H Wachter

University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria

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Publications (507)3338.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Two cases of HIV infection associated with neurological complications are described. The patients had been followed with repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses 1–3 years before the neurological disease and 5 months after zidovudine treatment. CSF mononuclear cell count and the AIDS predictors β2-microglobulin and neopterin decreased in CSF after treatment and were lower or at the level seen 1–3 years before treatment. The results suggest that zidovudine has a suppressive effect on the HIV infection in CNS at least for 5 months, even when low zidovudine doses (500 mg daily) were used.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2009; 23(6):681-685. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammatory disorders are associated with an increased risk of patients developing anaemia. There is some evidence that cytokines released during cell-mediated immune responses are capable of inhibiting bone marrow haematopoiesis. In vitro, interferon gamma and tumournecrosis factor alpha inhibit growth of erythroid precursor cells. The mode of action of these cytokines is probably associated with their antiproliferative capacity. Decrease of serum iron and increase of storage iron in patients appears to be a consequence of the defense strategy of macrophages during long-lasting inflammatory disorders. Decreased serum iron correlates to decreased haemoglobin concentrations. In view of this, the development of anaemia seems likely to result from the altered iron metabolism induced by stimulated macrophages. Low haemoglobin levels and associated hypoxia up-regulate the release of erythropoietin, which can explain why increased circulating erythropoietin is usually found in patients with anaemia.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/2009; 46(2):65 - 70. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we further investigated a possible link between activation of cell-mediated immunity and anaemia in patients with haematological neoplasias. We compared serum concentrations of interferon-gamma and neopterin with haemoglobin levels. Significantly increased interferon-gamma and neopterin concentrations indicated persistent activation of cell-mediated immunity. Neopterin levels correlated significantly to interferon-gamma concentrations and inversely to haemoglobin levels. The data indicate an association between activated macrophages and the development of anaemia in patients with haematological neoplasias.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/2009; 44(3):186 - 189. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-three patients with chronic hepatitis C/non-A. non-B were included in a randomized controlled study of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-α2b) treatment, 3 × 106 U three times weekly for 36 weeks. Using an immunoperoxidase technique, frozen liver biopsy specimens were examined with MoAbs for the presence of T helper cells (CD4), T suppressor/cytotoxic cells (CD8), total T cells (CD2) and B cells (CD22) before and after treatment, β2-microglohulin (β2-MG) expression on hepatocytes was scmiquantified using a scoring system on sections from paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. Serum levels of β2-MG were analysed with a radioimmunoassay technique. Intralobular T helper and T suppressor/cytotoxic cells declined significantly in the treated patients but not in the controls. The portal CD4/CD8 ratio did not change. Before treatment, serum β2-MG levels and hepatocyte β2-MG expression were significantly higher in patients with chronic active hepatitis compared to patients with chronic persistent hepatitis. Serum β2-MG levels increased significantly in responders during IFN treatment, with a maximum after 12 weeks. However, in the liver, the hepatocyte β2-MG expression was significantly decreased after treatment. Thus. IFN-α treatment docs not seem to induce an increased HLA class I antigen hepatocyte expression in chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis, which favours the hypothesis that its anti-viral effects are more important in modulating the disease activity.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2008; 87(3):340-345. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced cirrhosis (AC) is accompanied by disturbances of immune function and cytokine production. To better define the pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease and to relate it to the immune activation state, we measured circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 (sTNFR-55) and neopterin in a group of 85 patients with AC (classified according to the Child-Pugh score of severity of liver disease) and 43 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of sTNFR-55 and neopterin were significantly raised in patients with AC. Moreover, concentrations of sTNFR-55 were significantly higher in patients with more severe disease compared with the group with lower severity. There were significant correlations between sTNFR-55 and neopterin levels in patients and controls. The results contribute to affirm the existence of an immune activation state in AC that could be responsible for the development of the disease and clinical complications. (HEPATOLOGY 1995; 21:976–978.)
    Hepatology 12/2005; 21(4):976 - 978. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism responsible for the beginning and progression of hepatic injury in liver cirrhosis of viral and alcoholic etiology are unknown currently. However, there are abnormalities in the immune system which may be implied in the pathogenesis. The concentrations of the soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor (sTNF-R55) and the soluble receptor of interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) in 49 cirrhotic patients were determined by enzyme-linked inmunoassay. Patients were grouped according to the etiology (33 alcoholic and 16 viral) and prognosis (Child-Pugh classification) and they were compared with the values obtained in 26 healthy non-drinkers who made up the control group. The concentrations of sTNF-R55 and sIL-2R were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with controls. We found significant differences in sTNF-R55 concentrations in viral and alcoholic but not in sIL-2R concentrations. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of both receptors and the degrees of Child-Pugh classification, as well as with albumin, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (all of them parameters related to the severity and prognosis of liver cirrhosis). The serum concentrations of soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-2 correlate with the prognosis of liver cirrhosis independently of its etiology. This fact may reflect the stimulation of T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, in liver cirrhosis.
    Medicina Clínica 05/2004; 122(12):441-3. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background And Objective The mechanism responsible for the beginning and progression of hepatic injury in liver cirrhosis of viral and alcoholic etiology are unknown currently. However, there are abnormalities in the immune system which may be implied in the pathogenesis Patients And Method The concentrations of the soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor (sTNFR55) and the soluble receptor of interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) in 49 cirrhotic patients were determined by enzyme-linked inmunoassay. Patients were grouped according to the etiology (33 alcoholic and 16 viral) and prognosis (Child-Pugh classification) and they were compared with the values obtained in 26 healthy non-drinkers who made up the control group Results The concentrations of sTNF-R55 and sIL-2R were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with controls. We found significant differences in sTNF-R55 concentrations in viral and alcoholic but not in sIL-2R concentrations. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of both receptors and the degrees of Child-Pugh classification, as well as with albumin, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (all of them parameters related to the severity and prognosis of liver cirrhosis) Conclusions The serum concentrations of soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin- 2 correlate with the prognosis of liver cirrhosis independently of its etiology. This fact may reflect the stimulation of T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, in liver cirrhosis
    Medicina Clinica - MED CLIN. 01/2004; 122(12):441-443.
  • HIV Medicine 04/2000; 1(2):125-7. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the protective efficacy of various gp130 vaccine preparations, rhesus monkeys were immunized with gp130 oligomers (O-gp130) or two different gp130-monomer preparations (M1-gp130; M2-gp130) and challenged with 50 MID50 of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac32H. Following challenge the control animals and all animals of the M1- and M2-gp130 group and 1 animal of the O-gp130 group were productively infected, whereas 3 animals of the O-gp130 group resisted the productive virus replication. The protection was correlated with high neutralizing antibodies and a long-lasting immune response to the transmembrane protein gp41. Whereas none of the O-gp130 animals had developed disease symptoms, 3 M1-gp130 animals, 1 M2-gp130 animal, and 2 control animals died as a result of AIDS within 18 months after challenge. Therefore, immunization with virion-derived gp130 oligomers of SIVmac32H can confer protection against the productive infection with SIVmac32H and suppress the development of the AIDS-like disease.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 01/1999; 19(5):441-50.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the protective efficacy of various gp130 vaccine preparations, rhesus monkeys were immunized with gp130 oligomers (O-gp130) or two different gp130-monomer preparations (M1-gp130; M2-gp130) and challenged with 50 MID50 of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac32H. Following challenge the control animals and all animals of the M1- and M2-gp130 group and 1 animal of the O-gp130 group were productively infected, whereas 3 animals of the O-gp130 group resisted the productive virus replication. The protection was correlated with high neutralizing antibodies and a long-lasting immune response to the transmembrane protein gp41. Whereas none of the O-gp130 animals had developed disease symptoms, 3 M1-gp130 animals, 1 M2-gp130 animal, and 2 control animals died as a result of AIDS within 18 months after challenge. Therefore, immunization with virion-derived gp130 oligomers of SIVmac32H can confer protection against the productive infection with SIVmac32H and suppress the development of the AIDS-like disease.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/1998; 19(5):441-450. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a panel of pterins on xanthine oxidase was investigated by measuring formation of urate from xanthine as well as formazan production from nitroblue tetrazolium. The pterin derivatives, depending on their chemical structure, decreased urate as well as formazan generation: 200 microM neopterin and biopterin suppressed urate formation (90% from baseline) and formazan production (80% from baseline) as well. Their reduced forms, 7,8-dihydroneopterin and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, showed a lesser but still strongly diminishing influence (40% from baseline). Another oxidized pterin namely leukopterin showed only a weak inhibitory effect. Xanthopterin, a known substrate of xanthine oxidase, had a strong effect on urate formation (80% inhibition), but a lesser effect on formazan production (30% reduction). When iron-(III)-EDTA complex was added to the reaction mixture all the effects were more pronounced. Superoxide dismutase, which removes superoxide anion by dismutation into oxygen, decreased formazan production in addition to pterin derivatives and had a small but enhancing effect on urate formation. Also the reductant N-acetylcysteine had an additive effect to pterins to diminish formazan production in a dose-dependent way. The results of our study suggest that depending on their chemical structure pterins reduce superoxide anion generation by xanthine oxidase.
    Free Radical Research 11/1998; 29(4):331-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of neopterin, which is produced by human monocytes/macrophages upon stimulation by interferon-gamma, were measured in urine specimens in 23 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity at diagnosis and in 12 treated patients with the same disease when recurrence of the tumor was recognized. Tumor histology and routine laboratory parameters were concomitantly determined. Urinary neopterin values showed no statistically significant correlation with tumor differentiation, tumor size or patient age, but they were significantly higher in patients with a recurrent tumor. Patients were followed for up to 4 years, and the ability of all variables to predict fatal outcome was assessed. In univariate analysis, only neopterin (p = 0.01) and the variable recurrent vs. first-diagnosed tumor were significant predictors of survival. In multivariate analysis, a combination of neopterin (p < 0.01) and the variable recurrent vs. first-diagnosed tumor (p = 0.06) was found to jointly predict survival. Thus, urinary neopterin concentrations provide valuable prognostic information in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/1998; 79(5):476-80. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of neopterin, which is produced by human monocytes/macrophages upon stimulation by interferon-γ, were measured in urine specimens in 23 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity at diagnosis and in 12 treated patients with the same disease when recurrence of the tumor was recognized. Tumor histology and routine laboratory parameters were concomitantly determined. Urinary neopterin values showed no statistically significant correlation with tumor differentiation, tumor size or patient age, but they were significantly higher in patients with a recurrent tumor. Patients were followed for up to 4 years, and the ability of all variables to predict fatal outcome was assessed. In univariate analysis, only neopterin (p = 0.01) and the variable recurrent vs. first-diagnosed tumor were significant predictors of survival. In multivariate analysis, a combination of neopterin (p < 0.01) and the variable recurrent vs. first-diagnosed tumor (p = 0.06) was found to jointly predict survival. Thus, urinary neopterin concentrations provide valuable prognostic information in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Int. J. Cancer (Pred. Oncol.)79:476–480, 1998.© 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/1998; 79(5):476 - 480. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopic method to determine silicon in spot urine specimens. A 6-fold standard addition series of the urine specimen ranging from 0 to 356 micromol/l silicon was applied, and the method meets the requirement of matrix compensation in a frequently changing environment. The inter-assay variation was +/-3.0%, intra-assay variations for three specimens were +/-1.7%, +/-1.1% and +/-0.84%. To compensate for physiological variations of urine density, the silicon concentrations in urine were related to urinary creatinine which was measured in parallel by reversed-phase HPLC. Urinary silicon concentrations were examined in 43 healthy controls from the local population. The 5th-95th percentile was 12.6-237 micromol/mmol creatinine. A follow-up of three people over a period of 14 days showed that intra-individual variations of urinary silicon concentrations were smaller than variations between individuals, especially when silicon is related to creatinine.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 10/1998; 277(1):51-63. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum biomarkers, such as neopterin, β2-microglobulin (B2M), and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), are elevated in viral infections, including HIV-1 infection, and in inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disease, and malignancies. For many of these conditions, serum levels correlate with disease activity. Application of these biomarkers in adolescents is limited by a lack of information on the range and determinants of variability (age, sex, race) for serum levels of these important molecules in this age group. To address this question, we analyzed serum samples from a well-characterized heterogeneous population of 111 healthy adolescents. White children had significantly higher serum levels of sIL-2R and IgM and lower levels of IgG (P≤ 0.001) than black children. Boys had higher sIL-2R and B2M levels (P< 0.005) and lower IgM levels (P< 0.05) than girls. No significant age effect on B2M or neopterin level was observed over the age range of 12–19 years included in this analysis. However, stratification by race showed that serum sIL-2R level was significantly associated with age among whites, but not among blacks. Values of these biomarkers in this population are compared with age-stratified values in the previously analyzed 20- to 69-year-old population from whose households the adolescent subjects were recruited.
    Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 08/1998;
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the value of HIV-1 RNA level compared to soluble immune activation markers, namely neopterin, beta2-microglobulin and soluble TNF receptor 75 (sTNFR-75), to predict the change in the number of CD4+ T cells over a 1-year period, the development of AIDS, and survival (median follow-up 54 months). The study population comprised a cohort of 47 individuals for the analysis of the change in CD4+ T cells and survival (20 died), and a subgroup of 31 individuals with a baseline CD4+ T cells above 200 x 10(6)/l for the development of AIDS (11 developed AIDS). HIV-1 RNA was measured from stored sera by quantitative PCR. The CD4+ T cell count obtained at study entry strongly correlated with baseline serum HIV-1 RNA levels (r=-0.47), and to a lesser extent with neopterin (r=-0.41) and beta2-microglobulin (r=-0.29). The percentage change in CD4+ T cells over a 1-year period correlated with HIV-1 RNA levels (r=-0.32, p=0.03), however, stronger correlations were found for neopterin, beta2-microglobulin and sTNFR-75 (r=-0.51, r=-0.41, r=-0.42; p< 0.01). No progression to AIDS or death was observed in individuals with baseline HIV-1 RNA levels below 20,000 copies/ml (10 of 31 and 15 of 47 individuals, respectively). A Cox's proportional hazard model to predict AIDS revealed that HIV-1 RNA, the change in CD4+ cells over a 1-year period and sTNFR-75 levels independently predict AIDS; the change in CD4+ cells, the absolute CD4+ T cell count and neopterin were jointly significant to predict death. All results were adjusted for nucleoside monotherapy. In conclusion, to improve the predictive power, quantitation of HIV-1 RNA as a 'natural history marker' may be supplemented by measurement of sTNFR-75 for 'early'-stage disease progression and neopterin for 'late'-stage disease progression.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 08/1998; 116(3):228-39. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-alpha and neopterin are common events in severe systemic inflammatory disorders, e.g. sepsis and septic shock. Recent data suggest that both substances show similarities with respect to their bioactivities. In the present study we investigated the potential interactions of neopterin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression and nitric oxide generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, we studied the influence of neopterin on tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis in this cell type. Single stimulation of smooth muscle cells with either neopterin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha caused inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression and nitric oxide production. Coincubation of cells with both compounds resulted in at least additive effects on nitric oxide synthesis. Quantification of tumor necrosis factor-alpha cDNA revealed a dose-dependent effect of neopterin on tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Similar results were obtained concerning the detection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein and the assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha bioactivity. These data suggest that neopterin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are closely associated with regard to synthesis and effects, respectively. The interactions of both inflammatory mediators in vascular smooth muscle cells might contribute to the excessive release of nitric oxide observed during sepsis, thus triggering cellular destruction and multiple organ failure.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 08/1998; 116(3):240-5. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. Recent investigations have shown that immune and inflammatory mechanisms could be of importance in the pathophysiology of AD. In this study 10 different immune parameters were measured to further investigate immunological changes in AD. In 30 randomized patients with AD (20 females and ten males aged 74.5 +/- 6.5 years) as well as 13 controls aged 70.7 +/- 8.4 years, mostly relatives of the patients, all free of acute infection, serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, IgM, C3, C4, circulating immune complexes, sCD23, cardiolipin and the soluble cytokine receptors interleukin 2-receptor (sIL2-R) and tumor necrosis factor-receptor (sTNF-R) were measured. Diagnosis of AD was made according to NINCDS/ ADRDA criteria. The degree of dementia was determined by Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). Compared to the control group, patients with AD had significantly increased IgA (369,3 +/- 160,9 mg/dl vs 253.5 +/- 101.8 mg/dl [P = 0.02]), sCD23 [207.4 +/- 217.7 I. U./ml vs 80.6 +/- 35.5 I. U./ml [P = 0.004]), sIL2-R (829.6 +/- 742.1 I. U./ml vs 299.7 +/- 168.5 I. U./ml [P = 0.001]) and sTNF-R (4.6 +/- 2.0 I. U./ml vs 2.9 +/- 1.1 I. U./ml [P = 0.001]) levels. A negative correlation was seen between MMSE and sTNF-R (r = -0.34; P < 0.05). These findings indicate a chronic state of immune activation in AD and support the hypothesis of immune mediated mechanisms as part of the pathogenesis of AD. Prospective studies of the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on the progression of AD will be needed.
    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 06/1998; 123(25-26):787-91. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant rat liver GTP cyclohydrolase I has been prepared by heterologous gene expression in Escherichia coli and characterized by biochemical and biophysical methods. Correlation averaged electron micrograph images of preferentially oriented enzyme particles revealed a fivefold rotational symmetry of the doughnut-shaped views with an average particle diameter of 10 nm. Analytical ultracentrifugation and quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy yielded average molecular masses of 270 kDa and 275 kDa, respectively. Like the Escherichia coli homolog, these findings suggest that the active enzyme forms a homodecameric protein complex consisting of two fivefold symmetric pentameric rings associated face-to-face. Examination of the amino acid sequence combined with calcium-binding experiments and mutational analysis revealed a high-affinity, EF-hand-like calcium-binding loop motif in eukaryotic enzyme species, which is absent in bacteria. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements yielded an approximate dissociation constant of 10 nM for calcium and no significant binding of magnesium. Interestingly, a loss of calcium-binding capacity observed for two rationally designed mutations within the presumed calcium-binding loop of the rat GTP cyclohydrolase I yielded a 45% decrease in enzyme activity. This finding suggests that failure of calcium binding may be the consequence of a mutation recently identified in the causative GTP cyclohydrolase I gene of patients suffering from dopa responsive dystonia.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 06/1998; 279(1):189-99. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study a potential influence of diatomaceus earth to lower blood cholesterol was investigated. During 12 weeks we monitored serum lipid concentrations in 19 healthy individuals with a history of moderate hypercholesterinemia (9 females, 10 males, aged 35 - 67 years). Individuals administered orally 250 mg diatomaceous earth three-times daily during an 8 weeks observation period. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were measured before study entry, every second week during the period of diatomaceous earth intake and 4 weeks after stop of intake. Compared to baseline (285.8 +/- 37.5 mg/dl = 7.40 +/- 0.97 mM) diatomaceous earth intake was associated with a significant reduction of serum cholesterol at any time point, reaching a minimum on week 6 (248.1 mg/dl = 6.43 mM, -13.2% from baseline; p<0.001). Also low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (week 4: p<0.05) and triglycerides levels decreased (week 2: p<0.05, week 4: p<0.01). Four weeks after intake of diatomaceous earth was stopped, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides still remained low and also the increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol became significant (p<0.05). Diatomaceous earth, a bioproduct, is capable of reducing blood cholesterol and positively influencing lipid metabolism in humans. Placebo-controlled studies will be necessary to confirm our findings.
    European journal of medical research 04/1998; 3(4):211-5. · 1.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
3,338.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2009
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institut für Biochemie
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2004
    • Hospital Universitario San Cecilio
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2000
    • University of Lusaka
      Lusaka, Lusaka, Zambia
  • 1998
    • Landesnervenklinik Linz
      Linz, Upper Austria, Austria
  • 1995–1998
    • Kemerovo Cardiology Centre
      Shcheglovsk, Kemerovo, Russia
    • Clinical Research Center of Moscow
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1992–1998
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      • Department of Chemistry
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 1972–1998
    • Medizinische Universität Innsbruck
      • • Department für Innere Medizin
      • • Universitätsklinik für Visceral-, Transplantations- und Thoraxchirurgie
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 1997
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–1997
    • University of Granada
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1989–1997
    • German Primate Center
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1995–1996
    • Universität Konstanz
      Constance, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1989–1995
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • School of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1990–1994
    • Mid Sweden University
      Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden
    • The Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 1993
    • Kantonsspital Liestal
      Liestal, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1991
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria