Miljenko Kalousek

University Clinical Hospital Center "Sestre Milosrdnice", Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia

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Publications (34)18.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A case of a 45-year-old woman with untreated panhypopituitarism is presented. Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder consisting of multiple deficiencies of hormones originating from the adenohypophysis. It is divided into primary and secondary. Primary disorders manifest at the pituitary level, whereas secondary hypopituitarism implies hypothalamic affection. Partial or total loss of all pituitary hormones is called panhypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism can be slow and insidious or severe and life-threatening. The expression of symptoms largely depends on the patient's age and the hormones involved. The leading symptom is growth retardation when the disorder develops in childhood or puberty. Sometimes years may elapse without accurate diagnosis, as in the case described. To date, only a few cases of untreated hypopituitarism have been published. In our patient, clinical examination revealed short stature and weak osteomuscular constitution, primary amenorrhea and lack of development of secondary sex characteristics. The patient's clinical history revealed signs of hypopituitarism from childhood, which had been untreated until she presented to our clinic. The results of complete testing showed the lack of all pituitary hormones and antidiuretic hormone, which was consistent with panhypopituitarism, including central diabetes insipidus.
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    ABSTRACT: Two cases of intracranial venous angiomas, one in a 42-year-old woman and another one in a 27-year-old-man, are presented. Intracranial venous angiomas, also known as developmental venous anomalies, represent one of four cerebral vascular malformations. Usually they are incidentally discovered on cerebral imaging. These lesions have a characteristic appearance in the venous phase of angiography, a starburst pattern or umbrella sign, described as caput medusae. Most of the lesions are clinically silent, however, they can be symptomatic with clinical presentation including seizures, headache, dizziness and focal neurologic deficits. They are sometimes associated with cerebral hemorrhage. In general, no treatment is required. Surgery is only indicated if seizures attributed to the lesion or hemorrhage occur.
  • Zoran Rumboldt · Miljenko Kalousek · Mauricio Castillo
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of hyperacute subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm, which occurred while the patient was undergoing MR imaging. Compared with CSF, the blood in the subarachnoid space had slightly lower signal intensity on T2*-weighted gradient-echo images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted spin-echo images. This finding differs from the generally accepted MR appearance of intracranial hemorrhage and should be recognized to ensure proper patient care.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2003; 24(3):472-5. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We herein describe a case of an isolated multilocular hydatid cyst occurring in the basilar cisterns, with nondependent levels of different signal intensities shown on MR images. Three portions were visualized on T1-weighted images: the hyperintense inferior aspect, the isointense central part, and the superior aspect of lower signal intensity. The inferior portion was hypointense on T2-weighted images. This unusual appearance was caused by layering of hydatid sand and may represent a characteristic feature of hydatid disease.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2003; 24(1):112-4. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the enormous progress done in the course of last years in diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of stroke patients, prevention is still main strategy in approaching the stroke. After the comprehensive review of the organization of stroke care, treatment and neurorehabilitation of stroke patients, this part shows the recommendations of the Croatian Society for Neurovascular Disorders of the Croatian Medical Association and the Croatian Stroke Society for primary and secondary prevention of stroke.
    Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik 01/2003; 125(11-12):322-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important imaging technique for evaluation of cerebral ischemic changes. Using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), both large and medium sized intracranial arteries and veins can be visualized by selecting appropriate imaging parameters. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our own results in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases with MRI and MRA, and to compare them with literature data. Data on 278 patients with cerebrovascular symptomatology (158 female and 120 male, mean age 45-54 years), examined between April 2001 and November 2002, were analyzed. MRA was performed in all 278 and both MRA and MRI in 231 patients. On MRA, 90 pathologic alterations of intracranial arteries (69 aneurysms and 21 vascular malformations), 13Rintracranial arterial occlusions, 19 intracranial arterial stenoses, and 14 cases of intracranial arteriosclerotic changes were identified. On MRI, 114 strokes (73 brain infarctions, 22 cerebral hemorrhages and 19 sub-arachnoid hemorrhages), 14 vascular malformations and 14 cases of small vessel disease were detected. MRI was found to be a powerful tool to detect ischemic lesions immediately upon stroke onset. MRA is highly sensitive for the detection of occlusive disease in large intracranial arteries. For cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis, MRI and MRA are first line studies. MRA of extracranial and intracranial vessels alone or in combination with transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) as well as computed tomography angiography (CTA) may eliminate the need of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in most patients studied for occlusive cerebrovascular disease. DSA may be reserved for those patients in whom there is a disagreement among the results obtained by use of noninvasive techniques, and for the diagnosis of arteriovenous malformations, whereas MRA can prove useful on follow-up examinations.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Seven cases of neurocysticercosis and three cases of neuroechinococcosis with symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent neurosurgical treatment are described. No neuroradiologic procedure established exact diagnosis preoperatively; this was achieved by pathohistologic analysis of bioptic material.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2002; 33(6):590-594. DOI:10.1016/S0188-4409(02)00407-1 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seven cases of neurocysticercosis and three cases of neuroechinococcosis with symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent neurosurgical treatment are described. No neuroradiologic procedure established exact diagnosis preoperatively; this was achieved by pathohistologic analysis of bioptic material. Ten patients with duration of clinical symptoms ranging from 1 week to 1 month were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery of Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia during the period 1988-2000. On receipt, bioptical material was examined pathohistologically at the Ljudevit Jurak Clinical Department of Pathology of the same hospital. We compared our data with facts collected by reviewing the pertinent literature over the past 10 years. The most common localization of parasitic cysts in our study was posterior cranial fossa, i.e., subtentorial, which, according to the literature, is a rare localization. Due to this unusual localization, dominant clinical symptoms included elevated intracranial pressure, requiring urgent surgical removal of parasitic cysts. With the exception of the epidemiologic aspect, cerebral cysticercosis and echinococcosis are important as a true diagnostic and therapeutic problem. These human parasitic zoonoses are rarely diagnosed preoperatively despite newly developed neuroradiologic and serologic methods, especially in cases of primary appearance in brain when exact diagnosis reveals adequate surgical removal with subsequent complete recovery.
    Archives of Medical Research 01/2002; 33(6):590-4. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    Miljenko Kalousek · Zoran Rumboldt
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    ABSTRACT: Acute stroke in the leading cause of disability in the modern society. In developed countries, stroke is the second cause of death, and in Croatia it is the leading cause of death. Due to modification of life-style and risk factors, better stroke management, the incidence of stroke in developed countries has decreased and mortality has been reduced. Over the past year, there have been published several recommendations for stroke management. In this paper an overview of the already accepted therapeutic strategies for stroke management and an evaluation of the evolving new ones is provided.
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    ABSTRACT: A majority of growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas respond well to somatostatin and somatostatin analogues. The acute action of octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue, on growth hormone secretion was assessed in 42 patients with clinically and laboratory verified acromegaly. Octreotide was administered subcutaneously in a dose of 50 mg. Blood sampling was performed at 1-hour intervals during 6 hours of testing. The mean basal values of growth hormone (c±SE) was 26.3±4.5 ng/ml (range 6.1-66.6 ng/ml), and of IGF-I 2940±171.7 IU/l (range 2350-4856 IU/l). Reduction in growth hormone values below 5 ng/ml was recorded in 31 (73.8%), suppression by more than 50% in 5 (11.9%) and by more than 45% in 3 (7.1%) patients. Maximal suppression was noticed in the first two hours of testing. In 3 (7.1%) patients, resistance to octreotide with no change in growth hormone values was observed. In conclusion, octreotide reduces growth hormone values in most acromegalic patients. A small proportion of acromegalic patients do not respond well to octreotide, probably due to the lack of somatostatin receptors on tumor cells. We consider the acute octreotide test as a very useful tool in triage of acromegalic patients eligible for medicamentous treatment.
  • D Jadro-Santel · S Marković · N Besenski · M Kalousek
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    ABSTRACT: On computed tomography (CT) layers through the tumor the quality of picture depends upon the tumoral tissue structure, i.e., upon its histological appearance. In the formation of this histological appearance to a greater or lesser extent a series of various elements are involved, which are responsible for the density on CT scan, e.g., blood vessels, fatty tissue, calcium, connective tissue, collagen, etc. For some tumors the most important characteristic is specific organization of tissues in the volume, which can be clearly seen on high-quality CT scan. Possible limitations are due to technical capabilities of a CT apparatus. In our study we have obtained the most valuable results by analyzing the quality of picture of neurinomas on the so-called native CT scans, and by evaluating the way in which the picture of the tumoral tissue changed by opacification after an intravenous injection of contrast medium. Our study included 23 intracranial neurinomas. Twenty of them were neurinomas of the statoacoustic nerve, 1 of the orbit, 1 of the Gasser's gaglion and 1 was in the parasagittal region. For each particular tumor on histological specimens Antoni A and Antoni B types of tissue were semiquantitatively identified. In our study we have chosen only those cases for which we had a plenty of tumoral tissue suitable for semiserial analysis. The results of the histological analysis were compared with the results of the CT assessment of the tumoral tissue. Larger necrotic areas and cystic formations within tumoral tissue, which we could not analyze on our histological specimens, were excluded from the evaluation of CT scans of these tumors. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the histological appearance of neurinomas and their CT scans. This correlation between the histological properties of the tumoral tissue and the CT scan was almost 100% in those cases in which one histological type of neurinomas significantly prevailed. The prevalence of one type of neurinoma tissue was found in 74% of cases. In almost 61% of neurinomas in the histological appearance Antoni A type of tissue prevailed, what was clearly seen on CT in the form of hyperdense areas of the tumor. Antoni B type of tissue was histologically found in about 13% of neurinomas. These tumors had a marked hypodense picture of the tumoral tissue. The rest of neurinomas had mixed types of tissue. In this group of tumors we could not use the CT findings as an indicator in preoperative analysis of histopathological tissue characteristics.
    Neurologia croatica: glasilo Udruzenja neurologa Jugoslavije = official journal of Yugoslav Neurological Association 02/1991; 40(1):13-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Subdural hematoma (SDH) develops as a result of bleeding in the subdural space. According to nowadays accepted division, three groups of subdural hematomas can be differentiated: acute, subacute and chronic. The time elapsed from the moment of the occurrence of the hematoma to the moment when it was diagnosed is the main factor for determining the stage of SDH. However, for the above-mentioned types of SDH, this time differs depending on the author reporting it. Subdural hematoma is most often diagnosed by means of computerized tomography (CT). This method is safe and reliable, giving the exact diagnosis in more than 90% of cases. According to the basic principle of the concept of "living pathology", the knowledge of histological appearance of an investigated lesion is essential for the diagnostic interpretation of this lesion in neuroimaging methods. Very few authors studied the histological picture of subdural hematoma. The only structure which was histologically examined in details was the subdural neomembrane. Studies correlating histological picture of SDH and its appearance on CT scans have not been carried out until now. In this work such a correlation was made, and some regularities connecting these two methods were pointed out. Hyperdense picture of SDH on CT scans represents a hematoma containing almost only erythrocytes and erythrocyte-fibrin component being formed. Hypodense picture of SDH on CT scans represents a hematoma containing fibrin and inflammatory cells. Hematomas of mixed density on CT scan in all cases contained a neomembrane. Obvious histological differences between the mentioned types of subdural hematoma have led to the conclusion that chronic subdural hematoma is not the last stage of an "old" acute SDH. Chronic and acute subdural hematomas are different entities, considering their etiopathogenetic and clinical picture, and especially their CT and histopathological appearances.
    Neurologia croatica: glasilo Udruzenja neurologa Jugoslavije = official journal of Yugoslav Neurological Association 02/1991; 41(1-2):21-32.
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    ABSTRACT: A case of neuro-cutaneous melanoma, in the course of which a bifocal melanoma of the cerebral hemisphere had developed, was used as a natural model for the study of the relation between tumorous and non-tumorous elements. The need is pointed out for the definition of such a cutaneous-meningeal syndrome before the development of a neoplasm. As tumours develop from the cells defining leptomeningeal melanosis, the possibility of a neuroradiological diagnosis of this process is accentuated, primarily by a minute examination of the sites characteristic of the disease. A premorbid detection of all such cases is imperative in order to introduce an early anti-tumour treatment.
    Acta medica Iugoslavica 02/1990; 44(4):275-83.
  • V Hlavka · I Beus · M Kalousek · M Lisić · D Jadro-Santel
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present a case of herpes-simplex encephalitis in a 58-year-old woman. The disease had a biphasic course and lasted 87 days. The clinical picture, laboratory data and the pathologic-anatomical changes of the disease are discussed. The authors also emphasize the importance of the encephalitic process in the brain stem, which can make the clinical picture even more complicated because of the appearance of respiratory disturbances.
    Acta medica Iugoslavica 02/1989; 43(4):303-13.
  • Acta medica Iugoslavica 02/1987; 41(3):215-27.
  • M Kalousek · M Lovrencić · I Jelicić · N Grcević
    Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik 08/1985; 107(7):300-4.
  • M Marotti · M Lovrencić · M Kalousek · R Klarić · I Krolo · Z Klanfar · M Sekso
    Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik 11/1984; 106(10):429-34.
  • M Lovrencić · M Kalousek · R Klarić · M Sekso
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography of the pituitary fossa in the axial and coronal plane have been performed in 40 patients. The use of both planes has improved diagnostic accuracy through a more exact spatial demonstration. The method has also been reliable in the detection of pituitary microadenomas. The use of both planes has a limited diagnostic accuracy due artefacts in coronal plane.
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 11/1984; 141(4):417-22. · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • M. Lovrenčić · M. Kalousek · R. Klarić · M. Sekso
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 01/1984; 141(10):417-422. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1053161 · 1.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

52 Citations
18.08 Total Impact Points


  • 2005
    • University Clinical Hospital Center "Sestre Milosrdnice"
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2002
    • Sisters of Charity Hospital Zagreb
      Zagreb - Centar, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1991
    • University of Zagreb
      • Department of Neurology
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia