Kusum Verma

AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Publications (67)84.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Differentiation between reactive, but morphologically atypical, mesothelial cells and adenocarcinoma in effusions can be problematic. Elaborate immunohistochemical panels have been devised. Techniques like DNA analysis, flow/image cytometry, and K-ras mutation analysis are research oriented and difficult to perform in routine, especially in resource-poor centers. We evaluated the efficacy of a limited two-antibody panel comprising calretinin and Ber-EP4 on cytospin and cell block preparations, in 100 effusion samples. Fifty cases of reactive mesothelial hyperplasia and 50 cases of adenocarcinoma diagnosed by cytomorphology in ascitic/pleural fluid specimens over a 2-year period were assessed. The diagnoses were confirmed by clinical/histopathologic correlation. Cytospin smears were made in all. Cell blocks were prepared, wherever adequate fluid was available. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) for calretinin and Ber-EP4 was performed. Forty-five of the reactive effusion cases (90%) were calretinin reactive and Ber-EP4 negative. Among the adenocarcinoma cases, 49 (98%) were calretinin negative but Ber-EP4 positive. Thus, both calretinin and Ber-EP4 had a high sensitivity (90% and 98%, respectively), as well as a high specificity (100% and 86%, respectively). In the 21 reactive mesothelial cases, whose cell blocks were made, results were comparable to those on cytospin. However, of the 19 adenocarcinoma cases in which cell blocks were prepared, all were Ber-EP4 immunopositive except for three, which were positive on cytospin, implying false-negative results on cell blocks. A limited panel of two monoclonal antibodies, calretinin and Ber-EP4, may be useful in cytology, as a "primary antibody panel", for accurate diagnosis and patient management. Additionally, ICC can be performed easily on cytospin preparations, which gave results comparable to cell blocks in our study.
    CytoJournal 07/2011; 8:14. DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.83233
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate Bcl-xL, Bax, PCNA, cytokeratin 19 (CK-19), glycogen content and DNA ploidy expression in hepatoblastoma (HB) and their prognostic value. This retrospective study on 26 cases of HB involved DNA ploidy estimations separately for various subtypes on histological sections using image cytometry of Feulgen-stained smears. Glycogen content, PCNA, CK-19, Bax and Bcl-xL expression on tissue sections were evaluated. THE outcome on follow-up (mean 86 months) and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. Fetal areas were diploid (84%); embryonal areas were aneuploid (89.47%) (p < 0.001). PCNA labeling index was low in fetal (10.82%) and high in embryonal areas (59.85%) (p = 0.03). CK-19 was negative in fetal, but focally positive in embryonal areas. Bax was negative in fetal (80%) and positive in embryonal areas (88.23%) (p < 0.001); Bcl-xL was more frequently positive in fetal (90%) than embryonal areas (52.94%) (p = 0.02). Fetal cells were rich in glycogen. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed good initial radiological response to chemotherapy (p = 0.009), glycogen content (p = 0.0137) and DNA diploid cases (p = 0.0429) were associated with good outcome on univariate analysis. Histology typing (p = 0.085), Bcl-xL (p = 0.689), Bax (p = 0.27), CK-19 (p = 0.281), PCNA (p = 0.689), age (p = 0.24), sex (p = 0.5661), stage (p = 0.24) and α-fetoprotein levels (p = 0.49) were unrelated to outcome. Multivariate analysis showed glycogen content to be the most statistically significant variable (0.024). Fetal and embryonal areas show different staining patterns for PCNA, Bax and Bcl-xL. DNA ploidy and glycogen content are significant prognostic variables.
    Pediatric Surgery International 12/2010; 26(12):1173-8. DOI:10.1007/s00383-010-2699-x · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outcome for patients with Wilms tumor (WT) with favorable histology is good. Deletions of chromosomes 1p and 16q impart a poorer outcome. Value of apoptotic protein expression is not clear. Expression of four immunohistochemically detectable apoptosis-regulating proteins (bcl-2, bcl-x, bax and p53) were analyzed in 30 specimens of WT and compared to recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The 30 patients included ranged from 4 to 72 months in age (mean 31). The mean available follow-up was 35.3 months (range 1-54). Six patients developed recurrence. The 5-year RFS for blastema-predominant tumors was 40% as compared to 91% for triphasic histology which was significant (p = 0.048). The 5-year RFS in patients with bcl-2 negative tumors was 63% as compared to 100% for bcl-2 positive tumors, the difference being significant (p = 0.019). The 5-year RFS in patients with p-53 positive tumors was 27% as compared to 91% for p-53 negative tumors; however, this difference in the RFS was not statistically significant (p = 0.143). bax and bcl-x expression were not related to the RFS. Tumors that are bcl-2 negative have a relatively higher recurrence rate and a poorer RFS. They may benefit from a more intensive follow-up regime for early detection of recurrence.
    Pediatric Surgery International 10/2010; 27(3):303-8. DOI:10.1007/s00383-010-2740-0 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a distinct variant of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to identify this entity because it has a significantly better prognosis than clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinoma. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who presented with 10 days history of painless hematuria. There was no palpable swelling or systemic symptoms. On radiological examination the possibility of a right renal neoplasm was considered. Ultrasound guided aspiration was done and cytological features of ChRCC were noted. In addition, numerous foci of calcification were seen, which was an unusual cytological feature for ChRCC. The characteristic cytomorphology of ChRCC makes it possible to render a preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We report the case to emphasize the importance and possibility of diagnosing of ChRCC on cytology. In addition, the extensive calcification as seen in our case is an unusual cytological finding not previously reported in cytology smears.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 09/2008; 36(9):647-50. DOI:10.1002/dc.20861 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75%) showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.
    Journal of Cytology 01/2008; 25(1). DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.40649 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oncocytic carcinoid tumor of the lung is a rare variant of pulmonary carcinoid. This report describes the morphologic appearance of this rare tumor on filter membrane preparation along with potential pitfalls. A 49-year-old woman presented with cough and expectoration. On chest radiograph a mass lesion was seen in the upper zone of the right lung. Bronchial washings were sent for evaluation. On filter membrane (Millipore) preparation of bronchial washing the possibility of a non-small cell carcinoma, possibly squamous, was suggested. Right upper lobectomy was subsequently performed and a histologic diagnosis of oncocytic carcinoid given. The cytomorphologic features of this tumor on the Millipore preparation were reviewed. Differential diagnosis of oncocytic carcinoid should be kept in mind while assessing cytologic material when tumor cells show abundant granular cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli. Oncocytic carcinoid also must be differentiated from oncocytoma and granular cell tumor. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
    Acta cytologica 11/2007; 51(6):907-10. DOI:10.1159/000325868 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is no ideal screening method for cervical cancer in India with the role of human papilloma virus (HPV) detection yet to be established. This study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic accuracy of HPV testing by hybrid capture II (HC-II) with conventional cervical smear cytology for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). This prospective study was conducted at New Delhi during 2003-2004 with patients selected from the gynaecology out patients of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Initial screening by a questionnaire and per-speculum examination were used to select high-risk patients. Patients, in whom conventional cytology, HC-II test and colposcopy-directed biopsy were done, formed the basis of this study. Of the 133 patients included in the study, incidence on biopsy of low grade SIL (L-SIL) was 6.77 per cent, high grade SIL (H-SIL) was 8.27 per cent and carcinoma was 3.00 per cent. Sensitivity and specificity of cytology for detection of H-SIL and above lesions was 93.33 and 83.49 per cent while for HC-II it was 93.33 and 90.83 per cent, respectively. HC-II had higher diagnostic accuracy of 91.13 per cent versus 84.68 per cent for cytology. Kappa for HC-II was higher (0.67) than cytology (0.52). Among patients diagnosed to have atypical squamous cells (ASC-US & ASC-H) and L-SIL, HC-II helped to select patients who had significant lesions on biopsy. The main utility of HC-II is in the triage of patients with cytology smear diagnosis of ASC-US, ASC-H or L-SIL, for referral to colposcopic examination. HC-II alone has the best diagnostic accuracy but owing to high cost it is unsuitable for general screening in developing countries. Combining HC-II with cytology will refer smaller numbers for colposcopy,improving efficient utilization of available resources.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 07/2007; 126(1):39-44. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) enjoys popularity among clinicians worldwide, as a first line of investigation in all patients with lymphadenopathy and is preferred over biopsy because of its minimally invasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Although non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are conventionally diagnosed and graded on biopsy specimens, it may be useful to be able to not only diagnose but also grade these cases on FNAC smears. The WHO and REAL classifications forming the basis of treatment in some centres rely on clinical features, immunocytochemistry and cytogenetics, which are beyond reach of most centres in the developing countries. This study therefore is aimed at diagnosing and grading NHLs on morphological parameters. The cytologic grading accuracy is compared with the histologic grades assigned according to the International Working Formulation (IWF) system which relies solely on morphological features, most important of which is cell size. Ninety five cases were retrieved over a 3 year period (May 2000 to April 2003). These were (i) cases where a cytological diagnosis of NHL or suspicious of NHL was made and corresponding histological sections available and (ii) cases where a diagnosis of NHL was made in histology and corresponding FNAC smears were available irrespective of the cytological diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for NHLs was determined using histology as the gold standard. Cases were also graded on FNAC smears using a three tier grading system based upon cell size into low, intermediate and high grades. Cytologically assigned grades were correlated with the corresponding histological grades (IWF) to determine grading accuracy. An accurate diagnosis of NHL was thus possible in 67/95 (70.5%) cases. Overall accurate grading was seen in 65/95 (68%) cases using cytological criteria. Accurate cytologic grading was possible in 14/15 (93.33%) low grade, 11/18 (61.11%) intermediate and 40/62 (64.5%) high grade non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Kappa statistics revealed a very good agreement between cytological and histological grades for low grade NHL. The kappa scores for intermediate and high grade NHLs indicated moderate agreement. Using the two-tier system grading the kappa value for high grade lymphomas improved to 0.72, indicating good concordance. This study highlights the utility of FNAC as a morphological tool for diagnosing and grading NHLs in a significant number of cases. This modality may assist clinicians in management of cases of NHLs, especially in centres working within the constraints of limited availability or non availability of ancillary techniques.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 02/2007; 50(1):46-50. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual inspection of cervix after application of acetic acid (VIA) is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer in low resource settings, but its low specificity leads to high referral rates. Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback. This pilot study was aimed to assess test performances of VIA, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Pap smear, individually and in simulated combinations, to determine the probable best screening option. Gynecology outpatient department (OPD); cross-sectional study. One hundred women with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix on examination underwent Pap smear, HPV testing, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy, if indicated, in this screening order. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each of the tests with a biopsy result of > or =HSIL taken as the gold standard. Simulated parallel and sequential combinations for VIA/Pap, VIA/HPV and HPV/Pap were calculated and compared with individual test performance. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 5%, VIA positive 51% and HPV positive 16%. Sensitivity and specificity of VIA were 100% and 53.3% respectively. For HPV and Pap tests corresponding figures were 85.7%, 89.7% and 50%, 98.9% respectively. The best simulated combination with a balance of sensitivity and specificity was of VIA followed by HPV testing (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 95.4%). Addition of HPV testing to VIA can increase the specificity of VIA, thereby reducing the referral rates without compromising the sensitivity of the test.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 01/2007; 44(2):51-5. DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.35811 · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Manju Aron, Ajay Mallik, Kusum Verma
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    ABSTRACT: To study the cytomorphologic features of 59 cases of histologically proven follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), compare them to those described in the literature and highlight cytologic features that may aid in the preoperative diagnosis. Aspiration smears from 59 histologically proven cases of FVPC were examined independently by 2 observers, and a detailed cytologic evaluation was done for architectural, cytologic and nuclear features. surgical On initial cytology of the 59 cases, 36 (61%) were diagnosed aspapillary carcinoma, and 17 of these were subtyped as FVPC. On reviewing the smears, 50 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma, and 33 of them were typed as FVPC; however, 4 cases were diagnosed as benign lesions. Most smears showed moderate to high cellularity, with 55 cases (93%) showing syncytial clusters and 48 (81%) showing microfollicular architecture. Chromatin clearing and nuclear grooves were seen in 55 (93.2%) and 54 (91.52%) cases but were easily detected in only 36 (61%) and 44 (74%) cases, respectively. Thick colloid was identified in 28 cases, and 3 of these cases also showed thin colloid in the background. Our findings suggest that syncytial clusters, microfollicular architecture, chromatin clearing and nuclear grooves are strong morphologic pointers to the diagnosis of FVPC.
    Acta cytologica 11/2006; 50(6):663-8. DOI:10.1159/000326037 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This hospital-based study in New Delhi, North India was performed to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cases of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). A total of 10 cases presenting with an obvious cervical growth were included in this study. 108 cases that was shown to be ICC on histology (101 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 adenocarcinomas, and one neuroendocrine carcinoma) were included in the analysis. DNA was extracted from tumor tissue and HPV genotype was determined by a consensus PCR assay using a reverse line blot hybridization assay. Of 106 evaluable cases, 104 (98.1%) were positive for HPV infection. Twelve different high-risk HPV types were found. There were 125 infections, 119 of which were high risk. Six cases had associated low risk infections. HPV 16 was the commonest type, seen in 73.6% cases followed by HPV 18 (14.2%) and 45 (11.3%). A vaccine with 100% efficacy in prevention of HPV 16 and 18 infections would theoretically reduce the total cancer burden in New Delhi by more than 75% (assuming 100% coverage). Increasing the genotype spectrum (e.g. valency) if the existing vaccines would be expected to have only a modest impact on the potential for cervical protection.
    International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 11/2006; 25(4):398-402. DOI:10.1097/01.pgp.0000209574.62081.e4 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Manju Aron, Kusum Kapila, Kusum Verma
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    ABSTRACT: Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors. This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC). Galectin-3 immuocytochemistry was performed in 70 cases with adequate smears. The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1). Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules. The single case of anaplastic carcinoma was positive but all the cases of medullary carcinoma were negativefor galectin-3. Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive. Our study shows that galectin-3 is strongly expressed in smears of papillary carcinoma. However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 08/2006; 49(3):376-80. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is successful in identification of benign and malignant breast lesions, but its role in proliferative breast lesions which increase cancer risk is poorly defined. We have analyzed the cytomorphologic features of proliferative breast lesions in conjunction with cytologic scoring system proposed by Masood et al and with histopathology. Sixty two patients (14 cases of fibroadenoma, 15 cases of fibroadenoma with atypia, 11 cases of proliferative breast disease (PBD), 8 cases of PBD with atypia and 14 cases of carcinoma) diagnosed on routine FNA were subjected to scoring following Masood's criteria. All cases with the cytologic diagnosis of fibroadenoma were confirmed on histology. Of 11 cases of PBD on FNA, 10 were PBD without atypia on histology. One case, which showed atypical hyperplasia on histology, was missed by both the scoring system and cytomorphology and one case was over-diagnosed as PBD with atypia by the scoring system. FNA cytology correctly identified all the carcinoma cases, while the scoring system under-diagnosed 2 cases as PBD with atypia. Hence, in cases not suspected to be atypical or confirmed to be cancer on routine cytology, scoring added no information over and above cytomorphology and was not useful. All fourteen cases of fibroadenoma with atypia suspected on routine cytology were fibroadenoma on histology. Scoring system correctly placed 11/14 of these cases as PBD without atypia. Similarly 3/8 cases thought to be PBD with atypia were correctly placed as PBD without atypia by scoring. Only 2/8 cases thought to be PBD with atypia on cytology were confirmed to have atypical hyperplasia on histology. Scoring improved the diagnostic yield to 2/5. Hence, in cases of fibroadenoma or PBD, suspected on FNAC to have cytological atypia, Masood scoring gives additional information by eliminating benign cases and improving diagnostic yield. Application of scoring in a step-wise manner, on atypical aspirates, can help in selection of cases suitable for biopsy.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 08/2006; 49(3):334-40. · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Manju Aron, Kusum Kapila, Kusum Verma
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary tumors of the thyroid, presenting as thyroid nodules although rare, have been documented in literature. This study highlights the frequency, primary sites, and the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in evaluating secondary tumors of the thyroid at a tertiary care hospital. There were 24 documented cases of secondary tumors of the thyroid from 1982 to 2002 (20 years). The aspirates and histology slides of all these cases were reviewed and the findings noted. On FNAC, 17 cases were diagnosed as secondary tumors, 3 as primary, and in 4 cases it was difficult to categorize the tumors as either primary or secondary. In 12 out of 24 cases, the primary tumor was seen to arise in the larynx (9), and in other sites anatomically close to the thyroid including the trachea (1), and the esophagus (2). Metastases from distant organs were also observed. Secondary tumors of the thyroid are rare and should be suspected in patients when the FNAC shows cytological features not seen in primary thyroid tumors. FNAC alone was required to accurately diagnose secondary tumors of the thyroid in a majority of cases (17/24); however, in some cases ancillary techniques may be required for a definite diagnosis.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 03/2006; 34(3):240-5. DOI:10.1002/dc.20329 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Ajay Malik, manju aron, kusum verma
    Acta cytologica 01/2006; · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • manju aron, ajay malik, kusum verma
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the cytomorphologic features of 59 cases of histologically proven follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), compare them to those described in the literature and highlight cytologic features that may aid in the preoperative diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Aspiration smears from 59 histologically proven cases of FVPC were examined independently by 2 observers, and a detailed cytologic evaluation was done for architectural, cytologic and nuclear features. surgical RESULTS: On initial cytology of the 59 cases, 36 (61%) were diagnosed aspapillary carcinoma, and 17 of these were subtyped as FVPC. On reviewing the smears, 50 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma, and 33 of them were typed as FVPC; however, 4 cases were diagnosed as benign lesions. Most smears showed moderate to high cellularity, with 55 cases (93%) showing syncytial clusters and 48 (81%) showing microfollicular architecture. Chromatin clearing and nuclear grooves were seen in 55 (93.2%) and 54 (91.52%) cases but were easily detected in only 36 (61%) and 44 (74%) cases, respectively. Thick colloid was identified in 28 cases, and 3 of these cases also showed thin colloid in the background. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that syncytial clusters, microfollicular architecture, chromatin clearing and nuclear grooves are strong morphologic pointers to the diagnosis of FVPC.
    Acta cytologica 01/2006; 50(6):663-668. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer may have asymptomatic involvement of renal and/or adrenal gland, particularly if they are elderly and have associated metastases to other organs, which may remain undetected if these patients are not subjected to radioiodine treatment. Our experience also emphasises the role of routine post-radioiodine therapy whole body scan with high degree of clinical suspicion, which may reveal lesions otherwise not discernable in low dose whole body scan. All suspicious lesions should be subjected to structural imaging like ultrasound, CT or MRI for confirmation. In this setting, the role of radioiodine therapy is primarily aimed at palliation that might prolong their survival, probably reduce further spread and thus overall improve the quality of life.
    British Journal of Radiology 12/2005; 78(935):1038-41. DOI:10.1259/bjr/24024066 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Anup Kumar Das, Kusum Verma, Manju Aron
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen-rich carcinoma (GRC) of the breast is a rare histological subtype of breast cancer having a poor prognosis. There are very few case reports describing the cytological features of GRC on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In this report we present the case of a 34-yr-old woman who underwent FNAC of a clinically palpable breast lump. The aspirate was cellular showing tumor cells in groups, clusters and lying singly. The tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic, finely granular to vacuolated cytoplasm with moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism. With a cytological diagnosis of carcinoma, a wide local excision was performed. On histology a diagnosis of GRC was made with the tumor cells showing abundant glycogen. The presence of cells with abundant granular to finely vacuolated cytoplasm in a case of breast carcinoma, should point toward the possibility of GRC and other clear cell tumors of the breast. Demonstration of glycogen is required to make a definite diagnosis on cytology.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 10/2005; 33(4):263-7. DOI:10.1002/dc.20358 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nocardiosis is an uncommon infection and presents as an opportunistic infection in an immunocompromised host. Pulmonary infection by Nocardia may be difficult to diagnose based on clinical and radiologic features, as these are not specific. Sputum, examination, bronchoalveolar lavage and transthoracic ultrasound/computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology offer a simple means of procuring material for diagnostic evaluation. Very few articles have described the morphologic appearance of this uncommon pathogen in cytologic material. Cases Three cases occurred in patients with an underlying immunocompromised state. Patient 1 was on steroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome, patient 2 was on immunosuppressant therapy after renal transplantation, and patient 3 was HIV positive. A diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis was suspected on. Papanicolaou stain. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain and silver methanamine stains were useful in confirming the diagnosis. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for nocardiosis must be maintained while assessing cytologic material in immunosuppressed individuals as it may be masked by the intense inflammatory exudate associated with this infection. A meticulous search may reveal the presence of delicate, thin, faintly stained, branching filaments of Nocardia on routine Papanicolaou stain. Special stains and culture studies are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
    09/2005; 49(5):567-570. DOI:10.1159/000326207
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    ABSTRACT: The largest series, to date, of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings in clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is presented. All fine-needle aspirates of pediatric renal masses over a 17-yr period were reviewed. Eight out of 119 aspirates from late-stage childhood renal tumors (6.72%) were found to be CCSK. Ten aspirates from these eight patients and histopathological confirmation in six patients were available. Aspirates were cellular with three cell types: cord cells, septal cells, and small pyknotic cells. Cord cells, seen in all aspirates, were large polygonal cells with abundant eccentrically placed wispy cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei, and fine dusty chromatin. Occasional bare nuclei and frequent nuclear grooves were also seen. Small pyknotic cells were a degenerative change identified in 9 out of 10 aspirates. Stromal fragments with branching vascular cores were seen in 8 out of 10 aspirates, 6 of which had myxoid substance surrounding the vessel. Septal cells were spindle shaped and usually embedded in the stromal fragments. On the basis of cytology and histology, cases were classified into classical CCSK (5 cases), spindle-cell CCSK (1 case), and anaplastic CCSK (2 cases). Classical CCSK showed mostly cord cells with few stromal fragments. Spindle-cell CCSK showed preponderance of myxoid stromal fragments and septal cells. Anaplastic CCSK showed bizarre pleomorphic nuclei, coarse chromatin, and atypical mitosis. Cytology of CCSK is a spectrum with varying proportions of cord cells, septal cells, and mucopolysaccharide substance. Anaplastic CCSK is liable to misdiagnosis as Wilms tumor (WT) with unfavourable histology. Presence of eccentric cytoplasm in cord cells and nuclear grooves are the key to differentiation from Wilms tumor, including anaplastic variants.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 08/2005; 33(2):83-9. DOI:10.1002/dc.20317 · 1.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

488 Citations
84.07 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2011
    • AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • 1988–2010
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Pathology
      New Dilli, NCT, India