Disha Dayal

University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States

Are you Disha Dayal?

Claim your profile

Publications (8)29.7 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ligand glyoxal bis(4-methyl-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (GTSCH2) is shown to be a selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensor for zinc ions (Zn2+). This sensor is easy to synthesize, exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity towards Zn2+ over other physiologically relevant cations, and has sub-nanomolar binding affinity. It displays maximum fluorescence response to Zn2+ when the metal/ligand ratio is 1:1 and displays stable fluorescence over a broad pH range. The potential of GTSCH2 to image Zn2+ inside the cell was demonstrated in MCF-7 cells (human breast cancer cell line) by using flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability studies reveal that the probe is biocompatible and suitable for cellular applications.
    European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 07/2013; 2013(July):3542-3549. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SDHD mutations are associated with human cancers but the mechanisms that may contribute to transformation are unknown. The hypothesis that mutations in SDHD increase levels of superoxide leading to genomic instability was tested using site-directed mutagenesis to generate a truncated SDHD cDNA that was expressed in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Stable expression of mutant SDHD resulted in 2-fold increases in steady-state levels of superoxide that were accompanied by a significantly increased mutation rate as well as a 70-fold increase in mutation frequency at the hprt locus. Overexpression of MnSOD or treatment with polyethylene glycol conjugated (PEG)-catalase suppressed mutation frequency in SDHD mutant cells by 50% (P<0.05). Simultaneous treatment with PEG-catalase and PEG-SOD suppressed mutation frequency in SDHD mutant cells by 90% (P<0.0005). Finally, 95% depletion of glutathione using l-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) in SDHD mutant cells caused a 4-fold increase in mutation frequency (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that mutations in SDHD cause increased steady-state levels of superoxide which significantly contributed to increases in mutation rates and frequency mediated by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These results support the hypothesis that mutations in SDHD may contribute to carcinogenesis by increasing genomic instability mediated by increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2012; 52(1):160-6. · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent zinc complexes have recently attracted a lot of interest owing to their vast applications in cellular imaging. We report the synthesis as well as physical, chemical and biological studies of a novel zinc glyoxalbis(4-methyl-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone), [Zn(GTSC)]₃, complex. As compared with the well-studied zinc biacetylbis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone), Zn(ATSM), complex, which was used as a reference, [Zn(GTSC)]₃ had 2.5-fold higher fluorescence. When cellular fluorescence was measured using flow cytometry, we observed that [Zn(GTSC)]₃ had 3.4-fold to 12-fold higher fluorescence than Zn(ATSM) in various cell lines (n = 9) of different tissue origin. Confocal fluorescence microscopy results showed that [Zn(GTSC)]₃ appeared to have a nuclear localization within 30 min of addition to MCF7 cells. Moreover, [Zn(GTSC)]₃ showed minimal cytotoxicity compared with Zn(ATSM), suggesting that [Zn(GTSC)]₃ may be less deleterious to cells when used as an imaging agent. Our data suggest that the novel [Zn(GTSC)]₃ complex can potentially serve as a biocompatible fluorescent imaging agent for live cells.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 03/2011; 16(4):621-32. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation induces chronic metabolic oxidative stress and a mutator phenotype in hamster fibroblasts that is mediated by H(2)O(2), but the intracellular source of H(2)O(2) is not well defined. To determine the role of mitochondria in the radiation-induced mutator phenotype, end points of mitochondrial function were determined in unstable (CS-9 and LS-12) and stable (114) hamster fibroblast cell lines derived from GM10115 cells exposed to 10 Gy X rays. Cell lines isolated after irradiation demonstrated a 20-40% loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in mitochondrial content compared to the parental cell line GM10115. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in steady-state levels of ATP (P > 0.05). Unstable clones demonstrated increased oxygen consumption (two- to threefold; CS-9) and/or increased mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complex II activity (twofold; LS-12). Using Western blot analysis and Blue Native gel electrophoresis, a significant increase in complex II subunit B protein levels was observed in LS-12 cells. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays revealed evidence of abnormal complex II assembly in LS-12 cells. Treatment of LS-12 cells with an inhibitor of ETC complex II (thenoyltrifluoroacetone) resulted in significant decreases in the steady-state levels of H(2)O(2) and a 50% reduction in mutation frequency as well as a 16% reduction in CAD gene amplification frequency. These data show that radiation-induced genomic instability was accompanied by evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased steady-state levels of H(2)O(2) that contributed to increased mutation frequency and gene amplification. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction originating from complex II can contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability by increasing steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species.
    Radiation Research 12/2009; 172(6):737-45. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells represent features that may be exploited therapeutically. We determined whether agents that induce mitochondrial dysfunction, such as zidovudine (AZT) and cisplatin (CIS), could enhance killing of human head and neck cancer cells via oxidative stress. AZT- and/or CIS-induced cytotoxicity was determined using clonogenic survival, mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed to investigate mitochondrial function, and glutathione was measured to determine thiol metabolism perturbations. AZT+CIS significantly increased toxicity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in FaDu, Cal-27, and SQ20B head and neck cancer cells while increasing the percentage of glutathione disulfide (%GSSG). Treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the increase in %GSSG and partially protected FaDu and Cal-27 cells from AZT+CIS. Finally, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, l-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine, sensitized the cells to AZT+CIS-induced cytotoxicity, which was partially reversed by NAC. These results suggest that exposure of cancer cells to agents that induce mitochondrial dysfunction, such as AZT, causes significant sensitization to CIS-induced toxicity via disruptions in thiol metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings provide a biochemical rationale for evaluating agents that induce mitochondrial dysfunction in combination with chemotherapy and inhibitors of glutathione metabolism in head and neck cancer.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2008; 46(2):232-7. · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic oxidative stress has been associated with genomic instability following exposure to ionizing radiation. However, results showing direct causal linkages between specific ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the ionizing radiation-induced mutator phenotype are lacking. The present study demonstrates that ionizing radiation-induced genomically unstable cells (characterized by chromosomal instability and an increase in mutation and gene amplification frequencies) show a 3-fold increase in steady-state levels of hydrogen peroxide, but not superoxide. Furthermore, stable clones isolated from parallel studies showed significant increases in catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Treatment of unstable cells with PEG-CAT (polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase) reduced the mutation frequency and mutation rate in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, inhibiting catalase activity in the stable clones using AT (3-aminotriazole) increased mutation frequency and rate. These results clearly demonstrate the causal relationship between chronic oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide and the mutator phenotype that persists for many generations following exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation.
    Biochemical Journal 08/2008; 413(1):185-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a reducing agent, ascorbate serves as an antioxidant. However, its reducing function can in some settings initiate an oxidation cascade, i.e., seem to be a "pro-oxidant." This dichotomy also seems to hold when ascorbate is present during photosensitization. Ascorbate can react with singlet oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide. Thus, if ascorbate is present during photosensitization the formation of highly diffusible hydrogen peroxide could enhance the toxicity of the photodynamic action. On the other hand, ascorbate could decrease toxicity by converting highly reactive singlet oxygen to less reactive hydrogen peroxide, which can be removed via peroxide-removing systems such as glutathione and catalase. To test the influence of ascorbate on photodynamic treatment we incubated leukemia cells (HL-60 and U937) with ascorbate and a photosensitizer (Verteporfin; VP) and examined ascorbic acid monoanion uptake, levels of glutathione, changes in membrane permeability, cell growth, and toxicity. Accumulation of VP was similar in each cell line. Under our experimental conditions, HL-60 cells were found to accumulate less ascorbate and have lower levels of intracellular GSH compared to U937 cells. Without added ascorbate, HL-60 cells were more sensitive to VP and light treatment than U937 cells. When cells were exposed to VP and light, ascorbate acted as an antioxidant in U937 cells, whereas it was a pro-oxidant for HL-60 cells. One possible mechanism to explain these observations is that HL-60 cells express myeloperoxidase activity, whereas in U937 cells it is below the detection limit. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (4-ABAH) had minimal influence on the phototoxicity of VP in HL-60 cells in the absence of ascorbate. However, 4-ABAH decreased the toxicity of ascorbate on HL-60 cells during VP photosensitization, but had no affect on ascorbate toxicity in U937 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbate increases hydrogen peroxide production by VP and light. This hydrogen peroxide activates myeloperoxidase, producing toxic oxidants. These observations suggest that in some settings, ascorbate may enhance the toxicity of photodynamic action.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2006; 40(9):1615-27. · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a reducing agent, ascorbate serves as an antioxidant. However, its reducing function can in some settings initiate an oxidation cascade, i.e., seem to be a "pro-oxidant." This dichotomy also seems to hold when ascorbate is present during photosensitization. Ascorbate can react with singlet oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide. Thus, if ascorbate is present during photosensitization the formation of highly diffusible hydrogen peroxide could enhance the toxicity of the photodynamic action. On the other hand, ascorbate could decrease toxicity by converting highly reactive singlet oxygen to less reactive hydrogen peroxide, which can be removed via peroxide-removing systems such as glutathione and catalase. To test the influence of ascorbate on photodynamic treatment we incubated leukemia cells (HL-60 and U937) with ascorbate and a photosensitizer (Verteporfin; VP) and examined ascorbic acid monoanion uptake, levels of glutathione, changes in membrane permeability, cell growth, and toxicity. Accumulation of VP was similar in each cell line. Under our experimental conditions, HL-60 cells were found to accumulate less ascorbate and have lower levels of intracellular GSH compared to U937 cells. Without added ascorbate, HL-60 cells were more sensitive to VP and light treatment than U937 cells. When cells were exposed to VP and light, ascorbate acted as an antioxidant in U937 cells, whereas it was a pro-oxidant for HL-60 cells. One possible mechanism to explain these observations is that HL-60 cells express myeloperoxidase activity, whereas in U937 cells it is below the detection limit. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (4-ABAH) had minimal influence on the phototoxicity of VP in HL-60 cells in the absence of ascorbate. However, 4-ABAH decreased the toxicity of ascorbate on HL-60 cells during VP photosensitization, but had no affect on ascorbate toxicity in U937 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbate increases hydrogen peroxide production by VP and light. This hydrogen peroxide activates myeloperoxidase, producing toxic oxidants. These observations suggest that in some settings, ascorbate may enhance the toxicity of photodynamic action.