of in vitro differentiated human macrophages. Besides the measurement of nitrite in duodenal biopsy supernatants, the determination of arginase activity in human plasma seems to be a reasonable functional test to detect enhanced M2 macrophage activation and, thus, is of great value for the analysis of macrophage activity with a minimum of material and costs.
    Agents and Actions 06/2013; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During antimicrobial treatment of classic Whipple's disease (CWD), the chronic systemic infection with Tropheryma whipplei, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is a serious complication. The aim of our study was to characterize the immunological processes underlying IRIS in CWD. Following the definition of IRIS, we describe histological features of IRIS and immunological parameters of 24 CWD IRIS patients, 189 CWD patients without IRIS, and 89 healthy individuals. T cell reconstitution, Th1 reactivity, and the phenotype of T cells were described in the peripheral blood, and infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in the duodenal mucosa was determined. During IRIS, tissues were heavily infiltrated by CD3(+), predominantly CD45RO(+)CD4(+) T cells. In the periphery, initial reduction of CD4(+) cell counts and their reconstitution on treatment was more pronounced in CWD patients with IRIS than in those without IRIS. The ratio of activated and regulatory CD4(+) T cells, nonspecific Th1 reactivity, and the proportion of naive among CD4(+) T cells was high, whereas serum IL-10 was low during IRIS. T. whipplei-specific Th1 reactivity remained suppressed before and after emergence of IRIS. The findings that IRIS in CWD mainly are mediated by nonspecific activation of CD4(+) T cells and that it is not sufficiently counterbalanced by regulatory T cells indicate that flare-up of pathogen-specific immunoreactivity is not instrumental in the pathogenesis of IRIS in CWD.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial vectors have been proposed as novel vaccine strategies to induce strong cellular immunity. Attenuated strains of Brucella abortus comprise promising vector candidates since they have the potential to induce strong CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell mediated immune responses in the absence of excessive inflammation as observed with other Gram-negative bacteria. However, some Brucella strains interfere with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential for antigen-specific T-cell priming. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of human monocyte-derived DCs with the smooth attenuated B. abortus strain (S) 19, which has previously been employed successfully to vaccinate cattle. We first looked into the potential of S19 to hamper the cytokine-induced maturation of DCs; however, infected cells expressed CD25, CD40, CD80, and CD86 to a comparable extent as uninfected, cytokine-matured DCs. Furthermore, S19 activated DCs in the absence of exogeneous stimuli, enhanced the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, and was able to persist intracellularly without causing cytotoxicity. Thus, DCs provide a cellular niche for persisting brucellae in vivo as a permanent source of antigen. S19-infected DCs produced IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, and IL-10, but not IL-23. While heat-killed bacteria also activated DCs, soluble mediators were not involved in S19-induced activation of human DCs. HEK 293 transfectants revealed cellular activation by S19 primarily through engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2. Thus, as an immunological prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, B. abortus S19 potently infects and potently activates (most likely via TLR2) human DCs to produce Th1-promoting cytokines.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65934. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we identify mechanisms of watery diarrhea in microscopic colitis (MC). Biopsies from the sigmoid colon of patients with collagenous colitis and treated lymphocytic colitis were analyzed in miniaturized Ussing chambers for electrogenic sodium transport and barrier function with one-path impedance spectroscopy. Cytometric bead arrays (CBA) served to analyze cytokine profiles. In active MC, electrogenic sodium transport was diminished and epithelial resistance decreased. CBA revealed a Th1 cytokine profile featuring increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels. After four weeks of steroid treatment with budesonide, electrogenic sodium transport recovered while epithelial barrier defects remained. Diarrhea in MC results at least in part from a combination of impaired electrogenic sodium transport and barrier defects. From a therapeutic perspective it can be postulated that the functional importance of loss of ions may be higher than that caused by barrier impairment.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 1258:143-8. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori blocks the proliferation of human CD4(+) T cells, facilitated by vacuolating exotoxin (VacA) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). H. pylori-triggered T-cell reactions in mice correlate with bacterial cholesterol and cholesterol α-glucoside content but their role in human cells is unclear. We characterized the effect of VacA, GGT, and cholesterol on T-helper 1, T-helper 2, T-regulatory and T-helper 17 associated cytokines and T-cell proliferation. VacA, GGT, and bacterial cholesterol content exhibited differential and synergistic inhibitory effects on the expression of activation markers CD25 and CD69 and on interleukin 2, interleukin 4, interleukin 10, and interferon γ production. These factors did not affect the H. pylori-mediated abrogation of transforming growth factor β secretion or increased interleukin 6 production. Cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase-deficient bacteria exerted strongly reduced antiproliferative effects on primary human CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, H. pylori shapes rather than suppresses human CD4(+) T-cell responses, and glucosylated cholesterol is a relevant bacterial component involved in this modulation.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204(9):1339-48. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is caused by chronic infection with Tropheryma whipplei that seems to be associated with an underlying immune defect. The pathognomonic hallmark of CWD is a massive infiltration of the duodenal mucosa with T. whipplei-infected macrophages that disperse systemically to many other organ systems. An alleviated inflammatory reaction and the absence of T. whipplei-specific Th1 reactivity support persistence and systemic spread of the pathogen. In this article, we hypothesized that regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are involved in immunomodulation in CWD, and we asked for the distribution, activation, and regulatory capacity of T(reg) in CWD patients. Whereas in the lamina propria of CWD patients before treatment numbers of T(reg) were increased, percentages in the peripheral blood were similar in CWD patients and healthy controls. However, peripheral T(reg) of CWD patients were more activated than those of controls. Elevated secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β in the duodenal mucosa of CWD patients indicated locally enhanced T(reg) activity. Enhanced CD95 expression on peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells combined with reduced expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A upon polyclonal stimulation by CD4(+) cells from untreated CWD patients further hinted to T(reg) activity-related exhaustion of effector CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, increased numbers of T(reg) can be detected within the duodenal mucosa in untreated CWD, where huge numbers of T. whipplei-infected macrophages are present. Thus, T(reg) might contribute to the chronic infection and systemic spread of T. whipplei in CWD but in contrast prevent mucosal barrier defect by reducing local inflammation.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(8):4061-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whipple disease, which is caused by infection with Tropheryma whipplei, can be treated effectively with antimicrobials. Occasionally, inflammation reappears after initial improvement; this is often interpreted as refractory or recurrent disease. However, polymerase chain reaction for T. whipplei in tissue is sometimes negative during reinflammation, indicating absence of vital bacteria, and this reinflammation does not respond to antimicrobials but does respond to steroids. To demonstrate that the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurs in patients treated for Whipple disease. Cohort study. (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register registration number: ISRCTN45658456) 2 academic medical centers in Germany. 142 patients treated for Whipple disease out of a cohort of 187 were observed for reappearance of inflammatory signs after effective antibiotic therapy. Definitions of IRIS in HIV infection, tuberculosis, and leprosy were adapted for application to Whipple disease. On the basis of study definitions, IRIS was diagnosed in 15 of 142 patients. Symptoms included fever, arthritis, pleurisy, erythema nodosum, inflammatory orbitopathy, small-bowel perforation, and a hypothalamic syndrome. Two patients died. There was a positive correlation with previous immunosuppressive treatment and a negative correlation with previous diarrhea and weight loss. The study was observational and thus has inherent weaknesses, such as incomplete and potentially selective data recording. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was diagnosed in about 10% of patients with Whipple disease in the study cohort; the outcome varied from mild to fatal. Patients who had had previous immunosuppressive therapy were at particular risk. An immune reconstitution syndrome should be considered in patients with Whipple disease in whom inflammatory symptoms recur after effective treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment with steroids may be beneficial; prospective studies are needed. European Commission and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
    Annals of internal medicine 12/2010; 153(11):710-7. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV entry into CD4(+) cells requires interaction with a cellular receptor, generally either CCR5 or CXCR4. We have previously reported the case of an HIV-infected patient in whom viral replication remained absent despite discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy after transplantation with CCR5Δ32/Δ32 stem cells. However, it was expected that the long-lived viral reservoir would lead to HIV rebound and disease progression during the process of immune reconstitution. In the present study, we demonstrate successful reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells at the systemic level as well as in the gut mucosal immune system after CCR5Δ32/Δ32 stem cell transplantation, while the patient remains without any sign of HIV infection. This was observed although recovered CD4(+) T cells contain a high proportion of activated memory CD4(+) T cells, ie, the preferential targets of HIV, and are susceptible to productive infection with CXCR4-tropic HIV. Furthermore, during the process of immune reconstitution, we found evidence for the replacement of long-lived host tissue cells with donor-derived cells, indicating that the size of the viral reservoir has been reduced over time. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that cure of HIV has been achieved in this patient.
    Blood 12/2010; 117(10):2791-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whipple's disease is a chronic multisystemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei that is characterized by arthritis, weight loss, and diarrhea. The immunological defects in the duodenal mucosa, the site of major replication of the agent underlying the pathogenesis of Whipple's disease, are poorly understood. Mucosal immunoglobulins are essential for the defense against intestinal pathogens; therefore, we analyzed the B-cell response in duodenal specimens and sera of Whipple's disease patients. Whereas systemic immunoglobulin production was affected only marginally, duodenal biopsy specimens of Whipple's disease patients contained reduced numbers of immunoglobulin-positive plasma cells and secreted less immunoglobulin compared to healthy controls but showed a weak secretory IgA response toward T. whipplei. This T. whipplei-specific intestinal immune response was not observed in controls. Thus, we were able to demonstrate that general mucosal immunoglobulin production in Whipple's disease patients is impaired. However, this deficiency does not completely abolish T. whipplei-specific secretory IgA production that nonetheless does not protect from chronic infection.
    Infection and immunity 11/2010; 78(11):4589-92. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A barrier defect of the intestinal mucosa is thought to affect the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is not clear whether the mucosal barrier impairment already is present in acute infection and what mechanisms cause this defect. We analyzed T-cell subsets, epithelial apoptosis, and barrier function of the duodenal mucosa in patients with acute HIV infection. Mucosal T-cell subsets, epithelial apoptosis, and barrier function were assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and impedance spectroscopy in duodenal samples from 8 patients with early acute infection, 8 patients with chronic infection, and 9 HIV-negative individuals (controls). One patient was analyzed serially, before and during acute infection. Compared with controls, densities of mucosal CD8+ and, surprisingly, of mucosal CD4+ T cells too, increased in patients with acute infection. Most mucosal CD4+ T cells had an activated effector memory phenotype (CD45RA-CD45RO+CD62L-CD40L+CD38+) and did not proliferate. Perforin-expressing mucosal CD8+ T cells also were increased in acutely infected patients; their frequency correlated with epithelial apoptosis. The epithelial barrier was impaired significantly in patients with acute HIV infection. The patient analyzed serially developed increased densities of mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased apoptosis of epithelial cells, and mucosal barrier impairment during acute infection. Before depleting CD4+ T cells, acute HIV infection induces infiltration of the mucosa with activated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The HIV-induced barrier defect of the intestinal mucosa is evident already in acute infection; it might arise from increased epithelial apoptosis, induced by perforin-positive mucosal cytotoxic T cells.
    Gastroenterology 10/2010; 139(4):1289-300. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract represents a major site for human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) replication and CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Despite severe depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T cells, FOXP3(+) regulatory CD4(+) T cells (T(reg)) are highly increased in the gut mucosa of chronically HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to HIV pathogenesis, either by their immunosuppressive function or as a significant target cell population for virus production. Little is known about the susceptibility of mucosal T(reg) to viral infection and the longitudinal effect of HIV/SIV infection on T(reg) dynamics. In this study, we determined the level of SIV infection in T(reg) and nonregulatory CD4(+) T cells (non-T(reg)) isolated from the colon of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The dynamics of mucosal T(reg) and alterations in the mucosal CD4(+) T-cell pool were examined longitudinally. Our findings indicate that mucosal T(reg) were less susceptible to productive SIV infection than non-T(reg) and thus were selectively spared from SIV-mediated cell death. In addition to improved survival, local expansion of T(reg) by SIV-induced proliferation of the mucosal CD4(+) T-cell pool facilitated the accumulation of mucosal T(reg) during the course of infection. High frequency of mucosal T(reg) in chronic SIV infection was strongly related to a reduction of perforin-expressing cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that mucosal T(reg) are less affected by productive SIV infection than non-T(reg) and therefore spared from depletion. Although SIV production is limited in mucosal T(reg), T(reg) accumulation may indirectly contribute to viral persistence by suppressing antiviral immune responses.
    Journal of Virology 04/2010; 84(7):3259-69. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Gero Hütter, Kristina Allers, Thomas Schneider
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 11/2009; 17(4):586-7. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whipple's disease is a chronic multisystemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Host factors likely predispose for the establishment of an infection, and macrophages seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of Whipple's disease. However, macrophage activation in Whipple's disease has not been studied systematically so far. Samples from 145 Whipple's disease patients and 166 control subjects were investigated. We characterized duodenal macrophages and lymphocytes immunohistochemically and peripheral monocytes by flow cytometry and quantified mucosal and systemic cytokines and chemokines indicative for macrophage activation. In addition, we determined duodenal nitrite production and oxidative burst induced by T whipplei and by other bacteria. Reduced numbers of duodenal lymphocytes, increased numbers of CD163(+) and stabilin-1(+), reduced numbers of inducible nitric synthase+ duodenal macrophages, and increased percentages of CD163(+) peripheral monocytes indicated a lack of inflammation and a M2/alternatively activated macrophage phenotype in Whipple's disease. Incubation with T whipplei in vitro enhanced the expression of CD163 on monocytes from Whipple's disease patients but not from control subjects. Chemokines and cytokines associated with M2/alternative macrophage activation were elevated in the duodenum and the peripheral blood from Whipple's disease patients. Functionally, Whipple's disease patients showed a reduced duodenal nitrite production and reduced oxidative burst upon incubation with T whipplei compared with healthy subjects. The lack of excessive local inflammation and alternative activation of macrophages, triggered in part by the agent T whipplei itself, may explain the hallmark of Whipple's disease: invasion of the intestinal mucosa with macrophages incompetent to degrade T whipplei.
    Gastroenterology 09/2009; 138(1):210-20. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of a CD4 receptor and a chemokine receptor, principally chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 allele provides resistance against HIV-1 acquisition. We transplanted stem cells from a donor who was homozygous for CCR5 delta32 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and HIV-1 infection. The patient remained without viral rebound 20 months after transplantation and discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. This outcome demonstrates the critical role CCR5 plays in maintaining HIV-1 infection.
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2009; 360(7):692-8. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairment of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier contributes to progression of HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the HIV-induced intestinal barrier defect and to identify underlying mechanisms. Epithelial barrier function was characterised by impedance spectroscopy and [(3)H]mannitol fluxes in duodenal biopsies from 11 untreated and 8 suppressively treated HIV-infected patients, and 9 HIV-seronegative controls. The villus/crypt ratio was determined microscopically. Epithelial apoptoses were analysed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 staining. Tight junction protein expression was quantified by densitometric analysis of immunoblots. Mucosal cytokine production was determined by cytometric bead array. Only in untreated but not in treated HIV-infected patients, epithelial resistance was reduced (13 (1) vs 23 (2) ohm cm(2), p<0.01) and mannitol permeability was increased compared with HIV-negative controls (19 (3) vs 9 (1) nm/s, p<0.05). As structural correlates, epithelial apoptoses and expression of the pore-forming claudin-2 were increased while expression of the sealing claudin-1 was reduced in untreated compared with treated patients and HIV-negative controls. Furthermore, villous atrophy was evident and mucosal production of interleukin 2 (IL2), IL4 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was increased in untreated but not in treated HIV-infected patients. Incubation with IL2, IL4, TNFalpha and IL13 reduced the transepithelial resistance of rat jejunal mucosa. Suppressive HAART abrogates HIV-induced intestinal barrier defect and villous atrophy. The HIV-induced barrier defect is due to altered tight junction protein composition and elevated epithelial apoptoses. Mucosal cytokines are mediators of the HIV-induced mucosal barrier defect and villous atrophy.
    Gut 10/2008; 58(2):220-7. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adoptive cell transfer may be a successful strategy in anticancer therapy and its therapeutic efficiency depends on the access of transferred cells to the tumor site and their persistence in vivo. Nevertheless, the migration properties of autologous in vitro-activated T cells in primates are largely unknown. Here, we established the long-term tracking of T-cell migration into various compartments of rhesus macaques as a preclinical model for the evaluation of T-cell-based immunotherapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 3 to 4 rhesus macaques were activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 or not, labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetat succinimidyl ester, and reinjected intravenously into the donor animals. Blood samples, lymph node biopsies, and mucosal biopsies (duodenum, rectum) were collected at various time points and analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of the reinjected T cells. We demonstrate that nonspecific in vitro activation changes the in vivo migratory behavior of T cells and provokes a preferential migration of CD8 T cells to the rectum. Nonspecifically activated transferred CD4 T cells were found in much lower frequencies at this site and also in other compartments. Thus, our results indicate an imbalanced distribution of autologous CD8 and CD4 T cells in various compartments that is more apparent when T cells are activated before the transfer. The migratory behavior of in vitro-expanded, autologously transferred T cells can, therefore, influence the clinical outcome of adoptive cell transfer.
    Journla of Immunotherapy 06/2008; 31(4):334-44. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In studying immune responses towards the poliovirus, data about T cell mediated immunity in the intestine as the main portal of viral entry in disease and vaccination is lacking. We treated two macaques with oral Polio vaccine and collected duodenal and colonic biopsy specimens. RNA isolation, reverse transcription, and polymerase chain reaction were performed for fragment analysis of the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of the T cell receptor beta chain variable region (TCRBV), followed by subcloning and sequencing of expanded bands. In the colon, oligoclonal expansions of TCRBV16+ or TCRBV13+ intestinal T cells with conserved motifs of the hypervariable CDR3 were found. Flow cytometric analysis of mucosal T cells revealed that activated colonic T cells were mainly CD4+. Our results indicate that there is a local activation of oligoclonal T cells in the colon after oral Polio vaccination (OPV) which involves selected TCRBV families and may occur within the CD4+ T cell subset.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 01/2008; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of persistent infection is one of the major obstacles facing the eradication of HIV-1. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of viral persistence, we investigated the fate of defined viral quasispecies under conditions that might favor their eradication. We retrospectively analyzed changes in viral populations in HIV-1-infected patients treated with zidovudine/lamivudine and subsequently failing therapy within months in the years 1996 to 1997. Furthermore, we developed an in vitro model based on simultaneous infection of T cells with 2 or more different viral variants. Changes in minority quasispecies of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant HIV-1 variants based on lamivudine and the corresponding lamivudine-resistant viruses carrying the M184I or M184V mutation were investigated using an allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. We demonstrate that lamivudine-sensitive and lamivudine-resistant HIV-1 variants are able to persist despite highly unfavorable conditions in vivo and in vitro and that selective advantages of viral variants can vary depending on the complexity of other simultaneously replicating viral variants.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2007; 44(4):377-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

807 Citations
187.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacy
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2008–2013
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • • Institute of Medical Informatics
      • • Institute of Health Sciences Education and Nursing Science
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2007
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Institute of Virology - Clinical and Molecular Virology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany