Tanuja Bordia

SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, United States

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Publications (25)101.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are a serious complication of levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease for which there is little treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs decrease LIDs in parkinsonian animals. Here, we examined the effect of two β2 nAChR agonists, ABT-089 and ABT-894, that previously were approved for phase 2 clinical trials for other indications. Two sets of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys were administered levodopa/carbidopa (10 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively) twice daily 5 days a week until they were stably dyskinetic. Each set had a vehicle-treated group, an nAChR agonist-treated group, and a nicotine-treated group as a positive control. Set A monkeys had previously received other nAChR drugs (nAChR drug-primed), whereas Set B monkeys were initially nAChR drug-naive. Both sets were administered the partial agonist ABT-089 (range, 0.01-1.0 mg/kg) orally 5 days a week twice daily 30 minutes before levodopa with each dose given for 1 to 5 weeks. ABT-089 decreased LIDs by 30% to 50% compared with vehicle-treated monkeys. Nicotine reduced LIDs by 70% in a parallel group. After 4 weeks of washout, the effect of the full agonist ABT-894 (range, 0.0001-0.10 mg/kg) was assessed on LIDs in Set A and Set B. ABT-894 reduced LIDs by 70%, similar to nicotine. Both drugs acted equally well at α4β2* and α6β2* nAChRs; however, ABT-089 was 30 to 60 times less potent than ABT-894. Tolerance did not develop for the time periods tested (range, 3-4 months). The nAChR drugs did not worsen parkinsonism or cognitive ability. Emesis, a common problem with nAChR drugs, was not observed. ABT-894 and ABT-089 appear to be good candidate nAChR drugs for the management of LIDs in Parkinson's disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 02/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-dopa-induced dyskinesias are a serious long-term side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease for which there are few treatment options. Our previous studies showed that nicotine decreased L-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). Subsequent work with knockout mice demonstrated that α6β2* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) play a key role. The present experiments were done to determine if α4β2* nAChRs are also involved in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias. To approach this, we took advantage of the finding that α6β2* nAChRs are predominantly present on striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals, while a significant population of α4β2* nAChRs are located on other neurons. Thus, a severe dopaminergic lesion would cause a major loss in α6β2*, but not α4β2* nAChRs. Experiments were therefore done in which rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine, at a dose that lead to severe nigrostriatal damage. The dopamine transporter, a dopamine nerve terminal marker, was decreased by >99%. This lesion also decreased striatal α6β2* nAChRs by 97%, while α4β2* nAChRs were reduced by only 12% compared to control. A series of β2* nAChR compounds, including TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831, TC-10600 and sazetidine reduced L-dopa-induced AIMs in these rats by 23-32%. TC-2696, TI-10165, TC-8831 were also tested for parkinsonism, with no effect on this behavior. Tolerance did not develop with up to 3 months of treatment. Since α4α5β2 nAChRs are also predominantly on striatal dopamine terminals, these data suggest that drugs targeting α4β2 nAChRs may reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in late stage Parkinson's disease.
    Neuropharmacology 04/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are a side effect of Parkinson's disease therapy that is thought to arise, at least in part, because of excessive dopaminergic activity. Thus, drugs that regulate dopaminergic tone may provide an approach to manage LIDs. Our previous studies showed that nicotine treatment reduced LIDs in parkinsonian animal models. The present work investigates whether nicotine may exert its beneficial effects by modulating presynaptic dopaminergic function. Rats were unilaterally lesioned by injection of 6-OHDA (2 x 3 ug per site) into the medial forebrain bundle to yield moderate parkinsonism. They were then implanted with minipumps containing vehicle or nicotine (2.0 mg/kg/d) and rendered dyskinetic with L-dopa (8 mg/kg plus 15 mg/kg benserazide). Lesioning alone decreased the striatal dopamine transporter, nicotinic receptor (nAChR) levels and nAChR-mediated (3) H-dopamine release, consistent with previous results. Nicotine administration reduced L-dopa induced abnormal involuntary movements throughout the course of the study (4 months). Nicotine treatment led to declines in the striatal dopamine transporter, α6β2* nAChRs and various components of α6β2* and α4β2* nAChR-mediated release. L-dopa treatment had no effect. These data suggest that nicotine may improve LIDs in parkinsonian animal models by dampening striatal dopaminergic activity. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2013) 10.1111/jnc.12179.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: l-Dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are abnormal involuntary movements that develop with long term l-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. Studies show that nicotine administration reduced LIDs in several parkinsonian animal models. The present work was done to understand the factors that regulate the nicotine-mediated reduction in LIDs in MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primates. To approach this, we used two groups of monkeys, one with mild-moderate and the other with more severe Parkinsonism rendered dyskinetic using l-dopa. In mild-moderately parkinsonian monkeys, nicotine pretreatment (300μg/ml via drinking water) prevented the development of LIDs by ~75%. This improvement was maintained when the nicotine dose was lowered to 50μg/ml but was lost with nicotine removal. Nicotine re-exposure again decreased LIDs. By contrast, nicotine treatment did not reduce LIDs in monkeys with more severe Parkinsonism. We next determined how nicotine's ability to reduce LIDs correlated with lesion-induced changes in the striatal dopamine transporter and (3)H-dopamine release in these two groups of monkeys. The striatal dopamine transporter was reduced to 54% and 28% of control in mild-moderately and more severely parkinsonian monkeys, respectively. However, basal, K(+), α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR-evoked (3)H-dopamine release were near control levels in striatum of mild-moderately parkinsonian monkeys. By contrast, these same release measures were reduced to a significantly greater extent in striatum of more severely parkinsonian monkeys. Thus, nicotine best improves LIDs in lesioned monkeys in which striatal dopamine transmission is still relatively intact. These data suggest that nicotine treatment would most effectively reduce LIDs in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2012; · 5.62 Impact Factor
  • Maryka Quik, Xiomara A Perez, Tanuja Bordia
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    ABSTRACT: Converging research efforts suggest that nicotine and other drugs that act at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be beneficial in the management of Parkinson's disease. This idea initially stemmed from the results of epidemiological studies that demonstrated that smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson's disease. The subsequent finding that nicotine administration protected against nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian animal models led to the idea that nicotine in tobacco products may contribute to this apparent protective action. Nicotine most likely exerts its effects by interacting at nAChRs. Accumulating research indicates that multiple subtypes containing nAChRs, including α4β2, α6β2, and/or α7, may be involved. Stimulation of nAChRs initially activates various intracellular transduction pathways primarily via alterations in calcium signaling. Consequent adaptations in immune responsiveness and trophic factors may ultimately mediate nicotine's ability to reduce/halt the neuronal damage that arises in Parkinson's disease. In addition to a potential neuroprotective action, nicotine also has antidepressant properties and improves attention/cognition. Altogether, these findings suggest that nicotine and nAChR drugs represent promising therapeutic agents for the management of Parkinson's disease.
    Movement Disorders 06/2012; 27(8):947-57. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence indicates that varenicline reduces nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms by modulating dopaminergic function at α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (the asterisk indicates the possible presence of other nicotinic subunits in the receptor complex). More recent data suggest that α6β2* nAChRs also regulate dopamine release and mediate nicotine reinforcement. The present experiments were therefore done to test the effect of varenicline on α6β2* nAChRs and their function, because its interaction with this subtype is currently unclear. Receptor competition studies showed that varenicline inhibited α6β2* nAChR binding (K(i) = 0.12 nM) as potently as α4β2* nAChR binding (K(i) = 0.14 nM) in rat striatal sections and with ∼20-fold greater affinity than nicotine. Functionally, varenicline was more potent in stimulating α6β2* versus α4β2* nAChR-mediated [(3)H]dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes with EC(50) values of 0.007 and 0.086 μM, respectively. However, it acted as a partial agonist on α6β2* and α4β2* nAChR-mediated [(3)H]dopamine release with maximal efficacies of 49 and 24%, respectively, compared with nicotine. We also evaluated varenicline's action in striatum of monkeys, a useful animal model for comparison with humans. Varenicline again potently inhibited monkey striatal α6β2* (K(i) = 0.13 nM) and α4β2* (K(i) = 0.19 nM) nAChRs in competition studies. Functionally, it potently stimulated both α6β2* (EC(50) = 0.014 μM) and α4β2* (EC(50) = 0.029 μM) nAChR-mediated [(3)H]dopamine release from monkey striatal synaptosomes, again acting as a partial agonist relative to nicotine at both subtypes. These data suggest that the ability of varenicline to interact at α6β2* nAChRs may contribute to its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2012; 342(2):327-34. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics are an important class of drugs for the management of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. They act by blocking dopamine receptors; however, because these receptors are present throughout the brain, prolonged antipsychotic use also leads to serious side effects. These include tardive dyskinesia, repetitive abnormal involuntary movements of the face and limbs for which there is little treatment. In this study, we investigated whether nicotine administration could reduce tardive dyskinesia because nicotine attenuates other drug-induced abnormal movements. We used a well established model of tardive dyskinesia in which rats injected with the commonly used antipsychotic haloperidol develop vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) that resemble human orofacial dyskinesias. Rats were first administered nicotine (minipump; 2 mg/kg per day). Two weeks later, they were given haloperidol (1 mg/kg s.c.) once daily. Nicotine treatment reduced haloperidol-induced VCMs by ∼20% after 5 weeks, with a significant ∼60% decline after 13 weeks. There was no worsening of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. To understand the molecular basis for this improvement, we measured the striatal dopamine transporter and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Both haloperidol and nicotine treatment decreased the transporter and α6β2* nAChRs (the asterisk indicates the possible presence of other nicotinic subunits in the receptor complex) when given alone, with no further decline with combined drug treatment. By contrast, nicotine alone increased, while haloperidol reduced α4β2* nAChRs in both vehicle and haloperidol-treated rats. These data suggest that molecular mechanisms other than those directly linked to the transporter and nAChRs underlie the nicotine-mediated improvement in haloperidol-induced VCMs in rats. The present results are the first to suggest that nicotine may be useful for improving the tardive dyskinesia associated with antipsychotic use.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2011; 340(3):612-9. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A promising target for improved therapeutics in Parkinson's disease is the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). nAChRs are widely distributed throughout the brain, including the nigrostriatal system, and exert important modulatory effects on numerous behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs such as nicotine that act at these sites may be of benefit for Parkinson's disease treatment. Recent work indicates that a potential novel therapeutic application is the use of nicotine to reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias, a side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. Several clinical trials also report that nicotine may diminish disease symptoms. Not only may nAChR drugs provide symptomatic improvement, but they may also attenuate the neurodegenerative process itself. This latter idea is supported by epidemiological studies which consistently demonstrate a ∼50% reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers. Experimental work in parkinsonian animal models suggests that nicotine in tobacco may contribute to this protection. These combined findings suggest that nicotine and nAChR drugs offer the possibility of improved therapeutics for Parkinson's disease.
    CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 08/2011; 10(6):651-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are important modulators of dopaminergic transmission in striatum, a region critical to Parkinson's disease. The nAChRs mainly involved are the α6β2* and α4β2* subtypes. Lesion studies show that the α6β2* receptor is decreased to a much greater extent with nigrostriatal damage than the α4β2* subtype raising the question whether this latter nAChR population is more important with increased nigrostriatal damage. To address this, we investigated the effect of varying nigrostriatal damage on α6β2* and α4β2* receptor-modulated dopamine signaling using cyclic voltammetry. This approach offers the advantage that changes in dopamine release can be observed under different neuronal firing conditions. Total single-pulse-evoked dopamine release decreased in direct proportion to declines in the dopamine transporter and dopamine uptake. We next used α-conotoxinMII and mecamylamine to understand the role of the α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes in release. Single-pulse-stimulated α6β2* and α4β2* receptor dopamine release decreased to a similar extent with increasing nigrostriatal damage, indicating that both subtypes contribute to the control of dopaminergic transmission with lesioning. Total burst-stimulated dopamine release also decreased proportionately with nigrostriatal damage. However, the role of the α4β2* and α6β2* nAChRs varied with different degrees of lesioning, suggesting that the two subtypes play a unique function with burst firing, with a somewhat more prominent and possibly more selective role for the α6β2* subtype. These data have important therapeutic implications because they suggest that drugs directed to both α4β2* and α6β2* nAChRs may be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
    Molecular pharmacology 11/2010; 78(5):971-80. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease are a significant clinical problem for which few therapies are available. We recently showed that nicotine reduces L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in parkinsonian animals, suggesting it may be useful for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. The present experiments were performed to understand the mechanisms whereby nicotine reduces L-DOPA-induced AIMs. We used a well established model of dyskinesias, L-DOPA-treated unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Dose-ranging studies showed that injection of 0.1 mg/kg nicotine once or twice daily for 4 or 10 days most effectively reduced AIMs, with no worsening of parkinsonism. Importantly, a single nicotine injection did not reduce AIMs, indicating that nicotine's effect is caused by long-term rather than short-term molecular changes. Administration of the metabolite cotinine did not reduce AIMs, suggesting a direct effect of nicotine. Experiments with the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine were done to determine whether nicotine acted via a receptor-mediated mechanism. Unexpectedly, several days of mecamylamine injection (1.0 mg/kg) alone significantly ameliorated dyskinesias to a comparable extent as nicotine. The decline in AIMs with combined nicotine and mecamylamine treatment was not additive, suggesting that nicotine exerts its effects via a nAChR interaction. This latter finding, combined with data showing that mecamylamine reduced AIMs to a similar extent as nicotine, and that nicotine or mecamylamine treatment both decreased alpha6beta2* and increased alpha4beta2* nAChR expression, suggests that the nicotine-mediated improvement in L-DOPA-induced AIMs may involve a desensitization block. These data have important implications for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2010; 333(3):929-38. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There exists a remarkable diversity of neurotransmitter compounds in the striatum, a pivotal brain region in the pathology of Parkinson's disease, a movement disorder characterized by rigidity, tremor and bradykinesia. The striatal dopaminergic system, which is particularly vulnerable to neurodegeneration in this disorder, appears to be the major contributor to these motor problems. However, numerous other neurotransmitter systems in the striatum most likely also play a significant role, including the nicotinic cholinergic system. Indeed, there is an extensive anatomical overlap between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, and acetylcholine is well known to modulate striatal dopamine release both in vitro and in vivo. Nicotine, a drug that stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), influences several functions relevant to Parkinson's disease. Extensive studies in parkinsonian animals show that nicotine protects against nigrostriatal damage, findings that may explain the well-established decline in Parkinson's disease incidence with tobacco use. In addition, recent work shows that nicotine reduces l-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements, a debilitating complication of l-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. These combined observations suggest that nAChR stimulation may represent a useful treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease for neuroprotection and symptomatic treatment. Importantly, only selective nAChR subtypes are present in the striatum including the alpha4beta2*, alpha6beta2* and alpha7 nAChR populations. Treatment with nAChR ligands directed to these subtypes may thus yield optimal therapeutic benefit for Parkinson's disease, with a minimum of adverse side effects.
    Biochemical pharmacology 06/2009; 78(7):677-85. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine reduces dopaminergic deficits in parkinsonian animals when administered before nigrostriatal damage. Here we tested whether nicotine is also beneficial when given to rats and monkeys with pre-existing nigrostriatal damage. Rats were administered nicotine before and after a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle, and the results compared with those in which rats received nicotine only after lesioning. Nicotine pre-treatment attenuated behavioral deficits and lessened lesion-induced losses of the striatal dopamine transporter, and alpha6beta2* and alpha4beta2* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). By contrast, nicotine administered 2 weeks after lesioning, when 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurodegenerative effects are essentially complete, did not improve these same measures. Similar results were observed in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned monkeys. Nicotine did not enhance striatal markers when administered to monkeys with pre-existing nigrostriatal damage, in contrast to previous data that showed improvements when nicotine was given to monkeys before lesioning. These combined findings in two animal models suggest that nicotine is neuroprotective rather than neurorestorative against nigrostriatal damage. Receptor studies with (125)I-alpha-conotoxinMII and the alpha-conotoxinMII analog E11A were next performed to determine whether nicotine treatment pre- or post-lesioning differentially affected expression of alpha6alpha4beta2* and alpha6(nonalpha4)beta2* nAChR subtypes in striatum. The observations suggest that protection against nigrostriatal damage may be linked to striatal alpha6alpha4beta2* nAChRs.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2009; 109(3):826-37. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) or dyskinesias is a serious complication of L-DOPA [L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine] therapy for Parkinson's disease. Our previous work had shown that intermittent nicotine dosing reduced L-DOPA-induced dyskinetic-like movements in nonhuman primates. A readily available nicotine formulation is the nicotine patch, which provides a constant source of nicotine. However, constant nicotine administration more readily desensitizes nicotinic receptors, to possibly yield alternate behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether constant nicotine administration reduced L-DOPA-induced AIMs in a rat parkinsonian model, with results compared with those with intermittent nicotine dosing. Rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion were exposed to either intermittent (drinking water) or constant (minipump) nicotine for > or = 2 weeks at doses that yielded plasma levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine similar to those in smokers. The rats were next treated with L-DOPA/benserazide (8 or 12 mg/kg/15 mg/kg) for > or = 3 weeks to allow for the development of AIMs, with nicotine treatment continued. Both modes of nicotine administration resulted in > or = 50% decline in L-DOPA-induced AIMs. Nicotine treatment also significantly reduced AIMs in L-DOPA-primed rats using either dosing regimen, whereas nicotine removal led to an increase in AIMs. There was no effect of nicotine on various measures of motor performance in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In summary, nicotine provided either via the drinking water or minipump reduced L-DOPA-induced AIMs in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. These results suggest that either intermittent or constant nicotine treatment may be useful in the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2008; 327(1):239-47. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine treatment has long been associated with alterations in alpha4beta2(*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression that modify dopaminergic function. However, the influence of long-term nicotine treatment on the alpha6beta2(*) nAChR, a subtype specifically localized on dopaminergic neurons, is less clear. Here we used voltammetry, as well as receptor binding studies, to identify the effects of nicotine on striatal alpha6beta2(*) nAChR function and expression. Long-term nicotine treatment via drinking water enhanced nonburst and burst endogenous dopamine release from rat striatal slices. In control animals, alpha6beta2(*) nAChR blockade with alpha-conotoxin MII (alpha-CtxMII) decreased release with nonburst stimulation but not with burst firing. These data in control animals suggest that varying stimulus frequencies differentially regulate alpha6beta2(*) nAChR-evoked dopamine release. In contrast, in nicotine-treated rats, alpha6beta2(*) nAChR blockade elicited a similar pattern of dopamine release with nonburst and burst firing. To elucidate the alpha6beta2(*) nAChR subtypes altered with long-term nicotine treatment, we used the novel alpha-CtxMII analog E11A in combination with alpha4 nAChR knockout mice. (125)I-alpha-CtxMII competition studies in striatum of knockout mice showed that nicotine treatment decreased the alpha6alpha4beta2(*) subtype but increased the alpha6(nonalpha4)beta2(*) nAChR population. These data indicate that alpha6beta2(*) nAChR-evoked dopamine release in nicotine-treated rats is mediated by the alpha6(nonalpha4)beta2(*) nAChR subtype and suggest that the alpha6alpha4beta2(*) nAChR and/or alpha4beta2(*) nAChR contribute to the differential effect of higher frequency stimulation on dopamine release under control conditions. Thus, alpha6beta2(*) nAChR subtypes may represent important targets for smoking cessation therapies and neurological disorders involving these receptors such as Parkinson's disease.
    Molecular pharmacology 07/2008; 74(3):844-53. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    Maryka Quik, Tanuja Bordia, Kathryn O'Leary
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Current therapies are symptomatic only and may be accompanied by serious side effects. There is therefore a continual search for novel compounds for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms, as well as to reduce or halt disease progression. Nicotine administration has been reported to improve motor deficits that arise with nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian animals and in Parkinson's disease. In addition, nicotine protects against nigrostriatal damage in experimental models, findings that have led to the suggestion that the reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers may be due to the nicotine in tobacco. Altogether, these observations suggest that nicotine treatment may be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. Nicotine interacts with multiple nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as in skeletal muscle. Work to identify the subtypes affected in Parkinson's disease is therefore critical for the development of targeted therapies. Results show that striatal alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs are particularly susceptible to nigrostriatal damage, with a decline in receptor levels that closely parallels losses in striatal dopamine. In contrast, alpha4beta2-containing nAChRs are decreased to a much smaller extent under the same conditions. These observations suggest that development of nAChR agonists or antagonists targeted to alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs may represent a particularly relevant target for Parkinson's disease therapeutics.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 11/2007; 74(8):1224-34. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons, and corresponding declines in molecular components present on striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals. These include the alpha6beta2(*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are localized exclusively on dopamine terminals in striatum ((*)denotes the presence of possible additional subunits). In this study, we used a novel alpha-conotoxin MII (alpha-CtxMII) analog E11A to further investigate alpha6beta2(*) nAChR subtypes in mouse, monkey, and human striatum. Receptor competition studies with (125)I-alpha-CtxMII showed that E11A inhibition curves were biphasic, suggesting the presence of two distinct alpha6beta2(*) nAChR subtypes. These include a very high (femtomolar) and a high (picomolar) affinity site, with approximately 40% of the sites in the very high affinity form. It is noteworthy that only the high-affinity form was detected in alpha4 nAChR-null mutant mice. Because (125)I-alpha-CtxMII binds primarily to alpha6alpha4beta2beta3 and alpha6beta2beta3 nAChR subtypes in mouse striatum, these data suggest that the population lost in the alpha4 knockout mice was the alpha6alpha4beta2beta3 subtype. We next investigated the effect of nigrostriatal lesioning on these two striatal alpha6beta2(*) populations in two animal models and in Parkinson's disease. There was a preferential loss of the very high affinity subtype in striatum of mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), monkeys treated with MPTP, and patients with Parkinson's disease. These data suggest that dopaminergic terminals expressing the alpha6alpha4beta2beta3 population are selectively vulnerable to nigrostriatal damage. This latter nAChR subtype, identified with alpha-CtxMII E11A, may therefore provide a unique marker for dopaminergic terminals particularly sensitive to nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease.
    Molecular Pharmacology 08/2007; 72(1):52-61. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present studies were done to investigate the effect of long-term nicotine treatment against nigrostriatal damage in non-human primates. Monkeys were administered nicotine in drinking water for 6 months to provide chronic but intermittent delivery as with smoking. Plasma nicotine levels ranged from 10 to 15 ng/mL, which were within the range in cigarette smokers. Animals were then lesioned with low doses of the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP for several months while nicotine was continued. The results showed that levels of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter, dopamine and nicotinic receptors were greater in nicotine-treated MPTP-lesioned primates than in lesioned animals not receiving nicotine. Nicotine had no effect in unlesioned animals. Monoamine oxidase activity was similar in unlesioned and lesioned animals treated with or without nicotine, suggesting that nicotine did not exert its effects through changes in MPTP or dopamine metabolism. MPTP-induced cell loss in the substantia nigra was unaffected by nicotine treatment, indicating that nicotine acts at the striatal level to restore/maintain dopaminergic function. These data further support the possibility that nicotine contributes to the lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2006; 98(6):1866-75. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies in nonhuman primates show that chronic nicotine treatment protects against nigrostriatal degeneration, with a partial restoration of neurochemical and functional measures in the striatum. The present studies were done to determine whether long-term nicotine treatment also protected against striatal nicotinic receptor (nAChR) losses after nigrostriatal damage. Monkeys were administered nicotine in the drinking water for 6 months and subsequently lesioned with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) over several months while nicotine was continued. (125)I-Epibatidine, [(125)I]5-[(125)I]iodo-3(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-pyridine (A85380), and (125)I-alpha-conotoxinMII autoradiography was performed to evaluate changes in alpha4beta2* and alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChRs, the major striatal subtypes. Nicotine treatment increased alpha4beta2* nAChRs by > or =50% in striatum of both unlesioned and lesioned animals. This increase in alpha4beta2* nAChRs was significantly greater in lesioned compared with unlesioned monkey striatum. Chronic nicotine treatment led to a small decrease in alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChR subtypes. The decline in alpha3/alpha6beta2* subtypes, defined using alpha-conotoxinMII-sensitive (125)I-epibatidine or [(125)I]A85380 binding, was significantly smaller in striatum of nicotine-treated lesioned monkeys compared with unlesioned monkeys. This difference was not observed for alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChRs identified using (125)I-alpha-conotoxinMII. These data suggest that there are at least two striatal alpha3/alpha6beta2* subtypes that are differentially affected by chronic nicotine treatment in lesioned animals. In addition, the results showing an improvement in striatal alpha4beta2* and select alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChR subtypes, combined with previous work, demonstrate that chronic nicotine treatment restores and/or protects against the loss of multiple molecular markers after nigrostriatal damage. Such findings suggest that nicotine or nicotinic agonists may be of therapeutic value in Parkinson's disease.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2006; 319(1):285-92. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because the mesolimbic dopamine system plays a critical role in nicotine addiction/reinforcement and because nicotinic receptors regulate dopamine release, we initiated a study to evaluate the long-term effects of nicotine (>6 months at the final dose) on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) sites and function in the nucleus accumbens of nonhuman primates. Nicotine was given in the drinking water as this mode of administration is long-term but intermittent, thus resembling smoking in this aspect. We determined the effects of nicotine treatment on function and binding of the alpha3/alpha6beta2* and alpha4beta2* nAChRs subtypes in nucleus accumbens, a region directly implicated in the addictive effects of nicotine. To evaluate function, we measured nicotine and K+-evoked [3H]dopamine release from nucleus accumbens synaptosomes. Changes in alpha4beta2* and alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChRs were measured using 125I-epibatidine, [125I]A85380 [5-[125I]iodo-3(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine] and 125I-alpha-conotoxin MII autoradiography. Chronic nicotine treatment, which led to plasma nicotine levels in the range of smokers, significantly increased nucleus accumbens alpha4beta2* nAChR sites and function compared with control. By contrast, this treatment did not significantly change alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChR sites or evoked dopamine release in this region compared with control. Thus, these data are distinct from previous results in striatum in which the same nicotine treatment paradigm decreased striatal alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChR sites and function. The finding that long-term nicotine treatment selectively modulates alpha4beta2* and not alpha3/alpha6beta2* nAChR expression in primate nucleus accumbens is consistent with the results of studies in nicotinic receptor mutant mice implicating the alpha4beta2* nAChR subtype in nicotine-mediated addiction.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2006; 318(1):381-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the effects of chronic nicotine is critical considering its widespread use in tobacco products and smoking cessation therapies. Although nicotine is well known to up-regulate alpha4* nAChR sites and function in the cortex, its actions in the striatum are uncertain because of the presence of multiple subtypes with potentially opposing effects. We therefore investigated the effect of long-term nicotine treatment on nAChR sites and function in the primate striatum, which offers the advantage of similar proportions of alpha3*/alpha6* and alpha4* nAChRs. Nicotine was given in drinking water, which resembles smoking in its intermittent but chronic delivery. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels were similar to smokers. Chronic nicotine treatment (> 6 months) enhanced alpha4* nAChR-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release in striatal subregions, with an overall pattern of increase throughout the striatum when normalized to uptake. This increase correlated with elevated striatal alpha4* nAChRs. Under the same conditions, striatal alpha3*/alpha6* nAChR sites and function were decreased or unchanged. These divergent actions of chronic nicotine treatment on alpha4* versus alpha6* nAChRs, as well as effects on dopamine uptake, allow for a complex control of striatal activity to maintain dopaminergic function. Such knowledge is important for understanding nicotine dependence and the consequences of nicotine administration for the treatment of neurological disorders.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2006; 96(4):1028-41. · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

484 Citations
22 Downloads
1k Views
101.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • SRI International
      • Centre for Health Sciences
      Menlo Park, CA, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Parkinson’s Institute
      Sunnyvale, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Radiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States