David L. Clark

University of Louisiana at Monroe, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (126)306.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hexavalent neptunium can be solubilized in 0.5-3.5 M aqueous MOH (M = Li(+), Na(+), NMe4(+) = TMA(+)) solutions. Single crystals were obtained from cooling of a dilute solution of Co(NH3)6Cl3 and NpO2(2+) in 3.5 M [N(Me)4]OH to 5 °C. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study revealed the molecular formula of [Co(NH3)6]2[NpO2(OH)4]3·H2O, isostructural with the uranium analogue. The asymmetric unit contains three distinct NpO2(OH)4(2-) ions, each with pseudooctahedral coordination geometry with trans-oxo ligands. The average Np═O and Np-OH distances were determined to be 1.80(1) and 2.24(1) Å, respectively. EXAFS data and fits at the Np LIII-edge on solid [Co(NH3)6]2[NpO2(OH)4]3·H2O and aqueous solutions of NpO2(2+) in 2.5 and 3.5 M (TMA)OH revealed bond lengths nearly identical with those determined by X-ray diffraction but with an increase in the number of equatorial ligands with increasing (TMA)OH concentration. Raman spectra of single crystals of [Co(NH3)6]2[NpO2(OH)4]3·H2O reveal a ν1(O═Np═O) symmetric stretch at 741 cm(-1). Raman spectra of NpO2(2+) recorded in a 0.6-2.2 M LiOH solution reveal a single ν1 frequency of 769 cm(-1). Facile exchange of the neptunyl oxo ligands with the water solvent was also observed with Raman spectroscopy performed with (16)O- and (18)O-enriched water solvent. The combination of EXAFS and Raman data suggests that NpO2(OH)4(2-) is the dominant solution species under the conditions of study and that a small amount of a second species, NpO2(OH)5(3-), may also be present at higher alkalinity. Crystal data for [Co(NH3)6]2[NpO2(OH)4]3·H2O: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 17.344(4) Å, b = 12.177(3) Å, c = 15.273 Å, β = 120.17(2)°, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0359, wR2 = 0.0729.
    Inorganic Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of covalency in complexes of the 4f and 5f elements has been a source of intense research and controversy. In addition to academic interest in this debate, there is an industrial motivation for better understanding of bonding in f-element complexes due to the need to separate trivalent trans-plutonium elements from trivalent lanthanide fission products in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This review discusses the key evidence for covalency in f-element bonds derived from structural, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of some selected classes of molecules, including octahedral hexahalides, linear actinyl and organometallic sandwich complexes. This evidence is supplemented by a discussion of covalency, including the possibility of both overlap and near-degeneracy driven covalency and the need to quantify their relative contributions in actinide metal–ligand bonds.
    Coordination Chemistry Reviews 01/2013; 257(2):394–406. · 11.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic routes to salts containing uranium bis-imido tetrahalide anions [U(NR)(2)X(4)](2-) (X = Cl(-), Br(-)) and non-coordinating NEt(4)(+) and PPh(4)(+) countercations are reported. In general, these compounds can be prepared from U(NR)(2)I(2)(THF)(x) (x = 2 and R = (t)Bu, Ph; x = 3 and R = Me) upon addition of excess halide. In addition to providing stable coordination complexes with Cl(-), the [U(NMe)(2)](2+) cation also reacts with Br(-) to form stable [NEt(4)](2)[U(NMe)(2)Br(4)] complexes. These materials were used as a platform to compare electronic structure and bonding in [U(NR)(2)](2+) with [UO(2)](2+). Specifically, Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and both ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT and TDDFT) were used to probe U-Cl bonding interactions in [PPh(4)](2)[U(N(t)Bu)(2)Cl(4)] and [PPh(4)](2)[UO(2)Cl(4)]. The DFT and XAS results show the total amount of Cl 3p character mixed with the U 5f orbitals was roughly 7-10% per U-Cl bond for both compounds, which shows that moving from oxo to imido has little effect on orbital mixing between the U 5f and equatorial Cl 3p orbitals. The results are presented in the context of recent Cl K-edge XAS and DFT studies on other hexavalent uranium chloride systems with fewer oxo or imido ligands.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray pair distribution function (pdf) and U L 3 extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pdf measurements that give identical results for UO 2 show U(VI)-oxo moieties with x rays for mixed valence U 4 O 9 and U 3 O 7 , in contrast to the neutron data that indicate only U(V) sites with no short U-O bonds as well as other differences. In addition, although the EXAFS spectra of UO 2 are essentially identical at 30, 100, and 200 K, those of the UO 2+x compounds exhibit different nearest-neighbor U-O distributions at each temperature. Further tunneling polaron-type behavior is found in the broadening of the features of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of the UO 2+x compounds. Raman spectra of powders also show a large increase in scattering cross section with increasing O content that would originate in a change in the electronic structure that increases the overall polarizability. The XAS and Raman also show that U 4 O 9 does not behave as a linear combination of the UO 2 and U 3 O 7 fluorite endpoints. The properties induced by mobile rather than static charged quasiparticles were explored by optical pumping of the metal-to-metal charge-transfer transition. The temperature dependence of 4.71 eV pump–1.57 eV probe reflectivity on UO 2 that initially populates the U 6d-dominated portion of the upper Hubbard band (UHB) shows a sharp 28-μsec lifetime peak at 25 K that may be associated with the fluctuations of its antiferromagnetic transition. Pumping at 3.14 eV into the 5f -dominated portion of the UHB shows an analogous 2.8-μsec peak but also a plateau bracketing this peak that ends in a cusp at 50–60 K and an abrupt change in the hardening rate of a novel 12–15 GHz phonon that is the signature for the quasiparticle quantum phase. The different results for the different excitation channels indicate a highly specific nonthermal relaxation mechanism. These results constitute the first observation of a distinct phase of photoinduced quasiparticles that is sufficiently coupled to the lattice to undergo a gap-opening transition. When the intragap state is probed with a terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) measurement 33 psec after a 3.14 excitation pulse, it shows increased absorption in the 0.5–1.1 THz range with a decrease in temperature from ∼30 to 10 K instead of the expected decrease, a result consistent with the presence of a condensate. These results are too extreme to originate in the dynamical, nonadiabatic, coupled charge-transfer–phonon/tunneling polaron scenario previously used for doped Mott-Hubbard insulators with intermediate electron-phonon coupling and therefore indicate novel physics. One possibility that could cause all of these behaviors is that a collective, dynamical, charge transfer-coupled Peierls distortion involving the 2 U(V) ↔ U(IV) + U(VI)-oxo excitation occurs coherently over an entire domain to cause the atoms in this domain to condense into a system with Bose-Einstein or Bose-Einstein-Hubbard properties.
    Physical Review B 01/2013; 88:115135. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The screened hybrid approximation (HSE) of density functional theory (DFT) is used to examine the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the high temperature phase, cubic UC(2). This phase contains C(2) units with a computed C-C distance of 1.443 Å which is in the range of a CC double bond; U is formally 4+, C(2) 4-. The closed shell paramagnetic state (NM) was found to lie lowest. Cubic UC(2) is found to be a semiconductor with a narrow gap, 0.4 eV. Interestingly, the C(2) units connecting two uranium sites can rotate freely up to an angle of 30°, indicating a hindered rotational solid. Ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations (HSE) show that the rotation of C(2) units in the low temperature phase (tetragonal UC(2)) occurs above 2000 K, in good agreement with experiment. The computed energy barrier for the phase transition from tetragonal UC(2) to cubic UC(2) is around 1.30 eV per UC(2). What is fascinating about this system is that at high temperature, the phase transformation to the cubic phase is associated with a rehybridization of the C atoms from sp to sp(3).
    Inorganic Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dithiophosphinic acid HS(2)P(o-CF(3)C(6)H(4))(2) is known to exhibit exceptionally high extraction selectivities for trivalent minor actinides (Am and Cm) in the presence of trivalent lanthanides. To generate insight that may account for this observation, a series of [PPh(4)][S(2)PR(2)] complexes, where R = Me (1), Ph (2), p-CF(3)C(6)H(4) (3), m-CF(3)C(6)H(4) (4), o-CF(3)C(6)H(4) (5), o-MeC(6)H(4) (6), and o-MeOC(6)H(4) (7), have been investigated using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The experimental analyses show distinct features in the spectrum of S(2)P(o-CF(3)C(6)H(4))(2)(-) (5) that are not present in the spectrum of 4, whose conjugate acid exhibits reduced selectivity, or in the spectra of 2 and 3, which are anticipated to have even lower separation factors based on previous studies. In contrast, the spectrum of 5 is similar to those of 6 and 7, despite the significantly different electron-donating properties associated with the o-CF(3), o-Me, and o-OMe substituents. The TDDFT calculations suggest that the distinct spectral features of 5-7 result from steric interactions due to the presence of the ortho substituents, which force the aryl groups to rotate around the P-C bonds and reduce the molecular symmetry from approximately C(2v) in 2-4 to C(2) in 5-7. As a consequence, the change in aryl group orientation appears to make the ortho-substituted S(2)PR(2)(-) anions "softer" extractants compared with analogous Ph-, p-CF(3)C(6)H(4)-, and m-CF(3)C(6)H(4)-containing ligands (2-4) by raising the energies of the sulfur valence orbitals and enhancing orbital mixing between the S(2)P molecular orbitals and the aryl groups bound to phosphorus. Overall, we report that sulfur K-edge XAS experiments and TDDFT calculations reveal unique electronic properties of the S(2)P(o-CF(3)C(6)H(4))(2)(-) anion in 5. These results correlate with the special extraction properties associated with HS(2)P(o-CF(3)C(6)H(4))(2), and suggest that ligand K-edge XAS and TDDFT can be used to guide separation efforts relevant to advanced fuel cycle development.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2012; 134(35):14408-22. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT) were used to probe the electronic structures of O(h)-MCl(6)(2-) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, U) and C(4v)-UOCl(5)(-), and to determine the relative contributions of valence 3d, 4d, 5d, 6d, and 5f orbitals in M-Cl bonding. Spectral interpretations were guided by time-dependent DFT calculated transition energies and oscillator strengths, which agree well with the experimental XAS spectra. The data provide new spectroscopic evidence for the involvement of both 5f and 6d orbitals in actinide-ligand bonding in UCl(6)(2-). For the MCl(6)(2-), where transitions into d orbitals of t(2g) symmetry are spectroscopically resolved for all four complexes, the experimentally determined Cl 3p character per M-Cl bond increases from 8.3(4)% (TiCl(6)(2-)) to 10.3(5)% (ZrCl(6)(2-)), 12(1)% (HfCl(6)(2-)), and 18(1)% (UCl(6)(2-)). Chlorine K-edge XAS spectra of UOCl(5)(-) provide additional insights into the transition assignments by lowering the symmetry to C(4v), where five pre-edge transitions into both 5f and 6d orbitals are observed. For UCl(6)(2-), the XAS data suggest that orbital mixing associated with the U 5f orbitals is considerably lower than that of the U 6d orbitals. For both UCl(6)(2-) and UOCl(5)(-), the ground-state DFT calculations predict a larger 5f contribution to bonding than is determined experimentally. These findings are discussed in the context of conventional theories of covalent bonding for d- and f-block metal complexes.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2012; 134(12):5586-97. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uranium compounds supported by redox-active α-diimine ligands, which have methyl groups on the ligand backbone and bulky mesityl substituents on the nitrogen atoms {(Mes)DAB(Me) = [ArN═C(Me)C(Me)═NAr], where Ar = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (Mes)}, are reported. The addition of 2 equiv of (Mes)DAB(Me), 3 equiv of KC(8), and 1 equiv of UI(3)(THF)(4) produced the bis(ligand) species ((Mes)DAB(Me))(2)U(THF) (1). The metallocene derivative, Cp(2)U((Mes)DAB(Me)) (2), was generated by the addition of an equimolar ratio of (Mes)DAB(Me) and KC(8) to Cp(3)U. The bond lengths in the molecular structure of both species confirm that the α-diimine ligands have been doubly reduced to form ene-diamide ligands. Characterization by electronic absorption spectroscopy shows weak, sharp transitions in the near-IR region of the spectrum and, in combination with the crystallographic data, is consistent with the formulation that tetravalent uranium ions are present and supported by ene-diamide ligands. This interpretation was verified by U L(III)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and by variable-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic data are consistent with singlet ground states at low temperature and variable-temperature dependencies that would be expected for uranium(IV) species. However, both complexes exhibit low magnetic moments at room temperature, with values of 1.91 and 1.79 μ(B) for 1 and 2, respectively. Iodomethane was used to test the reactivity of 1 and 2 for multielectron transfer. While 2 showed no reactivity with CH(3)I, the addition of 2 equiv of iodomethane to 1 resulted in the formation of a uranium(IV) monoiodide species, ((Mes)DAB(Me))((Mes)DAB(Me2))UI {3; (Mes)DAB(Me2) = [ArN═C(Me)C(Me(2))NAr]}, which was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and U M(4)- and M(5)-edge XANES. Confirmation of the structure was also attained by deuterium labeling studies, which showed that a methyl group was added to the ene-diamide ligand carbon backbone.
    Inorganic Chemistry 07/2011; 50(20):9838-48. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of first row atoms, e.g., O, are notoriously difficult to obtain due to the extreme sensitivity of the measurement to surface contamination, self-absorption, and saturation affects. Herein, we describe a comprehensive approach for determining reliable O K-edge XAS data for ReO(4)(1-) and provide methodology for obtaining trustworthy and quantitative data on nonconducting molecular systems, even in the presence of surface contamination. This involves comparing spectra measured by nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS), a bulk-sensitive technique that is not prone to X-ray self-absorption and provides exact peak intensities, with XAS spectra obtained by three different detection modes, namely total electron yield (TEY), fluorescence yield (FY), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). For ReO(4)(1-), TEY measurements were heavily influenced by surface contamination, while the FY and STXM data agree well with the bulk NRIXS analysis. These spectra all showed two intense pre-edge features indicative of the covalent interaction between the Re 5d and O 2p orbitals. Density functional theory calculations were used to assign these two peaks as O 1s excitations to the e and t(2) molecular orbitals that result from Re 5d and O 2p covalent mixing in T(d) symmetry. Electronic structure calculations were used to determine the amount of O 2p character (%) in these molecular orbitals. Time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) was also used to calculate the energies and intensities of the pre-edge transitions. Overall, under these experimental conditions, this analysis suggests that NRIXS, STXM, and FY operate cooperatively, providing a sound basis for validation of bulk-like excitation spectra and, in combination with electronic structure calculations, suggest that NaReO(4) may serve as a well-defined O K-edge energy and intensity standard for future O K-edge XAS studies.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2010; 132(39):13914-21. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trivalent lanthanide bis-hydroxychloride compounds, Ln(OH)(2)Cl, (Ln = Nd through Lu, with the exception of Pm and Sm) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis starting with LnCl(3).nH(2)O. These compounds were synthesized at temperatures not exceeding the melting point of the Teflon liners in the Parr autoclaves ( approximately 220 degrees C). The compounds obtained were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, diffuse reflectance, FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Most of the lanthanide(III) bis-hydroxychlorides are isostructural and generally crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/m. The bis-hydroxychlorides of the heavier lanthanide(III) atoms with smaller ionic radii also crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system. Apparently hydrogen bonds between the OH groups and the Cl atoms connect the layers in the "c" direction. These H-bonds seem to be the driving force for the angle beta of the monoclinic complexes to decrease with decreasing ionic radius of the Ln(III) ion and also for tying the layers together more strongly. As a result of this behavior, the structure of the heavier 4f analogues significantly resembles that of their orthorhombic counterparts. The heavier lanthanide bis-hydroxychlorides preferentially crystallize in the orthorhombic modification. The IR absorbance and Raman frequencies of the hydroxide ligands correlate as a function of the central lanthanide(III) ionic radius. This observation is corroborated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural data. These compounds are quite insoluble in near-neutral and basic aqueous solutions, but soluble in acidic solutions. It is expected that the analogue actinide bis-hydroxychlorides exhibit similar behavior and that this may have important implications in the immobilization and safe disposal of nuclear waste.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2010; 49(11):4781-90. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 01/2010; 41(34).
  • ChemInform 01/2010; 33(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental L(III) X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the distorted octahedral neptunium oxo ions NpO(2)(OH)(4)(2-), NpO(4)(OH)(2)(3-), and NpO(6)(6-) are interpreted using relativistic full multiple scattering calculations of the X-ray absorption process. In this series of compounds, the neptunium cation exhibits two different oxidation states, VI and VII, with coordination spheres from di- to tetra oxo for the first two compounds. The comparison between calculated XANES spectra using the feff code and experimental ones shows that the main features in the spectra are determined by the local coordination around the actinide metal center. Furthermore, the projected density of electronic states (DOS) calculated from the XANES simulations using the feff code are compared to calculations using ADF code. They are both discussed in terms of molecular orbitals and qualitative evolution of bonding within this series of compounds.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11/2009; 11(44):10396-402. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the use of Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and both ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT) to probe the electronic structure and determine the degree of orbital mixing in M-Cl bonds for (C(5)Me(5))(2)MCl(2) (M = Ti, 1; Zr, 2; Hf, 3; Th, 4; U, 5), where we can directly compare a class of structurally similar compounds for d- and f-elements. Pre-edge features in the Cl K-edge XAS data for the group IV transition-metals 1-3 provide direct evidence of covalent M-Cl orbital mixing. The amount of Cl 3p character was experimentally determined to be 25%, 23%, and 22% per M-Cl bond for 1-3, respectively. For actinides, we find a pre-edge shoulder for 4 (Th) and distinct and weak pre-edge features for U, 5. The amount of Cl 3p character was determined to be 9% for 5, and we were unable to make an experimental determination for 4. Using hybrid DFT calculations with relativistic effective core potentials, the electronic structures of 1-5 were calculated and used as a guide to interpret the experimental Cl K-edge XAS data. For transition-metal compounds 1-3, the pre-edge features arise due to transitions from Cl 1s electrons into the 3d-, 4d-, and 5d-orbitals, with assignments provided in the text. For Th, 4, we find that 5f- and 6d-orbitals are nearly degenerate and give rise to a single pre-edge shoulder in the XAS. For U, 5, we find the 5f- and 6d-orbitals fall into two distinct energy groupings, and Cl K-edge XAS data are interpreted in terms of Cl 1s transitions into both 5f- and 6d-orbitals. Time-dependent DFT was used to calculate the energies and intensities of Cl 1s transitions into empty metal-based orbitals containing Cl 3p character and provide simulated Cl K-edge XAS spectra for 1-4. For 5, which has two unpaired 5f electrons, simulated spectra were obtained from transition dipole calculations using ground-state Kohn-Sham orbitals. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first application of Cl K-edge XAS to actinide systems. Overall, this study allows trends in orbital mixing within a well-characterized structural motif to be identified and compared between transition-metals and actinide elements. These results show that the orbital mixing for the d-block compounds slightly decreases in covalency with increasing principal quantum number, in the order Ti > Zr approximately = Hf, and that uranium displays approximately half the covalent orbital mixing of transition elements.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2009; 131(34):12125-36. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stability of biogenic uraninite with respect to oxidation is seminal to the success of in situ bioreduction strategies for remediation of subsurface U(VI) contamination. The properties and hence stability of uraninite are dependent on its size, structure, and composition. In this study, the local-, intermediate-, and long-range molecular-scale structure of nanoscale uraninite produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 was investigated using EXAFS, SR-based powder diffraction and TEM. The uraninite products were found to be structurally homologous with stoichiometric U02 under all conditions considered. Significantly, there was no evidence for lattice strain of the biogenic uraninite nanoparticles. The fresh nanoparticles were found to exhibit a well-ordered interior core of diameter ca. 1.3 nm and an outer region of thickness ca approximately 0.6 nm in which the structure is locally distorted. The lack of nanoparticle strain and structural homology with stoichiometric U02 suggests that established thermodynamic parameters for the latter material are an appropriate starting point to model the behavior of nanobiogenic uraninite. The detailed structural analysis in this study provides an essential foundation for subsequent investigations of environmental samples.
    Environmental Science and Technology 12/2008; 42(21):7898-904. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For 3-5d transition-metal ions, the (C5R5)2MCl2 (R = H, Me for M = Ti, Zr, Hf) bent metallocenes represent a series of compounds that have been central in the development of organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Here, we evaluate how changes in the principal quantum number for the group IV (C5H5)2MCl2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; 1- 3, respectively) complexes affects the covalency of M-Cl bonds through application of Cl K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Spectra were recorded on solid samples dispersed as a thin film and encapsulated in polystyrene matrices to reliably minimize problems associated with X-ray self-absorption. The data show that XAS pre-edge intensities can be quantitatively reproduced when analytes are encapsulated in polystyrene. Cl K-edge XAS data show that covalency in M-Cl bonding changes in the order Ti > Zr > Hf and demonstrates that covalency slightly decreases with increasing principal quantum number in 1-3. The percent Cl 3p character was experimentally determined to be 26, 23, and 18% per M-Cl bond in the thin-film samples for 1-3 respectively and was indistinguishable from the polystyrene samples, which analyzed as 25, 25, and 19% for 1-3, respectively. To aid in interpretation of Cl K-edge XAS, 1-3 were also analyzed by ground-state and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The calculated spectra and percent chlorine character are in close agreement with the experimental observations, and show 20, 18, and 17% Cl 3p character per M-Cl bond for 1-3, respectively. Polystyrene matrix encapsulation affords a convenient method to safely contain radioactive samples to extend our studies to include actinide elements, where both 5f and 6d orbitals are expected to play a role in M-Cl bonding and where transition assignments must rely on accurate theoretical calculations.
    Inorganic Chemistry 07/2008; 47(12):5365-71. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction of (C5Me5)2U(=N-2,4,6-(t)Bu3-C6H2) or (C5Me5)2U(=N-2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3)(THF) with 5 equiv of CuX(n) (n = 1, X = Cl, Br, I; n = 2, X = F) affords the corresponding uranium(V)-imido halide complexes, (C5Me5)2U(=N-Ar)(X) (where Ar = 2,4,6-(t)Bu3-C6H2 and X = F (3), Cl (4), Br (5), I (6); Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3 and X = F (7), Cl (8), Br (9), I (10)), in good isolated yields of 75-89%. These compounds have been characterized by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, UV-visible-NIR absorption spectroscopy, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility. The uranium L(III)-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of (C5Me5)2U(=N-2,4,6-(t)Bu3-C6H2)(Cl) (4) was analyzed to obtain structural information, and the U=N imido (1.97(1) A), U-Cl (2.60(2) A), and U-C5Me5 (2.84(1) A) distances were consistent with those observed for compounds 3, 5, 6, 8-10, which were all characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. All (C5Me5)2U(=N-Ar)(X) complexes exhibit U(V)/U(IV) and U(VI)/U(V) redox couples by voltammetry, with the potential separation between these metal-based couples remaining essentially constant at approximately 1.50 V. The electronic spectra are comprised of pi-->pi* and pi-->nb(5f) transitions involving electrons in the metal-imido bond, and metal-centered f-f bands illustrative of spin-orbit and crystal-field influences on the 5f(1) valence electron configuration. Two distinct sets of bands are attributed to transitions derived from this 5f(1) configuration, and the intensities in these bands increase dramatically over those found in spectra of classical 5f(1) actinide coordination complexes. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities are reported for all complexes with mu(eff) values ranging from 2.22 to 2.53 mu(B). The onset of quenching of orbital angular momentum by ligand fields is observed to occur at approximately 40 K in all cases. Density functional theory results for the model complexes (C5Me5)2U(=N-C6H5)(F) (11) and (C5Me5)2U(=N-C6H5)(I) (12) show good agreement with experimental structural and electrochemical data and provide a basis for assignment of spectroscopic bands. The bonding analysis describes multiple bonding between the uranium metal center and imido nitrogen which is comprised of one sigma and two pi interactions with variable participation of 5f and 6d orbitals from the uranium center.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2008; 130(15):5272-85. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy was used to probe the speciation of the ppm level Pu in thirteen soil and concrete samples from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in support of the site remediation effort that has been successfully completed since these measurements. In addition to X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectra, two of the samples yielded Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra that could be analyzed by curve-fits. Most of these spectra exhibited features consistent with PU(IV), and more specificaJly, PuO{sub 2+x}-type speciation. Two were ambiguous, possibly indicating that Pu that was originally present in a different form was transforming into PuO{sub 2+x}, and one was interpreted as demonstrating the presence of an unusual Pu(VI) compound, consistent with its source being spills from a PUREX purification line onto a concrete floor and the resultant extreme conditions. These experimental results therefore validated models that predicted that insoluble PuO{sub 2+x} would be the most stable form of Pu in equilibrium with air and water even when the source terms were most likely Pu metal with organic compounds or a Pu fire. A corollary of these models' predictions and other in situ observations is therefore that the minimal transport of Pu that occurred on the site was via the resuspension and mobilization of colloidal particles. Under these conditions, the small amounts of diffusely distributed Pu that were left on the site after its remediation pose only a negligible hazard.
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) was a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup site for a previous manufacturing plant that made components for the U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal. The facility was shut down in 1989 to address environmental and safety concerns, and left behind a legacy of contaminated facilities, soils, surface and ground water. In 1995, the Site contractor established the Actinide Migration Evaluation (AME) advisory group to provide advice and technical expertise on issues of actinide behavior and mobility in the air, surface water, groundwater, and soil. Through a combination of expert judgment supported by state-of-the-art scientific measurements, it was shown that under environmental conditions at Rocky Flats, plutonium and americium form insoluble oxides that adhere to small soil, organic, and mineral particles and colloids, or are colloidal materials themselves. A series of models ranging from conceptual, geostatistial, and large-scale wind and surface water erosion models were used to guide stakeholder interactions. The nature of these models, and their use in public communication is described.
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 01/2007;
  • Physics Today - PHYS TODAY. 01/2007; 60(9).

Publication Stats

468 Citations
174 Downloads
306.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • University of Louisiana at Monroe
      • Department of Chemistry
      Louisiana, United States
  • 1998–2010
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Chemistry Division
      Los Alamos, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Florida State University
      Tallahassee, Florida, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Alma College
      • Biology
      Alma, MI, United States
  • 1968–2002
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • • Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Bloomington, IN, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • University of Cincinnati
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Cincinnati, OH, United States